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The Importance Of Omniscience In The Holy Spirit
It is crucial that Christians not only put trust in God and the Son but that Christians also entrust
themselves in the Holy Spirit, considering he is fully divine and personal. "The Spirit of God, who
raised Jesus from the dead, lives in you. And just as God raised Christ Jesus from the dead, he will
give life to your mortal bodies by this same Spirit living within you." (Romans 8:11) Paul is
declaring that through the spirit God will give believers new life, in which humans are transformed
into the likeness of Christ "Making the debate over foreknowledge is one of the liveliest debates
within evangelicalism today." (Boyd, Eddy 49) According to The Pocket Dictionary of Theological
Terms Foreknowledge is defined as "To know in advance". Regarding foreknowledge, "Arminian
and Calvinists disagree on how God acquires his knowledge. Calvinists believe that God foreknows
all that shall come to pass because he predestined it. Others, called Arminians, believe God
foreknows all things simply because they shall come to pass, though humans to some extent
determine it by their free will." (Boyd, Eddy 48) All orthodox Christians believe it is true that God is
omniscient. The question is if God knows every detail of the future or only enough where people are
still free in their decisions. It could be that God has some details of the future, but one decides
definite details by their own free will. Geneses 17:5 reads, "No longer will you be called Abram;
your name will be Abraham, for I
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Comparing Calvinism And Arminius Viewpoints And Touch On...
Throughout history people have questioned election. The question is whether people are predestined
to be called to heaven and can not reject the Holy Spirit's calling such as a John Calvin. Or do we
have the free will to accept or deny the Holy Spirit's calling into our lives such as James Arminius
believed. Or is it something else just as Karl Barth or Augustine believed in. But for the purpose of
this paper we will look at Calvinism and Arminius viewpoints and touch on the view points of other
theologians throughout history to come up with an accurate conclusion of which of the two main
theological ideas is most likely the case of election. Election has always been a sensitive subject
many in Christian circles. Most Christians lean ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the old and new testament he Understanding of election in terms of salvation was not clearly
stated but there are scriptures in the Old Testament that you can see where election was in place. The
Old Testament election mainly involved the nation of Israel. And when he chose the nation of Israel
it almost seemed in a way that God chose the nation because he could. In Genesis God chose Abram
later named Abraham to become a mighty nation from his seed and be a blessing to all nations
(Genesis 18). And through that seed of Abraham in Deuteronomy chose Israel nation even though
they where hard hearted often (Deut 9:6). But there are other examples outside the nation of Israel.
Most notably Cyrus, Cyrus was chosen to rebuild the temple. God even revealed Himself to Cyrus
but there is no evidence to suggest that Cyrus was in fact regenerated So it seems that the Old
Testament does not support the concept that personal salvation is a result of individual election. In
the New Testament there are verses on election and both sides to support their case. For example in
Romans 8 it seems like that predestination is conformed when it mentions that we as believers
would be predestined to be in Jesus image. In Ephesians 1 it states that we where predestined to be
adopted. But in John 3 it seems that everyone is called to God. And in Ephesians 2 God gives us the
gift of salvation. I think that what
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Differences Between Calvinism And Arminianism
The purpose of this paper is to compare two theological positions, namely Calvinism and
Arminianism. These are two positions on either side of the extreme concerning free will and
predestination. There are those who believe that we have the free will to love and obey God or deny
God, and there are those who believe that God, in his sovereignty, has predetermined who will be
saved or who will not be saved and neither group is willing to budge. Both sides claim to have the
support of Scripture, and both have specific verses that are twisted and manipulated to show support
and reasoning. The problem is that both sides appear, on some levels at least, to be right. The
question that can be answered from a comparison of these two views is this: What are the basic
differences between Calvinism and Arminianism, as well as, their relation to theology, biblical
evidence and worldviews? This research paper covers the five key points or articles of Calvinism
and Arminianism, as well as, the history, view of God and biblical evidence or support for each
position.
History
The history of Calvinism and Arminianism dates back to the 16th century, where a man named John
Calvin was born in 1509. John Calvin was a son of a lawyer and born in Noyon, France where he
developed a love for theology and literature. In 1523 he went to the University of Paris where he
studied theology, yet in 1528 he went to Orleans and a year later Bourges to study law. With Calvin's
father being a lawyer, he was
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Calvinism And Religion Summary
Abraham Kuyper goes on to continue making his point about how Calvinism is a life system
through his second lecture titled "Calvinism and Religion." Even the title alone strongly makes this
point in the way that it implies that Calvinism and religion are not synonymous. It almost feels like
Kuyper is pushing this chapter's main idea that Calvinism holds a dominant and impressive position
in the domain of religion by using dramatic language that insinuates the bragging that Calvinism is
better than everything else. For example, on page 42, Kuyper says, "...look at the giant spirit of
Calvin, who, in the sixteenth century, with one master–stroke, placed before the gaze of the
astonished word an entire religious edifice, erected in the purest Scriptural style." It is clear that
Kuyper is trying very hard to defend Calvinism against the vile enemies of Rationalism,
Materialism, mysticism, and modernism. However, I do like the sentence after the prior criticized
quote, which gracefully justifies the vulnerabilities of Calvinism by saying, "So rapidly was the
whole building completed that most of the spectators forgot to pay attention to the wonderful
structure of its foundations." Kuyper then sets off to outline these structures of Calvinism's religious
foundations with three answers to the question of what was the secret to Calvinism's religious
energy. The first of his three answers involves exploring the concept of "Religion as such," using an
abundance of italicizing. This
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What Influence Did John Calvin Have On Church History
"WHAT INFLUENCE DID JOHN CALVIN HAVE ON CHURCH HISTORY" John Calvin was
born at Noyon, France, on 10 July 1509, the son of a notary. He went to the University of Paris in
1523 (it was not unusual to attend university at so young an age), where he learned Latin from the
humanist Mathurin Cordier. He developed a strong love of languages and earned his Master of Arts
in 1528 in theology. Then, in 1532, Calvin experienced a spiritual conversion. It was typical of
Calvin that he gives us virtually no details of this crucial moment in his life. In contrast with Luther,
who is extensively autobiographical, Calvin wrote merely that he had experienced a "sudden
conversion," and we must be satisfied with that ("The Reformation: Calvin." The Reformation:
Calvin. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.). John Calvin is not at the last–place level on an equivalence
with Martin Luther as the inventor of the Reformation. Actually, Luther 's followers produced a
formal church; however, Calvin 's followers created several churches; to name a few the French
Huguenots, the English Puritans, the Scottish Presbyterians, and the Dutch Reformed Church. In
fact, Calvin had an outstanding way to the German lands, and Luther had a large influence in
Western Europe, however, you will not stray incorrectly by going to see Calvin 's influence in the
churches west of the Rhine River, and Luther 's hand in the churches east of the Rhine.
