Shelter Deprivations, Slum Dwellers In The World
Global sample of 360 cities Worldwiderepresentative40 cities per UN region Europe Other Developed 40 cities 40 cities Eastern Asia 40 cities Western Asia South Eastern Asia North Africa 40 cities 40 cities 40 cities South Central Asia 40 cities Latin America & Sub-Saharan Africa Caribbean 40 cities 40 cities World 360 cities
URBANIZATION OF POVERTY IN THE URBAN ERAWorld• 2005- Urban Population 47%• 2030- Urban Population 60%• Urban Growth Rate 2.24%• Slum Growth Rate 2.22%Western Asia• 2005- Urban Population in Western Asia 55%• Urban Growth Rate 2.9%• Slum Growth Rate 2.7%
Three important trends characterize the urbanization process in this new urban era.1. Firstly, the biggest cities in the world will be found mainly in the developing world.2. Secondly, despite the emergence of metacities, the majority of urban migrants will be moving to small towns and cities of less than one million inhabitants3. Thirdly, cities of the developing world will absorb 95% of urban growth in the next two decades, and by 2030, will be home to almost 4 billion people, or 80 per cent of the world’s urban population.
WHAT IS A SLUM?• A slum households is a group of individuals living under the same roof in an urban area who lack one or more of the following five conditions:1. Durable Housing.2. Sufficient Living Area. (not more than three people sharing the same room)3. Access to Improved Water.4. Access to Sanitation.5. Secure Tenure.
To be cont….• Four out of five of the slum definition indicators measure physical expressions of slum conditions:1. lack of water2. lack of sanitation3. overcrowded conditions4. non-durable housing structures.• These indicators focus attention on the circumstances that surround slum life, depicting deficiencies and casting poverty as an attribute of the environments in which slum dwellers live.
To be cont……• The fifth indicator security of tenure has to do with legality, which is not as easy to measure or monitor, as the tenure status of slum dwellers often depends on de facto or de jure rights or lack of them. This indicator has special relevance for measuring the denial and violation of housing rights, as well as the progressive fulfillment of these rights.
Fine tuning in methods needed for assisting national policies• Countries differ vis a vis two aspects: • Magnitude of the problem: proportion of slum dwellers • Severity of problem, ie, the multitude of deprivations in a country
Magnitude & severity of the slum problem and policy implications (SSA)Slum and shelter South Tanza Uganda Zambiadeprivation Africa niaPercent of slum dwellers 30.9 93.0 84.9 74.0(At least one deprivation)Moderate shelter 23.1 52.8 53.8 47.8deprivation (only onedeprivation)Severe shelter 6.6 36.4 27.1 20.6deprivation (two)Extreme severe shelter 1.2 3.8 4.0 5.6deprivation (three or all)
Magnitude & severity of the slum problem and policy implications (Asia)Slum and shelter India Bangla Indone Nepaldeprivation desh siaPercent of slum dwellers 49.4 56.9 31.5 52.8(At least one deprivation)Moderate shelter 34.3 33.6 26.7 22.7deprivation (only onedeprivation)Severe shelter 14.0 22.8 4.1 25.0deprivation (two)Extreme severe shelter 1.0 0.5 0.8 5.2deprivation (three or all )
Magnitude & severity of the slumproblem and policy implications (LAC)Slum and shelter Brazil Colom Guate Nicaragdeprivation bia mala uaPercent of slum dwellers 43.1 16.3 75.7 61.2(At least one deprivation)Moderate shelter 31.3 13.6 54.0 29.2deprivation (only onedeprivation)severe shelter deprivation 10.2 2.1 9.9 20.7(two)Extreme severe shelter 1.6 0.7 11.8 10.7deprivation (three or all)
State of the world slums• The growth of slums in the last 15 years has been unprecedented.• In 1990, there were nearly 715 million slum dwellers in the world.• By 2000 when world leaders set the target of improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers• By 2020 the slum population had increased to 912 million.• Today, there are approximately 998 million slum dwellers in the world.• UN-HABITAT estimates that, if current trends continue, the slum population will reach 1.4 billion by 2020
To be cont….• One out of every three city dwellers lives in slum conditions.• Some slums become less visible or more integrated into the urban fabric as cities develop and as the incomes of slum dwellers improve.• Others become permanent features of urban landscapes. Both types of slums have carved their way into modern-day cities
Difficulties due to slums• Slum dwellers often live in difficult social and economic conditions that manifest different forms of deprivation material, physical, social and political
Slums Trends• Slum and urban growth rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa, 4.53 per cent• 4.58 per cent per year, respectively nearly twice those of Southern Asia, where slum and urban growth rates are 2.2 per cent and 2.89 per cent per year, respectively.• In Western Asia, annual slum and urban growth rates are quite similar, at 2.71 per cent and 2.96 per cent respectively,• while in Eastern Asia and Latin America, slum growth rates are significantly lower than urban growth rates, although slum• growth rates are relatively high in both regions: 2.28 per cent• and 1.28 per cent per year, respectively.
SLUMS IN ASIAN COUNTRIES 45 43 40 35 36 30 31 Urban Households 28 Living in Slums (%) 25 24 21 Urban Households 20 19 with one shelter 15 deprivation (%) 10 5 0 Eastern Southen South- Western Asia Asia Eastern Asia Asia
To be cont….• At the global level, 31.2 per cent of all urban dwellers lived in slums in 2005, a proportion that has not changed significantly since 1990.• In 1990, there were nearly 715 million slum dwellers in the world.• By 2000 when world leaders set the target of improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020 the slum population had increased to 912 million.• In 2005, there were almost 1 billion (998 million) slum dwellers in the world; if current trends continue, UN- HABITAT estimates that the slum population will reach 1.4 billion by 2020.
Defining slums by household level shelter deprivations• Defining slums by household level shelter deprivations, however, does not fully capture the degree of deprivation experienced by a given household or slum community, or the specific needs of that community a dimension that is important for policymakers.
To be cont…• The current definition masks which specific deprivations households experience, as well as the severity of combined deprivations, and creates a challenge for monitoring, as the proportion of slum dwellers may remain the same in any given country, while the type of deprivation experienced by households may change over time. Furthermore, only the elimination of all deprivations in a given household now registers as an improvement in the incidence of slums.
Different levels of shelter deprivation• A simple alternative approach is to group slum households into categories that can be aggregated intoa. moderately deprived (one shelter deprivation)b. severely deprived (two shelter deprivations)c. extremely deprived (three or more shelter deprivations).• By studying the prevalence of slum households in categories of severity, changes in household deprivations can be tracked more accurately; a reduction in one shelter deprivation for a severely deprived household,
Conclusion• Shelter deprivation for urban household in the major states combines indicators to four dimensions of shelter deprivation• Stark household• Deprivation with respect to certain basic amenities• Deprivation in term of quality of dwelling structure• Overcrowding within a dwelling structure as well as overcrowding within a dwelling structure in limited space
References• UN-HABITAT Global Urban Observatory, 2008.• Regional Conference on Housing Policy towards Sustainable Housing Development -13-15 October, 2008, Abu Dhabi U.A.E.• Gora Mboup, 2007,Chief Global Urban Observatory, Monitoring Research Division, UN- HABITAT MAKKAH.• K, Sundaram and Suresh D. 1995. on measurement shelter deprivation in India. India Economic Review, 2:131-165• www.unhabitat .org state of the world’s cities 2006/2007.