TOPIC: Factors affecting urbanization process and how urbanization can becontrolled Submitted To: Mam Ummel Baneen Submitted by: kokab Jabeen 11040727-012 MPS 3rd semester Population Sci Submitted date: 19-11-12
Sr. # contents 1. Urbanization 2. Factors that encourage urbanization 3. Factor that are because of Urbanization 4. Problem Focus - Challenges of Urbanization 5. Models to control urbanization 6. References
Factors affecting urbanization process and how urbanization can becontrolled:Before discussing factors of urbanization that affect urbanization I want to introduceurbanization. Urbanization:An increase in a population in cities and towns versus rural areas, urbanization began during theindustrial revolution, when worker moved toward manufacturing hubs in cities to obtain jobs infactories as agricultural jobs became less common.Urbanization, the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentratedin relatively small areas, forming cities. Internal rural to urban migration means that people movefrom rural areas to urban areas. In this process the number of people living in cities increasescompared with the number of people living in rural areas. Natural increase of urbanization canoccur if the natural population growth in the cities is higher than in the rural areas. This scenario,however, rarely occurs. A country is considered to urbanize when over 50 per cent of itspopulation live in the urban areas (Long 1998).An urban area is spatial concentration of people who are working in non-agricultural activities.The essential characteristic here is that urban means non-agricultural. Urban can also be definedas a fairly complex concept. Criteria used to define urban can include population size, space,density, and economic organization. Usually, however, urban is simply defined by some baseline size, like 20 000 people. Anyway this definition varies between regions and cities (Long1998).―The city is a place where a lot of problems are concentrated; but the city also has the resourcesto overcome these problems and be the place of development.‖ Prof. Valentino Castellini, Italy,1998 there are also many positive factors in the cities. It would be short-sighted to see only thenegative points in this situation. Large cities are usually dynamic, growing centers for modernproduction and industry, financial services, internal commerce and foreign trade, education andgovernment. That is why cities are more efficient than smaller places in production, economicgrowth and contributing to higher incomes. Many people‘s economy and life expectancy in the
city have increased, economy has came more stable and stronger and families have got smaller(Brookfield and Byron 1993, Bilsborrow 1998). The differences between living conditions incities and rural areas are big-terms of education and health, safe drinking water, sanitation,electricity, food, recreational and entertainment, jobs, information and knowledge. Thesedifferences can most clearly be seen among the middle and low-income people. Worldwide thescale and depth of poverty in rural areas are higher. In general, higher the level of urbanization,lower the level of absolutely poverty (HABITAT 1996, Bilsborrow 1998). Factors that encourage urbanizationPopulation growthThere are three components of urban population growth. i. Natural growth of urban population ii. Rural urban migration iii. Reclassification of areas previously defined as rural. Factor that are because of Urbanization1. Complexity of environmental problems2. Overpopulation3. Growing demand for food and facilities4. Problems to food production5. Pollutants to air, soil and water6. Air pollutants7. Water pollutants8. Traffic9. Water Resources and urbanization10. Solid wastes11. Noise12. Water Resources and urbanization13. Water quantity14. Urban sanitation
15. Health problems16. Crime17. Housing and Homelessness18. unemployment19. Poverty Complexity of environmental problems Probably most of the major environmental problems of the next century will result from the continuation and sharpening of existing problems that currently do not receive enough political attention. The problems are not necessarily noticed in many countries or then nothing is done even the situation has been detected. The most emerging issues are climate changes, freshwater scarcity, deforestation, and fresh water pollution and population growth. These problems are very complex and their interactions are hard to define. It is very important to examine problems trough the social-economic-cultural system. Even the interconnections between environmental problems are now better known, we still lack exact information on how the issues are linked, on what degree they interact and what are the most effective measures. One problem is to integrate land- and water use planning to provide food and water security (UNEP 1999). Overpopulation The major cause of most environmental problems is the rapidly growing human population. About 90 million babies are born each year. At this rate, by the year 2050, global population will reach 10 billion. The current world population is on average very young and has many years of reproductive life ahead. Because of this the population will grow even the fertility rate seems to decrease. The population growth takes mostly place in developing countries. These countries are in charge of 90 per cent of current population growth. It has been estimated that by the year 2025 even 84 % of the world‘s people will live in developing regions (ENCARTA 2001).
