All around Earth is a sea of gases calledthe atmosphere. This is the air part ofEarth’s biosphere and the changeable ofEarth’s environments. This sea of gasesprotects people from harmful rays andmaterials from space and holds the airpeople need for life.
• Nitrogen and Oxygen – make up most of the atmosphere.Nitrogen – 78 % nourishes plant lifeOxygen – 21 % needed by people to breathe* Other gases such as argon and carbon dioxide, make up the rest.
• The ATMOSPHERE is also the source of Earth’s weather and climate patterns.• WEATHER is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain place at any one time.• CLIMATE means the general kinds of weather a certain place has over a long time.
• Climate is important to plant, animal and human life. Plants and animals can live in certain climates. Some adopt in special ways. The needle shape leaves of conifers for example, help the trees adjust to cold climates. The short fur of desert animals helps them survive hot, dry climates. People also adjust what they wear, the kinds of home they build, and kinds of foods they grow.
• Is the amount of heat found in the atmosphere.*The heat in the atmosphere comes from the sun. Each day the small amount of the sun’s total energy reaches the top layers of the Earth’s atmosphere.
• Earth’s atmosphere acts like the glass roof of a greenhouse. In a greenhouse the sun’s rays pass through the glass windows and warm the plants.INFRARED RADIATION are short waves that are reflected back into space that are change into longer heat waves.
GREENHOUSE EFFECTis the natural process bywhich the infraredradiation do not easilyescape back through theatmosphere because gasesin the lower atmospheretake in some of the heatenergy and sent it back towarm the Earth.
• Is the moisture that falls from the atmosphere onto Earth’s surface.* Moisture that reaches Earth’s surface can be RAIN, SNOW, SLEET or HAIL. Moisture can also appear in the air as water vapor and its amount depends on the temperature of the air.
• Warm air can hold more water than cold air. The temperature of the air also tells what kind of precipitation will fall.Example: Rain generally fall during warm weather. Snow falls during cold weather.
• Is the force exerted by the weight of air above a particular location.* The uneven heating of Earth’s surface by the sun leads indirectly to differences in air pressure.
• On Earth there are seven pressure zones, or areas with the same general air pressure. Two zones- those at each pole- are permanent. The other five are semi-permanent because the belts may move more north or south when season change.
• Is the flow of gases on a large scale.*When air moves from high pressure area to a low pressure area, it creates WIND. The greater the difference between the two areas, the faster the wind speed.
• PREVAILING WINDS- are wind patterns generally found in a place.*DOLDRUMS (places near the Equator) is a calm region, it has little or no WIND.TRADE WINDS are prevailing winds in LOW latitudes.
• PREVAILING WESTERLIES are winds blown from the west in middle latitudes.• POLAR EASTLIES are winds from the east in high latitudes.* JET STREAMS are strong belts of winds high up in the air, it flows from west to east. These streams are much like a very fast-moving, winding river. The jet streams change their positions in the atmosphere from day to day and season to season.
Temperature, moisture, air pressure,and wind work together to produceCLIMATE. The climate they make may becontrolled by several things. Among theseare: * latitude * heating and cooling differencesof land or water * prevailing wind patterns * altitude
• Latitude is the most important control on climate because it shows the angle at which the Sun’s rays hit Earth.• Near the Equator these rays hit the surface of Earth more vertically or straighter than at other latitudes.
• Vertical rays cover a smaller surface area and give more energy for heat than indirect rays. For this reason, low- latitude areas near the Equator are nearly always warm for the whole year.• Temperate areas- areas in the middle latitudes receive somewhat vertical rays part of the year and have temperatures that are neither too hot nor too cold.* Areas in high latitudes never receive vertical rays and are cold all year.
• Seasons are the result of Earth’s tilt on it’s axis 23.5°; the fact that Earth revolves around the Sun and that the tilt of Earth on it’s axis remains parallel throughout it’s revolution.• As a result different parts of Earth receive higher and lower levels of radiant energy at different times of the year creating the seasons
• Another important control on climate is brought about by the heating and cooling of land and water.• The difference in the heating and cooling of land and water along coastline also create light winds.
Winds tends to blow in some directions morethan others.For example:*In middle latitudes the prevailing westerliesblow from west to east. This is the reason whyPlaces on western side of continents in the middlelatitudes have much milder winters thanplaces on eastern sides.
*Westerlies alsoaffect summerclimates. Thereason for this isthat the summerair is cooled by thewater of the PacificOcean.
• Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere in the lower layer of Earth’s atmosphere. It is based upon the long- term weather in an area accumulated over a period of at least 30 years.• Two of the most important factors used in determining the climate of an area are the air temperature and the amount of precipitation received.