Likely the best known aspect of Calvinist theology regards predestination,
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Calvin's Epistemology Essay
"How is it possible to know anything at all?" John Calvin gives his answer to this timeless question
in Chapters 1–3 of his Institutes. His theory of epistemology is based on his belief that humans are
naturally aware of God. He also asserts two fundamental knowledges– God and self– and he
elaborates upon the relationship between the two.
I. Biography of John Calvin
A. Birth and childhood
B. Schooling and further education
C. Early works and accomplishments
II. How is it possible to know anything?
III. John Calvin
A. brief introduction of the Institutes
B. Calvin's theory of epistemology
1. Humans have a natural awareness of God.
a. our minds
b. nature
2. knowledge of God
a. requires holiness
b. requires knowledge of self ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
There, he sought more education, and opted to further his intellectual career. Years later in 1536,
Institutes of the Christian Religion, was released by Calvin himself in Basel, Switzerland.6 To this
day, it remains one of the most important and influential literary works regarding theology. This
piece also made Calvin known as a key follower of Protestantism. His theory of epistemology is
based on his belief that humans are naturally aware of God. He also asserts two fundamental
knowledges– God and self– and he elaborates upon the relationship between the two.7
How is it possible to know anything at all? Theologians and philosophers across the ages have
contemplated, debated, and wrote about this timeless question. There have been many proposed
theories, and many still exist while others have been modified, or totally abandoned. As Christians,
we like to use "God" as the answer for everything we do not understand, so one might respond,
"God allows us to know things." Okay, yes, in a sense, because He is absolutely sovereign, so
anything at all that ever occurs happens with his permission.8 While this simplistic answer may be
enough for the
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The Church Of Trinity Fellowship
The church I decided to study was St. Luke Presbyterian Church in Amarillo, Texas. I selected this
church because my best friend attends this church and I sought to go out of my norm and learn more
about my friend's religious background. I normally attend the non–denominational church of Trinity
Fellowship. I am considered to be a Conservative and my friend is a Liberal. Many Presbyterian
churches in Amarillo are liberal, but the majority of Presbyterian churches are known to be
conservative because of their beliefs. I assumed it would be interesting to visit this church due to the
fact it would help me to keep an open mind of how people worship and have different beliefs than I
do. St. Luke Presbyterian Church was a relaxed church. Presbyterian churches abide by the
sovereignty of God, the scriptures, and grace through faith. The Presbyterian Church members that
attended the service were dressed from casual pants to dresses and suits. The church setting was
considered to be a small, local church with roughly about 30 rows of pews. The choir included 15
women and a teenage boy. The members were very welcoming and seemed eager to get to know the
guests that were new that Sunday morning. The preacher was an older man, in about his late 60's or
early 70's. This was mainly a diverse family church with a few college students. At the beginning of
the sermon they had children's church, which is when they relate the word of God to the younger
kids so they can understand what the
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An Analysis Of John Donne's 'Holy Sonnet 2'
John Donne's 'Holy Sonnet 2' is primarily written in the traditional Petrarchan sonnet form. One way
in which Donne applies this traditional form is through the use of an octave, in which the narrator
establishes a problem that causes anxiety and personal turmoil. The octave is then followed by a
sestet, where the narrator attempts to organise and present a solution to the issue given in the octave,
or there is a change of tone in the narrator's voice. "Wisheth that still he might be imprisoned; / Yet
grace..." Although there is a change in tone with the narrative voice, Donne's use of punctuation and
enjambment between lines eight and nine suggests that Donne does not rigorously adhere to the
traditional Petrarchan form. As the poem becomes detached from this tradition and increases the
narrator's conflict and feeling of entrapment and suppression. This, in turn, might indicate that the
narrator has no solution for his "black soul" and reflects the narrator's anxiety and fear about not
being able to repent, or, at least, not being able to repent the way in which would correspond to the
narrator's personal religious beliefs. Anne Coles Kimberly argues that the "Calvinist doctrine held
that man is resistant to God (due to sin), but that God will draw his elect to him. Donne, however, is
not
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The Colonial Period Essay
The Colonial period is abundant in its source of influential people who help shape present society
through questioning past beliefs. Martin Luther leads the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin
expands on the idea of predestination. The Puritans live strictly by the word of the Bible, and the
Quakers inspire many people to join them in their friendly lifestyle. All of these people contribute to
our society today and brave the face of adversity. Martin Luther, born in 1483, comes from a poor
upbringing. Religious as a boy, Martin Luther earns his wages by singing hymns. He later enters the
Augustinian monastery and becomes a monk. However, he fails to acquire the solace from this
lifestyle as his fellow monks do (Project Gutenberg ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In today's society, people continue to start controversial ideas about how they think society should
operate. Madalyn Murray O'Hair is comparable to Martin Luther in that they both brought up a
subject that is very contentious. Madalyn Murray O'Hair brings atheism out during a time period
where most are strongly fixated in their religious beliefs. However, she gains many followers just as
Martin Luther does.