Growing demand for food and facilitiesDue to the growing population, demands for water, food, housing, heat, energy, clothing, andconsume goods are increasing alarmingly. Rapid population growth not only lessensavailable calorie supply from food per person but also risks the present food production withpollution. Increasing demand forces farmers to exhaust the soil or to use marginal land. Theonly way to product food to all this population is to create more effective agriculturalproduction. Irrigation is the most important way, because in the future the arable land is notincreasing, probably decreasing, due to erosion and land deterioration (ENCARTA 2001,Brookfield and Byron 1993).Problems to food productionPlants need water, solar energy and nutrients to grow. Humans can only change few things tohelp plants to product more, the amount of water and fertilizer. In the areas where these areneeded there is also often uncertainty of water supply and lacking of capital for fertilizers.Water and food availability is closely linked together because of the enormous need of greenwater. For example, each ton of grain needs 1000 tons of water for successful growth (Allan1997, Varis 1997b).The quality of water is often threatened in poor areas due to domestic and industrial wastes.Agriculture as well produces numerous side effects to water resources, including erosion,leaching of nutrients, accumulation and wash off of pesticides and heavy metals, increasedsalinity due to evaporation losses and spearing of various diseases such as schistosomiasisand malaria (Vakkilainen and Varis 1999, Varis 1997b).Pollutants to air, soil and waterEven the industrialized countries, with higher standards of living and greater numbers ofcars, produce far more air pollution and greenhouse gases than developing countries, theycan reduce environmental hazards by using technology such as smokestack scrubbers,emission systems, and wastewater treatment plants. Developing countries do not have thisnew technology or capacity to do so. The consumption is far lower but the expensive energy-efficient or clean-up technologies are economically impractical for these countries. For these
reasons environmental problems occur more often in developed countries (ENCARTA2001).Air pollutantsIn many cities the air is already so polluted that it has been causing illnesses and prematuredeaths among elderly people and children. Studies show that disease rate rises when the airpollution level increases. Air pollutants are also harmful for water and environment, forexample, by causing acid precipitation and acidity of waters. Most of the ambient air-pollution in urban areas comes from the fossil fuels industry, motor vehicles, heating andelectricity generation. In some cities the main air polluter is the domestic heating. Manypeople heat their houses with firewood and cheap coal. This kind of heating method willdecrease in the future. Although, new heating methods can be even worse polluters. Insteadof carbon dioxide the emissions can include various toxic and carcinogenic chemicals, heavymetals, trace organic chemicals and fibers, photochemical pollutants, lead and carbonmonoxide, which are much more harmful to human health (HABITAT 1996).TrafficAlmost all cities have changed to motorized road vehicles, which has increased the use offossil fuels and increased greenhouse-gas emissions. This explosive growth in the number ofroad vehicles is a big problem in many cities. Many city centers have major difficulties tryingto cope with the chaotic automobile traffic. The traffic jams are extremely bad in many citiesand transport traffic in the city area at least during the rush-hours is really slow. Thepollution is high due to constant traffic and causes respiratory diseases to city habitants(HABITAT 1996). Failed or non-existing urban planning is the main reason for these trafficproblems. Rapid population growth has surprised the capabilities of many cities. Many urbanplans have failed in practice because they have been over-ambitious considering thecapabilities. The reasons for this kind of failure include the lack of proper legal andadministrative framework, inadequate technical skills and financial resources (HABITAT1996).