• The climate of a region will determine which types of plants will grow as well as what kind of animals will be there.• The angle of the sun’s rays is most direct from 0° to 23.5° making that area the hottest. The angle of the sun’s rays are least direct from 66.5° to 90° making that the coldest area on Earth. In the middle are the more moderate temperatures which vary more with season.
• Trade winds are located in the tropical regions blowing from the northeast in the northern hemisphere and from the southeast in the southern hemisphere.• The trade winds meet at the equator and rise as the air is heated. The rising air cools, forms clouds and creates precipitation. The bands of cloudy and rainy weather near the equator create what we know as normal tropical conditions.
• In the mid-latitudes (30°- 60°) the Westerlies steer the storms from west to east.• Our climate is based upon the location of the hot and cold air masses as well as the atmospheric circulation caused by the Trade Winds and the Westerlies.
Climate Classification• The Koeppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the world’s climates.• It was created by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Koeppen who divided Earth’s surface into climatic regions that matched the world patterns of vegetation and soils.
Rainfall is heavy in all months. The total annual rainfall is often more than 250 cm (100 in). There are seasonal differences in monthly rainfall but temperatures of 27 °C (80° F) mostly stay the same. Humidity is between 77% and 88%. Summers are warm and very humid. It rains a lot in winter.Latitude Range: 10° S to 25° NGlobal Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of Equatorial Africa;
A seasonal change occurs between wet tropical air masses and dry tropical air masses. As a result, there is a very wet season and a very dry season. Temperature ranges around 16 °C. The annual precipitation in all months is less than .25cm (.01 in). Latitude Range: 15° to 25° N and S Global Position: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of Australia
These climates are found in low latitude desertsbetween18 °to 23 ° in both hemispheres centered on thetropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Winds are light allowingfor the evaporation of moisture in the intense heat. Airsinks so the area is seldom penetrated by air masses thatproduce rain creating a very dry heat. The temperatureranges around 16 °C.Annual precipitation is less that 0.25cm
Climates in this zone are affected by thetropical air masses moving toward thepoles and polar air masses moving towardthe equator.These two air masses are in constantconflict.Either air mass may dominate the area fora time, but neither has exclusive control.
•This climate has a wet winter and an extremelydry summer. Plants have adapted to theextremes in rainfall and temperature during thesummer and winter seasons. Plants range fromforests, to woodland, to scrub. Temperaturerange is 7° C (12° F) with 42 cm (17 in) ofprecipitation.•Latitude Range: 30° - 50 ° north and south•Global Position: central and southernCalifornia; coastal zones bordering theMediterranean sea; coastal western Australiaand southern Australia; Chilean coast; Cape
•This is a semi-arid climate with less than 10cm (4 in) annual precipitation in the driestregions to 50 cm (20 in) in the moisterareas.•Latitude Range: 35° - 55 ° N•Global Position: Western North America(Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, GreatPlains); Eurasian interior, from easternEurope to the Gobi Desert and north China.
•This climate is the battleground of polarand tropical air masses. Seasonal changesbetween hot summers and cold winter arevery large. Precipitation varies from 40 to60 in per year. The average temperature is31° C (56° F)•Latitude Range: 30 ° - 55 ° north and south•Global Position: eastern parts of the UnitedStates and southern Canada; northernChina; Korea; Japan; central and easternEurope.
Dry Mid-latitude Climate – steppe forest•This is a semi-arid climate with less than 10cm (4 in) annual precipitation in the driestregions to 50 cm (20 in) in the moisterareas.•Latitude Range: 35° - 55 ° N•Global Position: Western North America(Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, GreatPlains); Eurasian interior, from easternEurope to the Gobi Desert and north China
High Latitude Climates aredominated by polar and arctic air masses.Boreal forest Climate – taigaTundra Climate – tundraHighland Climate – alpinePolar Ice Cap – cold desert
High Latitude Climates• Polar and arctic air masses dominate these regions. Canada and Siberia are two air- mass sources which fall into this group.• There is no counterpart in the southern hemisphere since the largest land masses are in the northern hemisphere.