Although Martin Luther impacts history greatly, people must remember what role John Calvin has
to offer as well. Born in France in 1509, John Calvin is raised as a Roman Catholic by his family.
His family is so devoted to the Roman Catholic Church that his dad aspires for his son to become a
priest (John Calvin– Calvin College 1). John Calvin later reads Luther's works and converts to the
'faith of the Reformation.' He strongly believes that salvation is achieved through faith and
predestination (Cowie 44). In 1537, John Calvin publishes, Institutes of the Christian Religion. In
this book, John Calvin states his beliefs on Christianity. He proposes that God has been veiled by the
devotion of the people to the Virgin Mary and the saints. He also insists in his book that
predestination is how God determines who goes to hell and who goes to heaven. John Calvin writes,
"We call predestination, God's eternal degree, by which He determined that He willed to become of
each man.
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Similarities Between Calvinism And Calvinism
Moreover, Calvinism was highly ascetic. Whereas, Catholicism and Lutheranism maintained that
believers could essentially "work" for God's forgiveness through faith, good works, etc., Calvinism
stressed "systematic self–control necessary, in every moment" (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 127) and the
"intensification of good works into a system" (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 129). These qualities
suggested to Weber that Calvinism was the epitome of rationalism (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 130). In
the context of religion, rationalization refers to the process of systematically organizing one's life
according to a methodical approach, with an intense orientation towards discipline, and the absence
of "magic" or mystical elements (i.e., sacraments that can save the "damned") (Kalberg 2011a: p.
422). This characteristic is what distinguishes Lutheranism from Calvinism. As opposed to
Lutheranism, Weber ([1905] 2011) argues that "Calvinism forced [a] methodical organization of life
upon the believer" (p. 135). This is due to the fact that salvation could always be won back in
Lutheranism through penance. In contrast, Calvinism offered no means to acquire salvation, only
hints or signs which were based on "uninterrupted self–control" and the "planned regulation of one's
own life" (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 136). Lutheranism was also characterized by less asceticism due to
its teaching that salvation could be acquired. Therefore, Weber ([1905] 2011) also maintains that
"Lutheranism lacks the psychological
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John Calvinism Research Paper
Calvinism– Calvinism is a religious sect derived from Protestantism. Its creator, John Calvin (1509–
1564), was influenced by the humanist movement and Martin Luther to oppose the Catholic church
and develop a religion based on his own beliefs. The main doctrine of Calvinism is predestination,
which means that instead of earning salvation through worship, like the Catholic church preaches,
humans were predestined by God, before the creation of the Earth, to either salvation or damnation.
John Calvin published the belief system in 1536 in The Institutes of the Christian Religion; this
marked the beginnings of the faith. Calvin's reformation movement took off in the 1560's and was
centered in Geneva. It spread across Eastern and Central Europe ... Show more content on
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The plague spread to Europe with the migration of people and goods on ships. Little did they know
that the disease was carried onto the ships, and eventually onto the land, by the fleas that lived on
black rats that would stow–away in the vessels. The plague would continue to thrive in intervolves
until the 18th century when it disappeared. The estimated death toll in the 14th century was between
one–third to one–half of the entire population of Europe. The devastation from the Black Death was
heightened in times of agricultural hardships because the resulting famine would hinder a person's
ability to fight off the disease. Cities would issue mandatory quarantines, stricter sanitation laws,
and halt all travel. Many religious citizens believed that God was punishing them for their sins,
which led to the persecution of Jew's and public physical repentance in the form of brutal
whippings. Due to the drastic loss in population, birth rates increased, as well as provided
agricultural and economic opportunities that resulted in an overall increase in the standard of
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Compare And Contrast Calvinism And Arminianism
Arminianism and Calvinism both have five points. The first point in Arminianism is Freewill or
Human Ability. God enables all sinners to repent and believe, but at the same time, He does not
interfere with man's freedom. Calvinism's first point is Total Inability or Total Depravation. This
takes regeneration by which the Spirit makes the sinner alive and gives us a new nature. The second
point of Arminianism is Conditional Election, in which God chooses certain individuals to be saved
before the foundation of the world was based upon His foreseeing that they would respond to His
call. This is in contrast to Calvinism's Unconditional Election, in which God's choice of certain
individuals into salvation before the foundation of the world rested on His will. ... Show more
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In this point, Christ's redeeming work made it possible for everyone to be saved but did not actually
secure the salvation for them. Calvinism, on the other hand, believes that Christ's redeeming work
was intended to save the elect only and actually secured salvation for them. The Spirit calling
inwardly all those who are called outwardly by the gospel invitation illustrates Arminianism's fourth
point, The Holy Spirit Can Be Effectually Resisted. The Holy Spirit extending to the elect a special
inward call that inevitable brings those to salvation is Calvinism's fourth point, The Efficacious Call
of the Spirit or Irresistable Grace. The last point of Arminianism is Falling From Grace. According
to this point, those who believe and are truly saved can lose their salvation by failing to keep up
their faith. Calvinism's last point, Perseverance of the Faith, says that all who are chosen by God,
redeemed by Christ, and given faith by the Spirit are eternally saved. In summary, the Arminianism
theological system says that salvation is accomplished through the combined efforts of God and man
while the Calvinism system believes that salvation is accomplished through the power of God.