Water pollutantsThe lack of sanitation and sewage treatment is the biggest factor regarding water pollution.Local water bodies are used as a dumping ground for untreated water from urban areas orindustries. Chemical discharge is also a widespread problem. For example, in Bangkok, 90per cent of industrial wastes, including hazardous chemicals, are discharged withouttreatment. On a positive note, many countries have introduced legislation to combat theproblem (UNEP 1999). Many rivers in developing countries are more like open sewers thanrivers. Most of the centers in these regions do not have drains or even service to collect thegarbage. Fisheries are often damaged and destroyed by liquid effluents from city-basedindustries. Thousands of people may lose their livelihood, because of a large city situatedclose to the world‘s productive fishing regions. The cities that are close to the coast oftendump untreated sewage to the sea. Most of the coastal cities have serious problems withdirty, contaminated beaches and water which is a serious health risk to the bathers and for thewhole city (HABITAT 1996).Solid wastesSolid waste management means proper collection, transfer, recycling and disposal of solidwastes. In many cities the solid waste disposal is inefficient or non-existing. Even moreproblematic than household wastes are the industrial, hospital and institutional wastes, whichoften contains hazardous and toxic chemicals, not to mention viruses and bacteria. Thesechemicals need special care when changing, storing, transposing and disposing them. Stillthey are allowed to go directly the water bodies from where they can contaminate the wholewater cycle. The disposal of the solid wastes is often similar than with the liquid ones. Theyend up to the illegal dump on streets, open spaces, wastelands, drains or rivers. Sometimesthey are collected to the land sites but the protection of water bodies and groundwater is notactive (HABITAT 1996, Ogu 2000).If solid wastes are left in the open spaces, wasteland and streets serious environmentalproblems will follow. With the rainwater much of this waste ends up swept into water bodies.This can lead to the pollution of ground- and surface waters because of leaching. Solidwastes are sometimes used for landfill but decomposed solid waste can similarly pollute
groundwater through seepage, particularly in humid tropics. This can have enormous healthimpacts in developing countries where the use of well water as drinking water is common.The garbage combustion creates yet another environmental problem. People want to get ridof the wastes and they burn them in their backyards. The gases produced by burning cancause different respiratory diseases. Uncollected waste spoils also the aesthetic outlook of thecity (Kasarda and Parnell 1993, HABITAT 1996, Ogu 2000).NoiseIn the urban environment there are many sources of noise. The most serious sources areaircrafts, industrial operations, highway traffic and construction activities. Current noiselevels harm hundreds of millions people and create serious health treats to tens of millions.Sleep disturbance, loss of hearing, stress, poorer work performance and increased anxiety areeffects from noise. The noise levels that the inhabitants have to suffer, varies between citiesand also between different areas in the city. Especially in every mega-city people are underconstant stress from noise, which has harmful effects on their health and level of living(HABITAT 1996).Water resourcesThe water resources on the earth are locally insufficient because water is not geographicallyequally divided and seasonal changes are extensive. Some parts of the world‘s waterresources are inaccessible and cannot be used. In places where the lack of water is mostsevere the needed water rains so intensively and such a short period during the rainy seasonto the ground that it will flood and cannot be stored. Heavy rain also fastens the erosion.Engineers are trying to do their best to level the uneven distribution by controlling evengreater portion of nature‘s water cycle. Dams, water reservoirs and pipelines are also oneway to store water for food production, industrial output, and urbanization (Postel 1992).Already 20 per cent of the worlds population fall short of access to safe drinking water. Thissituation is set to worsen dramatically. If current trend holds, per capita water suppliesworldwide will drop by more than a third by 2025. This means that 67 per cent of people willlive in a waterstressed condition. The problem is most acute in Africa and West Asia. In
Africa, 14 countries already experience water stress or water shortage. Another 11 countrieswill join that list in the next 25 years (Somlyódy et al. 2001, Postel 1992).Access to waterEven if there would be enough water for world population in the earth, it is not always surethat people can reach those supplies. The most important to the habitants are access to water,the price, quality and quantity of water. Even the people have an access to the piped watersupplies it does not obviously mean that the water is pure, not contaminated and regular.Also the quantity of water available to the household and the price that has to be paid, can beeven more important to a families‘ health than the quality of the water (HABITAT 1996). Ifthe area has a piped water service the service is not often regular. In many areas tap water isworking only every other day or twice a week. If the area has piped water it means that wateris piped to a housing unit or public standpipe is as close as 200 meters. In many areas, forexample, in West Africa water has to be carried from wells and pipes from backyard orfurther. Women or children are normally responsible of fetching the water. Carrying waterfor long distances needs a