Boreal forest Climate – taiga•This is a continental climate with long,very cold winters and short coolsummers. The temperature range is thegreatest from -25º C (-14º F) to 16º C(60 º F) with the annual precipitation at31cm (12 in).•Latitude Range: 50º - 70º north andsouth•Global Position: central and westernAlaska; Canada from the Yukon toLabrador; Eurasia, from northern Europe
•This climate is found along arctic coastalareas. The arctic air masses dominate the areabut ocean winds keep temperatures from beingas severe as interior regions. The winter islong and severe. There is a short mild seasonbut not a true summer. Temperatures rangefrom -22º C to 6º C (-10º - 41º F). Averageprecipitation is 20 cm (8 in).•Latitude Range: 60º - 75º N•Global Position: arctic zone of NorthAmerica; Hudson Bay Region; Greenlandcoast; northern Siberia bordering the Arctic
•Highland climates are cool to cold found onmountains and high plateaus. The temperaturecools rapidly as the altitude gets higher. Theseclimates are very important to mid latitudeclimates since they are a storage area for waterin the form of snow which melts in the spring.Temperatures range from -18 º -10º C (-2º - 50ºF) and precipitation average 23 cm (9 in).•Latitude Range: All over the world.•Global Position: Rocky Mountain Range inNorth America; the Andean mountain range inSouth America; the Alps in Europe; Mt.
•This region is permanently frozen with notemperatures above 32 º F. Precipitation isvery low but varies from region to region.•Latitude Range: 60º - 90º N and S•Location: Arctic; Antarctica; Greenland.
It is a significant and lasting change inthe statistical distribution of weatherpatterns over periods ranging fromdecades to millions of years.It may be a change in average weatherconditions or the distribution of eventsaround the average . it maybe limited to a specific region ormay occur across the whole earth. it affects more than just a change inthe weather , it refers to seasonal
• If the heat from The effect of a Rise in Sea Level on the Nile Delta the sun cannot escape through the earth’s atmosphere then the ice at the north and south poles could melt.• This could have a huge effect on the low lying areas of the world.
• We could see a change in the boundaries between grassland, forest and shrub lands.• This change in vegetation zones could cause famine in arid areas such as Africa that depends on a certain type of crop.• It could also cause mass movement of people away from arid regions. And this could cause huge over-crowding in towns and cities.
The Malaria Carrying • The range of pest could change ifMosquito the vegetation changed.. This could bring about an increase in disease levels. • Scientist believe that if the temperature increased by 3-5 degrees Celsius, the number of people potentially exposed to malaria(caught from mosquito) could increase from 45%-60% of the worlds population.
It could be affected by a change intemperature.It has been predicted that an increase intemperature would affect species composition.Scientist believed that up to two thirds ofworld’s forest would undergo major changes.They also believed that desserts would becomehotter, and desertification would extend andbecome harder to reverse.
The sea affects the climate of aplace. Coastal areas are coolerand wetter than inland areas.Clouds form when warm air frominland areas meets cool air fromthe sea. The centre of continentsare subject to a large range oftemperatures. In the summer,temperatures can be VERY hotand dry as moisture from the seaevaporates before it reaches thecentre of the continent.
• Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures.• E.g. The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream.the Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current in the North Atlantic flowing from the Mexico, Northeast along the U.S coast, and from there to the British Isles.The Gulf of Mexico has higher air temperatures than Britain as it’s closer to the equator. This means that the air coming from the Gulf of Mexico to Britain is also warm. However, the air is also quite moist as it travels over the Atlantic ocean. This one reason why Britain often receives wet weather.The Gulf Stream keeps the west coast of Europe
Winds that blow from the sea often bringrain to the coast and dry weather to inlandareas.Winds that blown to Britain from warminland areas such as Africa will be warmand dry.Winds that blow to Britain from inlandareas such as the Netherlands will be coldand dry in winter.Britain prevailing winds come from a southwesterly direction over the Atlantic. Thewinds are cool in the summer and mild in thewinter.
Mountains receive more rainfall than lowlying areas because the temperature on topof mountains is lower than the temperatureat sea level. That is why you often see snowon the top of mountains all year round.The higher the place is above sea level thecolder it will be. This happens because asthee altitude increases, air becomes thinnerand is less able to absorb and retain heat.
• The proximity to the equator affects the climate of a place.• The equator receives the more sunlight than anywhere else on earth. This is due to its position in relation to the sun.
• Which affects wind and rainfall patterns, has been blamed for droughts and floods in countries around the Pacific Rim.• Refers to the irregular warming of surface water in the pacific.• The warmer water pumps energy and moisture into the atmosphere, altering global wind and rainfall patterns.• The phenomenon has caused tornadoes in Florida, smog in Indonesia, and forest fires in Brazil.
• We humans, have been affecting the climate since we appeared on this earth million of years ago. In those times, the affect on the climate was small.• Trees were cut down to provide wood for fires. Trees take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen. A reduction in trees therefore have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in that atmosphere.