(Steele,
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Paul 's Epistles : An Theologian And Church History Scholar
People studying Paul 's epistles know that to understand them, they must first put them in their
proper context. We like to state that Paul's epistles were "occasional" writings. This simply means,
they were occasioned by their context. This can relate to the current situation that is also important
for understanding the perspective that Olson portrays in his book. Olson is an Arminian theologian
and church history scholar who is aware of the climate of evangelicalism. Olson has also become
aware of Calvinists who would like to see him removed from his position as professor and
theologian based on the fact that he is not a Calvinist. He identifies these Calvinists as those who
have been called the, "young, restless, and Reformed." And Olson ... Show more content on
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It seems as though Olson finds it difficult to believe, when he encounters this form of Calvinism, "to
see the difference between God and the devil" (23).
Olson is very aware that some Calvinists accuse non–Calvinists of rejecting their theology because
of "a latent humanistic love for free will" (23). But it is not humanism that leads Olson and other
non–Calvinist theologians to embrace free will, he does so because: (1) "it is necessary to preserve
human responsibility for sin and evil" and (2) "it is necessary to preserve God from being
responsible for sin and evil."
Olson operates with the criteria of theological truth defined by Wesley and this statement is "the
primary source and norm" (24). So Olson will argue in this book that high Calvinism: (1) "is not the
only or the best way of interpreting Scripture," (2) "stands in tension with the ancient faith of the
Christian church and much of the heritage of evangelical faith," and (3) "falls into contradictions"
(24–25).
If one has such a firm belief in a theology, then one should be able to teach it "standing in front of
the gates of Auschwitz" (25); however, Olson "could not stand at those gates and preach a version of
God's sovereignty that makes the extermination of six million Jews, including many children, a part
of the will and plan of God such that God foreordained and rendered it certain" (25).
The issue of
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Calvinism And Abaptism
The Reformation was a time of religious reform and development in Europe, which began with
Martin Luther in 1517 and continued through the next hundred years into the seventeenth century.
Various branches of Protestantism emerged during this time period, including Anabaptism,
Anglicanism, and Calvinism, all of which differed in their views and influence upon Reformed
Europe. Although Anabaptism, Anglicanism, and Calvinism all had an effect on Europe during the
Reformation, Calvinism proved to be the most dynamic of these three movements because of its
radical changes to the Christian doctrine which resulted the birth of the capitalist spirit, coupled with
the development of a society which maintained a balance of church and state. Calvinism ... Show
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German sociologist and historian Max Weber describes this spirit as "that attitude which seeks profit
rationally and systematically in the manner which we have illustrated by the example of Benjamin
Franklin [i.e. that time is money, credit is money, and money can beget money]" (Weber). Weber
goes on to describe the Calvinistic 'calling' as a cause of capitalistic spirit, which was essentially a
vocation which a Calvinist is called by God to do. The calling is connected to the gifts that God had
given each human being for the good of society. Weber also asserts that because of the Calvinist
belief in predestination, there was an uncertainty of purpose among Calvinists, as they felt deeply
troubled as to whether they would be saved or not and actively sought signs as to what God's plan
for them was. Eventually, these Calvinists sought God's approval based upon the commercial profit
and monetary gain that came as a result of their calling (Weber). It was the hard work which came as
a result of this that gave birth to capitalist spirit. Undoubtedly, Calvinistic economic theory had a
huge impact on modern forms of capitalism. The Anglican church, while having some effect on the
economy of England at the time, had no profound influence on economics outside of the immediate
time period. The only event worth noting is the dissolution of the Benedictine monasteries by Henry
VIII in 1536. He destroyed the monasteries in
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Calvinist Views Of Calvinism In 18th Century Religion In...
In the Eyes of a Neutral I have never been to church outside of Christmas, Easter, and my baptism.
Some would call me an avid Chreaster, while others could say I have not kept in touch with God
(like my Great Grandmother), and my methods need to change. Without a proper education in the
realm of religion, and in the form of Sunday school, I cannot say I am any sort of expert when it
comes to theology. After having read three different viewpoints of religion throughout the 1700s
from Fox, Nichols, and Prothero, I can easily say I have gained a huge understanding of conflicting
ideologies within 18th century religion. In the 18th century hymn, "Not to The Terrors of The Lord"
, Isaac Watts shows a clear Calvinistic view and devotion to Jesus. I will explain how this hymn is
clearly Calvinistic through the Calvinist viewpoint of the "Trinity", and their views on salvation and
judgment day. In Watts' poem, he repeatedly mentions God and Jesus, almost interchangeably. Not
only does the Calvinist view see 3three different beings when it comes to the Father, the Son, and
the Holy Spirit, but they see God himself in all 3 three, separately. In Watts' hymn, he states, "And
God, the Judge of all, declares Their vilest sins forgiv'n. The saints on earth and all the dead all join
in Christ their living head" , which is a clear reference to the obvious statement that Jesus is the
same being as God, though the father is the one who chooses the elect. We know that only the elect