lot of physical effort and takes time. For example, if the waterconsumption of family water is 40 liters, which means 4 full buckets of water, the totalweight of the carried daily water is 40 kilograms (Kasarda and Parnell 1993, Harday et.al.2001). If people do not have an access to the water supply ( public standpipes, yard taps,protected dug wells or bore holes/hand pumps), they usually rely on one of two sources;water from the wells, streams or other sources which are often very contaminated; or waterpurchased from the vendors where quality is not either guaranteed. Often the price that thesevendors are asking from the water is 4 to 100 times the amount that is paid by richerhouseholds for publicly provided piped water. Normally people buy water from vendors onlyfor cooking and drinking, for other purposes they use water from poorer quality supplies. It isquite normal that a poor family has to use 5 to 10 per cent of their total income on the water(HABITAT 1996, Harday et. al. 2001).Water quantity needed for humansAdequate quantities of water are required for healthy living: for drinking, cooking andwashing. The WHO recommends that the minimum daily amount per person is 27 liters per
day. Because of the population growth and urbanization the gap between per capita watersupply and demand is getting bigger. Population growth also has an effect on demand of foodand sewage disposal facilities. This means bigger demand of irrigation water and biggerwater resources. These days in many countries the water demand is between 20 to 40 per centof the total runoff, even the sustainable amount would be 5 per cent. The demand nowadaysin many countries is so massive that it needs investments and a large part of GNP has to beused for the water management (Vakkilainen and Varis 1999, Kasarda and Parnell 1993).Industrial need of waterHousehold and even municipal water needs are only a small part of the water supplyproblem. Globally the industrial water use is at least twice the domestic use. In addition tothis use are vast quantities of water, which is used by power stations as cooling waters. Alsofrom the domestic use half of the water is normally used for livestock (Clarke 1991).Urban sanitationDeveloping countries‘ major sources of pollution are untreated or partially treated domesticsewage, industrial waste effluent, and domestic and industrial garbage. In urban centers,where the size and density of the settlements are high, sanitation problems are very big. Inmany cities wastewater are discharged to the rivers, coastal water and water bodies oftenwithout any treatment at all. Even the city has central sewage system water can be onlypartially treated or just conveyed. The polluted water can travel long distances undergroundwhen conditions allow. For example laterite soils, commonly found in tropical climate, canallow the piping of water over significant distances. The safe distance between latrine andwater source depends therefore on the soil conditions (Davis 1993, Kasarda and Parnell1993).Wells and springs are open to contamination from pin latrines, septic tanks, and other wastedisposal sites. Septic tanks and other sewage systems if not properly constructed, located, andmaintained, can easily pollute the ground and surface water. Insufficiently treated oruntreated industrial and municipal wastes discharged into water bodies pollute water suppliesand pose risks to human health. Water supply facilities have advanced faster than wastewatermanagement. In developing countries 75 per cent of urban dwellers had water supply
facilities, and only 66 per cent had sanitation services (Davis 1993, Kasarda andParnell1993).Many cities in Asia have no sewers at all. These are not only the smaller cities,many major cities with a million or more inhabitants have no sewers. If the city has sewersthey often serve a small proportion of the population, typically those who are located in thericher residential, governmental and commercial areas. Most of the city inhabitants also lackconnection to septic tanks. For example, Jakarta, and some smaller Indonesian cities havevirtually no sewage disposal system (Davis 1993, Kasarda and Parnell1993).Health problemsEnvironmental problems in most of the urban centers are evident. Environment-relateddiseases or accidents remain among the major causes of illness, injury, and premature death.This is common in the poorer centers of urban areas. Most of these diseases are caused bypathogens in water, food, soil, or air. Burns, scalds, and accidental fires are common inovercrowded shelters, especially where five or more persons live in a small room (Gugler1997).The cities have two general categories of human environmental risk: those that directly affecthealth, such as pollution, and those that may not be less damaging, but operate indirectly byworsen the ecosystem that human life depends on. The link between environment and healthis evident. Poor environment, housing and living conditions are the main reasons to thediseases and poor health. Improvements in sanitation, sewage treatment and quality of food,will prevent diseases like cholera. The lack of these basic facilities is still general indeveloping countries. Because of this, diseases like tuberculosis and diarrhea continuous tobe common in the developing world (Kasarda and Parnell 1993). CrimeViolent crime is more visible in the cities than in rural areas and it affects people‘s everydaylife, their movements and the use of public transportation. Crime in the city can create asense of insecurity to its habitants. This unsafe feeling in city streets will separate the livingareas of the higher-income and lower income groups, which will reduce people‘s solidarityand form areas with dissimilar incomes, costs and security level (HABITAT 1996).