share
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Ideas Of Calvinism
3. Discuss the chief ideas of Calvinism and show how they were similar to the ideas of Lutheranism.
How did they vary from Lutheranism? Why did Calvinism become the major international form of
Protestantism? The main ideas of Calvinism include total depravity, unconditional election, limited
atonement, irresistible grace, and perseverance to the saints (Barlow, n.d.). Total depravity says that
sinful nature is all throughout a person. It doesn't mean that it is an intentional thing but that is an
effect of human nature and original sin. It means no one is can be completely clean without God.
Another aspect of Calvinism is unconditional election which is based on that God chooses people to
save instead of based on good deeds, or he predetermines
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Am I An Arminian Persuasive Essay
There has been an age–old disagreement on the sovereignty and providential power of God. It has
always had two sides. The question to be asked is, "Am I a Calvinist or an Arminian?" Christians
understand that the Lord is divine and He has written everything that pertains to life in His word. To
deny a single word of the Lord is to deny one's own Father in heaven who crafted them in his image.
While, Calvinism brings serenity and peace in one's mind, it shouldn't be called Calvinism, but yet it
should be called scripture. Calvinism displays the beauty of God in salvation by accepting that God
is an omnipotent God. To deny Him is to worship a manmade God.
There are five primary points of Calvinism, Shortened to the acronym TULIP. The first point is T,
which is called total depravity. This point, in short, means that man in a whole sense wicked and are
completely depraved of good. Some Armenians hold the viewpoint that man can reach perfection
and can become completely good. However, their viewpoint is not backed up with the facts of
scripture. Scripture says, "For all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23).
This scripture proves that man is a God forsaken race, who has turned their face away from holiness.
If a person believes they can become perfect, one can look at John's words, "If we say that we ...
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Scripture says, "As it is written, I have loved Jacob, and hated Esau. What shall we say then? Is their
unrighteousness whit God? God forbid" (Romans 9:13–14). In this scripture, one can see that God is
the supreme judge over salvation because he is the one who grants salvations to the lost souls.
People like to think that God is just a God of love, This is contrary to the bible because in his word
one can see that God is a God of anger, wrath, judgment, and selfishness. God deserves all glory and
praise due to man still having breath in his creation, for he gave it to
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Baselism Vs Calvinism
I spent close to a year congregating on Twitter and being ignorant at the time of what their
"systematic theology" actually teaches, I initially followed many Reformed/Calvinist believers (lay
and professional) and many in turn followed me. I got along well with all of them until I started
questioning certain things I heard from them that contradicted God's Word. For example, after he
tweeted a quote by Calvin I asked one of them, "Where in the Bible can I find the so called "third
use of the Law" that Calvinism teaches?" He couldn't answer me because, as I pointed out to him,
it's simply not taught in the Bible. It's a man made doctrine. Eventually, he assumed and insinuated
and then fasley accused me, e.g, "we get you want to disagree with
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Calvinism
Over the past several months I have been studying the Reformed movement and the messengers that
represent that theology. This class and this assignment have only served to increase my study and
wonder why so many United Methodist preachers have told me that I shouldn't pay attention to that
person because they are a "Calvinist". Then comes this class that deals with that era specifically and
is helping with my questions on Calvinism and Methodism.
This assignment does not deal with that battle but with the battle between the Catholic Church and
the Reformed Church. The interesting part is how this battle and the positions taken by the
combatants reflect on the character of the United Methodist Church.
My opinion is that Calvin comes closer ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Who has the ultimate authority to determine doctrine and practice? Sadoleto held that the leaders
and the teachings of the Catholic church were the determining authority.
Calvin held that guidance should be from the Word of God and not from organizations or
institutions. Calvin's belief was that if the current church's practices do not agree with the gospel as
presented in the Bible then people are being led astray and it should be reformed.
Calvin points out that it has been the Catholic church who has been inventing new doctrines and not
the reformers. The reformers were determined to return to a dependence on the Word of God rather
than any dependence on the organization of the Church.
Hence my current search to find the sweet spot between the reformed church and the United
Methodist Church. Can I find that point at which the two converge and become a church that can
fulfill the needs of man and include a dependence on the Word.
While I continue to support and defend the doctrines of the United Methodist Church, I am also
concerned that we are losing our emphasis on the Bible. New issues continue to pose questions
about what our position should be on certain social issues. My own feeling is that we may have lost
our
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Compatibilism Vs Calvinism
Third, the two–will concept is not explicit in Scripture; whereas, as cited by Piper, the express will
for "all persons to be saved" is (1 Timothy 2:4; see also 1 Timothy 4:10; Titus 2:11; 2 Peter 3:9;
Ezekiel 18:23, 32; 33:11). Both terms thél? (1 Timothy 2:4) and boúlomai (2 Peter 3:9) are used
regarding God's express desire, will, for all to be saved. Additionally, Calvinism's reliance upon
various distinctions that may matter in Extensivist soteriological approaches are distinctions without
a difference in light of Calvinism commitment to compatibilism.
This is because compatibilism means that God's will (what will happen) is precisely what He desires
to happen, and there is not the slightest degree of deterministic difference between ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
Surely the Calvinists' endeavor to defend the two wills of God makes their claim of sola scriptura
seem a frail stalwart for defending the sufficiency of Scripture against foes who employ the same
tactics; an ineffectualness born and sustained by their own forays into the academy of secrecy to
bolster their theology when it conflicts with explicit revelation.
David Engelsma, a strong Calvinist, says of this position and the Calvinists who retreat to mystery
"that God is gracious only to some in predestination, but gracious to all in the gospel, and that God
wills only some to be saved in predestination but wills all to be saved by the gospel, is flat,
irreconcilable contradiction. It is not paradox, but contradiction. I speak reverently: God Himself
cannot reconcile these
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The Second Great Awakening Essay
In the 1830's, 1840's, and beyond, There is a Second Great Awakening. The Second Great
Awakening had a decided impact on American society. In the following I will describe what the
Great Awakening was and how it changed life in America.
In essence, the Great Awakening was a religious awakening. It started in the South. Tent camps were
set up that revolve around high spirited meetings that would last for days. These camp meetings
were highly emotional and multitudes of people were filled with the Spirit of God. These meeting,
were sponsored mainly by Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterians, and met social needs as well as
spiritual needs on the frontier. Since it was hard for the Baptist and Methodist to sustain local
churches, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This reform was an attempt to defend Calvinism, (predestination) views against the new liberal
ideas created by the Enlightens views. .Threatened by the spread of Unitarian ideas, a younger
generation attempted to reshape New England Puritanism.
The first great practitioner of the new evangelical Calvinism was Lyman Beecher. Beecher led
thousands to accept their sinfulness and surrender to God.
Beecher had to confront the new and more radical revivalism in Western New York which was led
by Charles G. Finney. Finney challenged the Calvinist doctrines. He appealed to emotion instead of
reason. Finney wanted people to feel the power of Jesus. He had adopted an extreme view that said
Christians could be totally free of sin or be as perfect as their Father in Heaven. During Finney's
revivals, it was not uncommon for people to fall to the floor in fits of excitement. Finney left behind
him strong and active churches. Eastern opposition gradually weakened.
During The Second Awakening new religious views were popping up everywhere. The Unitarians
believed that the all–powerful, mysterious God was actually a Deity who was the benevolent master
architect of a rational universe. Mormonism also began. Mormonism, also known as the latter Day
Saints, believed that Christ would appear in the New World and that the children of Levi were
present in the New World.
With these new religious ideas
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Max Weber's Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism
Max Weber's the protestant ethic and the "spirit" of capitalism is one of the most debated and
discussed pieces of sociological work, both in the years following its publication and in
contemporary sociology classrooms and academia. The main focus of the work surrounds how a
change in religion in certain areas during the protestant reformation created the "spirit" of capitalism
which then took on a life of its own. A summary of the protestant ethic and the "spirit" of capitalism
will be included later in this essay as it is important to detail what Weber was intending when he
published this work. There are misconceptions about Weber's work which Weber attempted to limit
during the essay with his attempts to clarify his statement and in ... Show more content on
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(Weber, 1905, 1–8)
Weber uses a piece of writing by Benjamin Franklin which discusses how people should act towards
credit, money, debt in an attempt to show that Franklin was suggesting that people should be
attempting to gain wealth as a personal duty. Weber continues by clarifying that capitalism did not
originate from the Protestant Reformation and that capitalism has been viewed in societies ranging
from India, Asia and the Middle East but they lacked what Weber called the "spirit" of capitalism
shown in the time frame which he was looking at. Weber defines and discusses the change in
economic systems from economic traditionalism to capitalism. Weber thought that religion was not
the driving force in the rise of capitalism but had a greater impact in bringing about the change from
economic traditionalism to capitalism. Weber also discusses one of the unintended consequences of
the reformation which was the rise in rationalization in society brought about by the change in
dominate religion.
(Weber, 1905, 8–28)
The idea of a "calling" within Lutherism is discussed as it furthers Weber's ideas about how the
reformation brought about a new attitude towards work and play. The "calling" within Lutherism
revolves around peoples work and business and how that relates to their religious beliefs. Weber
does however say that Lutherism was not as important to his argument as Calvinism.
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Total Depravity In Arminianism
What is Calvinism? What is Arminianism? Calvinism is a theological system that was created and
taught by the 1500's French Theologian John Calvin (Steele pg15). Arminianism was founded by
late 1500's Dutch theologian by the name of Jacob Arminius (Forlines pg8). Calvinism, surprisingly
like Arminianism, is based upon five points with a heavy respect for Scripture. Calvinism to start out
believes in total depravity. Total depravity is the belief that man is tainted by sin and because of this
cannot come to God on his or her own. This is that man has so much sin around us and in us that we
are u able to come to God with out his help. Arminianism is a little different with the belief of partial
depravity. Partial depravity is the belief that man is tainted by sin but can come to God on his or her
own. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Unconditional Election is the process that God elects certain individuals to salvation based on his
will. Conditional election, which is what Arminianism believes in, is fact that God elects those for
salvation based on his foreknowledge of will accept it from him. Calvinism believes in limited
atonement, which is that Jesus only died for the elect few. Arminianism believes in unlimited
atonement that Jesus died for everyone. This point is one of the biggest that Calvinism and
Arminianism debate over when it comes to theology. Next is irresistible grace, which is what
Calvinism belief that when God calls someone to salvation that they cannot resist that call.