At least once every five years, more than a half of the world‘s population living in the citieswith 100,000 or more inhabitants are victims of a crime of some kind. Only in Asia thisproportion is under 50 percent. Even the overall rate of crimes fell in Asia organized violentcrime and drug trafficking have increased considerably. In the whole world urban violence isestimated to grow 3 to 5 percent every year, but this differs between regions and nations.Violent crime rates have been growing in the most cities and more slowly also in the ruralareas (HABITAT 1996). Urban violence is a result of many factors and it could beconsidered as a public health problem. Inadequate income, poor and overcrowded housingand living conditions create fertile ground for the development of violence. Also the lack ofchildren‘s social support in school and home by their hard working, usually poor parents arenot provided. Immigration is also one reason to the crimes. Immigrants‘ original cultureidentity will be confound, finding an employment and housing is hard and racism will beexpressed (HABITAT 1996).Housing and Homelessness33 to 67 per cent of the population lives in housing units that are in poor condition. Thesehouses are often made of temporary materials, which do not provide proper protectionagainst temperature changes, winds or rain. The houses are often small and overcrowded andalso lack facilities like; piped water supplies, the removal of excreta and solid wastes,drainage and roads. Many migrants move from countryside to live with their relatives, whichincrease the occupation of rooms. Still this kind of co-operation is the only way for manymigrants to start their new life in the city (Harday et.al. 2001, Sajor 2001).The slum areas are common in the mega-cities in the developing countries. For poor peopleand migrants these areas are the major place to live. Usually these slums are situated either inthe surroundings of the city where the land is cheap, deteriorated, polluted or then nearfactories or other work places. The facilities are non-existing in these areas. The location ofthe slum area is often hazardous for the health of the habitants. Governments do not want toincrease the facilities, on the area trying to prevent people living there. These land propertiesare often owned by the governments. The living areas can be badly polluted, suffer fromfloods, and locate near polluting and hazardous facilities. These are the places where nobodywants to live. This gives an opportunity to poor people to have an accommodation. The
location is important, near the working places, because poor people have no money to pay forthe transportation. Also the lack of proper infrastructure policies gives opportunities for poorhousing (Sajor 2001).It is hard to say how many homeless people there are in the world because so many kind ofhomelessness exists. Some people live outside (in shop doorways, parks, under bridges), inpublic buildings (in railways, buses or metro stations) or in night shelters. There are alsopeople whose accommodations are unsafe, temporary and often poor. It is said that there areone billion homeless people in the world, which is 16 percent of the whole world population(HABITAT 1996).Because of homelessness many urban dwellers lack adequate protectionfrom rain, flooding, cold, and heat. Their health and even their lives are threatened bycontaminated water and inadequate sanitation. Shelter also takes the major part of the budgetfor most urban dwellers and informal settlements are often the only way for them to get roofon their heads. Anything is good building material for these people; cardboard, plasticsheeting, plywood, corrugated iron. In every bigger city there are areas for these kinds ofsettlements, like Villa el Salvador in Lima, or Klong Toey in Bangkok (Girardet 1996,Gugler 1997).UnemploymentBesides normal employment so called ― misemployment ― is normal in the cities. It meansthat a person might be full-time employed, but the task performed promotes little to socialwelfare. The example for this kind of job could be begging. There is also wide range of legalactivities, which can said to be employment to these people. Working in these kind of jobsmeans working in informal sector, like selling food on the streets (Gugler 1997).Informal sector is very big in the cities of developing countries. Many migrants work withinthe informal sector -driving motorbike taxis, selling low-cost meals, driving tuc-tucs (opentaxis) or collecting garbage. The informal sector is important to low income country the keepthe economy running. For example, cookers of low-cost meals are the only way the poorfactory workers can have their lunch or dinner. These cookers sell the food with so low pricethat almost all the city habitants can buy the food from these vendors. Even this low pricefrom food gives cookers better level of living in the city than in rural areas. The amount of