Arminianism believes though resisting is possible, that we are able to resist the grace of God.
Finally the perseverance of the saints, which that Calvinism believe, that who is elected will
preserver and not turn from God, where Arminianism believe there is conditional salvation that one
can turn from God. These are the biggest points in which Calvinism and Arminianism are
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John Calvin Essay
At an early age, John Calvin found his calling to God to the chagrin of his father, who wanted him
to be a lawyer. This calling to God helped Calvin bring about changes to the church. Even though
Calvin traveled to some isolated spots in Europe preaching his sermons, the changes occurred all
throughout Europe and then into the Americas. All these changes began humbly in France in the
early 1500's. According to Lord, John Cauvin or Calvin as we know him, was born July 10th, 1509
in Noyon, which is in the Picardy region of France (a cathedral city), and died in 1564 in Geneva,
Switzerland. He was born to a notary, Gerard Cauvin and his wife Jeanne Le Franc, Calvin was one
of five sons. His mother died when he was young and when his ... Show more content on
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In 1533, Calvin went back to France where there was a great deal of commotion going on. All of
these new ideas were now reaching scholars, the courts and other circles of people. In 1534, as
French parishioners were coming out of church, they had found a large piece of paper from
Switzerland posted on the church door condemning the mass. This led to the royal repression, where
the French government went around arresting or killing as many French protestants as they could
(Hunt, Martin, Rosenwein, Hsia & Smith, 2009). Calvin was forced to take refuge with some other
reformers at a castle in Pau with Queen Marguerite of Navarre (King Francis I's sister: she was a
noble name in church history). After living this fugitive life style for a while he decided to flee to
Switzerland, where at twenty six he published the writings of his catechism, Institutes for the
Christian Religion. He published these works with a bold preface addressed to King Francis I to
help convince him that protestants were of no threat to his rule, but that did not work (Lord). The
Institutes for the Christian Religion consists of four books. Book one is the knowledge of God, the
creator; book two is the knowledge of God the redeemer, in Christ, as manifested to the fathers;
book three is the the mode of obtaining the grace of Christ and book four is the external means to
which God allures us into the fellowship of Christ and keeps us in it (Smith, 2003). According to
Boettner
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Lutheranism And Calvinism
These are the reasons I believe Lutheranism is better than Calvinism and why you should leave the
Catholic Church and come and join Lutheranism. Firstly, Lutheranism is a major branch of
Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther. Martin Luther (1483–
1546) was a German monk, reformer, and theologian. Calvinism is the religious doctrines of John
Calvin. Calvin stressed that people are saved through God's grace, not through their own merits. The
most famous of Calvin's ideas is his doctrine of predestination. John Calvin (509–1564) was a
French theologian and reformer in Switzerland. He was also a leader in the Protestant Reformation.
As you can already see, Martin Luther had more experience as a religious ... Show more content on
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Calvinism, on the other hand, being a more traditional form of Protestantism, completely rejects the
authority of the interpreters of God's teachings, starting with the Pope's. Lutheranism teaches that
the body and blood of Jesus Christ is actually present in the actual bread and wine. That is, when
celebrating the Sacrament of the Eucharist, one can be exposed to Jesus Christ physically by eating
bread and drinking wine. Calvinism, on the other hand, teaches that the presence of the body and the
blood has been only spiritual. Calvinism teaches the absolute supremacy of God. The concept of
supremacy is of utmost importance. God accomplishes all things he has chosen to accomplish and
never fails. This leaves very little for a man, since God knows better. For Lutherans, on the other
hand, a concept of supremacy is not very important. Martin Luther and his followers saw the main
point of theology was in Jesus Christ being given to humanity in the form of Words and the
Sacraments. Predestination is a theological concept that views all the events in the Universe as
having been foreseen by God. Calvinism and Lutheranism Have different views on predestination.
For Calvinism, predestination is of big importance. They state that men can do nothing to change the
order of things as it was envisioned by God. The Calvinists' view on predestination is the subject of
many theological arguments and controversies. For Lutherans
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Arminianism and Calvinism
Everyday people argue who is and isn't right, but in all honesty whose to know? A big topic of
argument is religion. Now one would think that in something so pure it would be hard to twist things
but mankind has found it rather easy. Especially in The Bible, there are so many questions that are
unanswered. God did not do this on accident but there has been a lot for man to make the decisions.
Two topics that are frequently debated are Arminianism and Calvinism. As it has already been stated
no one can have a 100% correct answer to each topics 5 main points but that doesn't mean man
should just avoid them, people should dig deeper and discover for themselves what is right in their
hearts. Calvinism has five main topics (as well as Arminianism). Calvinism uses T.U.L.I.P; total
depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, and perseverance of the saints. To speak on
just one of these topics is difficult due to the fact that they all relate with each other. Perseverance of
the saints is also known as once saved always saved. It states that once man has been elected by God
through unconditional election and then gets saved by the drawing of irritable grace that man is now
saved and has salvation forever. If a man is to fall away from God it was if he was never saved to
begin with. Think of a friend, you might do something that isn't agreeable by said friend's standards
and that friend might not talk to you for a while but that doesn't mean that you are not friends
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John Calvin Contribution
John Calvin was born in Noyon, France in 1509 to Jeanne Le France and Gérard Calvin.