people who are working with the informal sector is growing because the population,especially the poor population, in the cities is growing (Sajor 2001).PovertyPoverty is common in developing countries, even in the countries, that are middle-incomecountries. For example in Thailand, which is middle-income country, about 16 per cent ofpeople are qualified as poor. This means that their income level is below 900 baht in month(23 euros). With this amount even in Thailand it is impossible to have proper housing, food,pure water or social security. These people often live in the streets or parks, beg for food anddo some temporary work in informal sector (Sajor 2001, STT 2001). The percentage of poorpeople is growing in many countries. Due to such a low income the main goal for the peopleis to get their daily meal, water and accommodation. For these people the environmentalproblems are not in the front line. Because of this the solving of environmental problems indeveloping countries is not easy. The main questions that have to take into account arepoverty and welfare of people. Before the basic level of life will be in a bearable state,improvements in environmental conditions are impossible, at least the proper co-operation isnot possible (Sajor 2001).Problem Focus - Challenges of UrbanizationEnvironmental ImplicationIt should be noted that urban growth has a number of positive impacts on the environmentand human well-being, i.e. higher population densities man lower per capita costs ofproviding energy, health care, infrastructure and services. Also, urbanization hashistorically been associated with declining birth rates, which reduces population pressure onland and natural resources. Despite all these positive impacts, almost all major cities of theregion are increasingly plagued by environmental problems. Some major aspects areas follows:(a) As a direct result of urbanization, great threat to health and safety in cities comes fromwater and air pollution, especially at the households and community levels. Whileambient air pollution impairs the health of almost all urban residents in many cities, indoors
air pollution is particularly hazardous for women and children of low-income householdswho are regularly exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants from cooking andheating sources in poorly-ventilated housing. Waterborne diseases are found mostcommonly in low-income neighborhoods as a result of inadequate sanitation, drainage andsolid waste collection services. Health risks, especially to the poor, are also posed bypesticides and industrial effluents.(b) The productivity of many cities is adversely affected by traffic congestion and waterpollution. The loss in productivity includes the total productive time wasted in traffic and theassociated increase in the costs of operating and maintaining vehicles. The rising costs oftreating polluted water for industrial and domestic purposes are damaging theproductivity of urban economies. Fisheries are also being severely harmed by waterpollution.(c) Uncollected and improperly handled solid waste can have serious health consequences.They block drainage systems and contaminate groundwater at landfill sites. In many cities,particularly those in Pacific island countries, it is difficult to secure land for wastedisposal facilities, especially onshore landfill sites. Most cities in the region are also unableto manage the increasing amounts of hazardous wastes generated by rapid industrialization.(d) Conversion of agricultural land and forest, as well as reclaiming of wetlands, for urbanuses and infrastructure, are associated with widespread removal of vegetation to supporturban ecosystem and put additional pressure on nearby areas that may be even moreecologically sensitive. Groundwater overdraft has led to land subsidence and a higherfrequency of flooding, particularly in the lowest-lying and poorest areas.(e) Urbanization in coastal areas often leads to the destruction of sensitive ecosystems andcan also alter the hydrology of coasts and their natural features such as mangroveswamps, reefs and beaches that serve as barriers to erosion and form important habitats forspecies.Poverty
The growth of large cities, particularly in developing countries, has been accompanied by anincrease in urban poverty which tends to be concentrated in certain social groups andin particular locations. Pollution especially affects the poor live at the urban periphery,where manufacturing and processing plants are built and where environmentalprotection is frequently weak. Environmental sensitive sites such as steep hillsides, floodplains, dry land or the most polluted sites near solid waste dumps and next to open drains andsewers are often the only places where low-income groups can live without the fear ofeviction. The poorest groups thus suffer the most from the floods, landslides or otherdisasters that increasingly batter the cities of developing countries.Waste Recycling - New Challenges of SustainabilityWaste generation in urban areas continues to increase world-wide in tandem withconcentration of populations and increase in living standards, and has reached tounmanageable levels in many localities. High proportion of the waste could be recycled, notsimply to reduce the amount of waste to be disposed of. The practice also providesan opportunity to generate income for the urban poor, to prevent environmentaldamages of waste dumping, and further to demonstrate less material- and energy-intensiveconsumption patterns. Promotion of sustainable consumption should have the far-reaching benefit of fostering domestic enterprises and pushing the production sectortowards sustainable pathways. There is a need to develop an integrated approach where thepublic, private and community sectors work together to develop local solutionspromoting sustainable waste management of material recycling.Policy Responses and Tools to manage UrbanizationA variety of options in terms of policy responses and tools to cope effectively withthe urbanization transition has been proposed and discussed for several decades. Theseoptions may be categorized in the following four strategic steps.a) National planning to control urbanization to manageable levelsb) Regional / Urban planning to guide urbanization to manageable situationc) Intra-urban management to cope with urbanization problemsd) Participation, Partnership and Governance
a) National planning to control urbanization to manageable levels In an attempt to ensure better management of urbanization, Governments have had adopted macroeconomic policies that are designed to mitigate magnitude of urbanization to manageable levels, or to keep people in rural areas. As a primary tool, a National Physical (Spatial) Development Plan could be established to address the mid- and long-term national direction on distribution of population; utilization of land; development of new land, water and energy; provision of infrastructure, housing and transportation that favor decentralized economic development. Such planning approach, especially when coordinated with the overall economic policy as well as relevant sectoral development programmers covering, in particular, industrial and agricultural productivity, would be effective in establishing an orderly and consistent utilization of land on a national basis and providing the opportunity for urbanization issues to be addressed in the coherent way in the context of overall national development.b) Regional and Urban Land Use Planning to Guide Urbanization Following the provisions set by the national development plan, land-use planning and management tools at regional (sub-national, provincial) and urban local levels have long been expected to play a crucial role in avoiding and mitigating the adverse impacts of rapid, unplanned urbanization. Regional planning tools for the purpose include the planned development of intermediate urban centers, promotion of polycentric regional network of urban centres, and economic development of smaller towns and cities in less concentrated areas in rural provinces. At the city level, local governments have been encouraged to carry out an integrated land-use planning to comprehensively address adverse impacts of urbanization, including environmental problems. Zoning techniques, which may be applied to implement the master plan and to guide urban development to spatially appropriate areas, include designation of sensitive land resources and areas, establishment of buffer zones, management of hazard-prone lands, protection of cultural resources, conservation of open spaces and urban green, management of prime agricultural land, guiding and discouraging of excessive urban sprawl. Regulatory instruments such as land and household registration / information systems, property tax systems, land tenure systems, and building and land development permits are all important basic tools that can be strengthened for
effectively implementing spatial planning and zoning techniques. Compact developmenttechniques such as ‗smart growth‘ movement and sustainable city initiatives havebeen advocated to combat urban sprawl, promoting the build-up within an alreadyurbanized area, redeveloping on cleaned-up contaminated sites or ‗brownfields‘, andcluster development on reduced-size lots. As a reaction to the shortcomings of traditionalplanning approaches, and more recently to address the needs of sustainable development,various countries have adopted new processes and approaches to urban planning. Actionplanning is a ‗learning by doing‘ approach to resolve urbanization problems in a shortterm perspective, with minimum data collection and planning procedures. Localcommunity participation in decision-making is deemed a key to success. Strategicplanning is also a participatory approach to integrated urban development to achievegrowth management and remedial actions at both the city-wide and community scales.The output of the process is not just a physical development plan but a set of inter-relatedstrategies for city development covering land, infrastructure, finance and institutionsThere are a number of technical tools which are now becoming widely used aspart of effective urban planning approaches. Amongst others, Geographical informationsystems (GIS) are gaining increasing importance as a tool for decision-making inplanning. The essence of GIS is to link together different data sets and present themclearly and concisely in a variety of ways. GIS can also aid short-staffed localgovernments in better managing rapid urban growth. Land market assessmentsprovides accurate and up-to date information on land prices, supply of serviced land,present and future land projects, housing typologies, and other aspects of the housingand land market, and thus is used to support government planning and decision making,the evaluation of government policies and actions, private sector investment anddevelopment decisions and structuring of land based taxation systems. There are also anumber of improved zoning techniques, such as mixed zoning, floating zoning,conditional or contract zoning and phased zoning. Both rational decision-makingregarding overall policies and implementing specific programmes to effectivelyaddress urbanization requires a sense of comparative risks. Environmental and socio-economic impact assessment and risk ranking are useful planning tools for this purpose.In addition to traditional zoning procedures, new techniques such as strategic
environmental assessment are being adopted, as a means of integrating potential environmental considerations at the early stages of strategic policy formulation.c) Intra-urban management to cope with urbanization problems Despite all the policy responses to better manage the urbanization, as outlined in a) and b) above, the chances to prevent the urbanization transition would still be slim from practical point of view. Then, the challenge to many city managers still remains as to project and build the necessary infrastructure and services (housing, public transport; and sewage, water supply, and waste disposal systems) outpacing the wave of rural-urban migrants suffocate the existing urban agglomerations. Investment requirements of urban infrastructure in Asia and the Pacific are massive and impose enormous demands on fiscal resources. As a number of financial options has been proposed and experimented in the region, the range of such options is certainly expanding with the region-wide trend of providing local governments with greater discretion in the levying of taxes, fees and service charges, and of increased reliance on the private sector. Provision of infrastructure should not be seen merely as a reactive response to ongoing urbanization, often a curative measure to deteriorating urban environment. It could rather be used as a guide to future urban build-up in more positive way, to guide it to spatially more appropriate areas. Among other infrastructure sectors, urban transport system could play a crucial role in this context. Technical options include advance planning, stepwise/strategic introduction of mass transit system, and aggressive use of congestion pricing. Because of the importance of specific local circumstances and political realities, there is no viable approach to solving urban environmental problems that can be applied in every city. A basic step is to develop a local environmental agenda to assess the local situation regarding environmental issues so that this information can be integrated in urban planning. The process involves routinely incorporating environmental information and data, standards and policy targets, techniques and monitoring in strategic urban development plans. Spatial, cross-media, inter-temporal factors must all be taken into consideration. Successful urban environmental management may include the following sectoral elements; increases in resource efficiency, reductions in waste generation, improving urban infrastructure for water supply, the management and conservation of water resources in urban areas by
improved waste water treatment and through legislation, setting up of recycling schemes, development of more effective waste collection systems, strict legislation for the treatment of hazardous waste, waste collection through public-private partnership, adoption of energy technologies by industry and households, and restoration of brownfields.d) Participation, Partnership and Governance Through experience, it has been learned that no amount of finance, technology or expertise can secure environmentally sustainable urban development — or protect the environment — if the fundamentals of governance are not participatory, democratic and pluralistic. Many developing countries have developed extensive regulations on pollution, most of which are not applied effectively because of the lack of proper institutions, legal systems, political will and competent governance. Unfortunately, particularly where economic and social change is rapid, established political and administrative institutions have proved highly resistant to change. Improving the urban governance, in particular, through increasing transparency and accountability of policy formulation and decision making processes, is a key to success in10 implementing any urban management policies and plans. Participation of all stakeholders who are benefiting from relevant decisions and actions should be ensured at all levels of planning activities, in combination with greater access to relevant information and enhancement of public awareness of urbanization issues. Efforts to improve urban governance essentially involve activities promoting participatory processes; developing effective partnerships with and among all actors of civil society, particularly the private and community sectors; securing greater effective empowerment of local government, including greater autonomy in finance and legislation; and reform of unresponsive organizations and bureaucratic structures. Models to control urbanization Socialist model In the past there have been many successful ways of controlling urbanization. Socialism in old China and Russia was one of these. The method was to control urbanization by the place where people had born. People who were born in the countryside were not allowed to move permanently to the urban areas. This means that people have to live at place
similar they have been born. They belong to the rural areas if they were born in there andvice versa. Although, rural people can move to other rural areas and urban people couldmove to the similar rural areas. This method was very effective when controllingurbanization. Thus it doesn‘t give alternatives to the inhabitants (Sajor 2001).South-African modelOther successful method was used in South Africa. The main idea of this method was notto control the migration of single people but decrease migration with families. Normally,if the migration is permanent, people bring the whole family to the city. This increasesthe city population with much more people than only single migration. The methodprohibited migrant people to bring their families with them. This decrease the rate ofpermanent migration because normally people do not want to be in the city alone and thefamily cannot survive without help on the rural areas. Thus, this method puts lot ofpressure to the women in the countryside because they have to take care of the wholefamily when their men are working in the city, even for some part of the year (Sajor2001).
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