His father was the secretary to the Bishop of Noyon, which allowed John the privilege to attend
universities later in life. His mother was known for being a beautiful religious woman, who died
about four years after John was born. He had an older brother named Charles and a younger one
named Antoine. His father, a religious man himself, brought up all three children in the church. His
father decided to remarry after his wife's death and made John live with the Montmors, a powerful
family that lived in their neighborhood. Calvin pursued studying theology, Latin, and philosophy.
He used this knowledge to train to become a priest. In the end, he studied law at the Universities of
Orleans and Bourges to become a lawyer. His career path was altered to pursue law, because his
father was paying for his education. Calvin grew up Roman Catholic, but became a Protestant
around 1534. He escaped to France the same year due to the prosecution of Protestants who were
being persecuted for not following the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. According to the
Oxford Dictionary, a protestant is "a member or follower of any of the Western Christian Churches
that are separate from the Roman Catholic Church in accordance with the principles of the
Reformation, including the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Lutheran Churches." Calvin's major
contribution to the Protestant Reformation was his writing of The
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Using material from Item A and elsewhere assess the...
Religion can be powerful under the right certain circumstances for social change. However it can be
argued that religion can be a conservative force.
Weber argues that religious beliefs contributed to major social change– specifically the emergence
of modern capitalism in Northern Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. Modern capitalism differs
from capitalism as it is based on systematic, efficient and a rational pursuit of profit and profit for its
own sake rather than consumption. Weber calls this the spirit of capitalism.
Calvinism is a form of protestant that was formed during the reformation. Weber argues that it is the
Calvinist's beliefs that helped bring about social change and modern capitalism. For example one of
Calvinists ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Calvinism thus brought capitalism into the world. Weber claims that religion does contribute to
social change and uses Calvinism as an example.
In contrast Marx puts forward an argument that economic and material factors were the driving
force of change, not religion. Kautsky, who is a Marxist, argues that Weber underestimates
economic factors in bringing capitalism into being. He argues that in fact capitalism preceded rather
than followed Calvinism. Similarly Tawney sees that technological change, not religious ideas,
caused the birth of capitalism. It was only after capitalism that the bourgeoisie adopted Calvinist
beliefs to legitimate their pursuit of economic gain.
Furthermore Weber clearly points out that he doesn't argue Calvinism were the cause of modern
capitalism, but was one of its causes. A number of material and economic factors were necessary,
such as natural resources, a money economy and a system of law. Weber also notes that other
societies with higher level of economic development than Northern Europe had in the 16th and 17th
century yet still failed to develop modern capitalism. For example China and India were materially
more advanced than Europe but it didn't take off, he argues that this is due to the lack of religious
belief systems, such as Calvinism, that would of meant development occurred.
Critics argue that capitalism did not develop in every country where
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Economic Traditionalism As The Antithesis Of Economic...
Economic traditionalism is essentially the antithesis of modern capitalism. Within this framework,
work was viewed as a "necessary evil" (Kalberg 2011a: p. 418). It was simply the means through
which people acquire the economic needs necessary for survival. Therefore, work and money did
not take precedence over one's family, community, and leisure. The tasks themselves were based on
custom and tradition, and were independent of the individual himself. That is, work did not
constitute one's self–identity. Luther was an extreme proponent of this ideology. He was suspicious
of wealth and asserted that money should only be enough to live a life of integrity. Weber ([1905]
2011) describes Luther's reservation:
Luther was convinced that people of every status can become saved...Therefore, the striving for
material gain that goes beyond one's own needs, Luther argues, must be a symptom of one's lack of
grace. Indeed, because striving for gain appears to be possible only at the expense of others, this
pursuit must be viewed as an unequivocal abomination. (P. 103)
Thus, Luther was critical of those who utilized work to feed their avarice. Instead, asceticism was
highly valued; as people were advised to renounce gluttony and avoid succumbing to their physical
and sensual pleasures. Luther was also wary of those who attempted to venture outside of their
calling. This was viewed as tinkering with God's will and undermining His plan for the individual's
salvation. Therefore, "the
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Comparing Calvinism And Arminianism And Two Systems Of...
There is no debate in the Christian community that over 2000 years ago, Jesus Christ died on the
cross. However, the question raised by many is just "who" did he die for? Whose sins did he atone?
Did he die for all of us or only the elect? Many Christians have openly debated about just how one is
saved for centuries, but not everyone sees eye–to–eye on the matter. Both Calvinism and
Arminianism, two systems of theology, "attempt to explain the relationship between God's
sovereignty and man's responsibility in the matter of salvation" (Calvinism vs. Arminianism). Just
what is Calvinism and Arminianism? Which group of thoughts is right? Where did they come from?
Before being able to answer that question, one must understand each ... Show more content on
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He was born in Oudewater, Holland in 1560, the same year "John Calvin was busy establishing the
Genevan Academy to propagate his ideas of predestination" (Jacob Arminius, Christian History). In
1575 Arminius started attending the University of Leyden. While there, the municipal authorities of
Amsterdam agreed to pay all of Arminius's academic expenses in return for his pledge to spend the
remainder of his life serving the Amsterdam church (Christian History Institute). A year after he
began his public ministry in 1588, the ecclesiastical senate of Amsterdam asked Arminius to respond
to the teachings of Dutch poet, translator, playwright, and moralist Dirk Coornhert.
Coornhert rejected much of Calvin's doctrine of predestination, justification, and punishment of
heretics by death (Christian History Institute). "Weighing the arguments, Arminius thought
Coornhert right, but would not commit himself until he had made a diligent study of the scriptures,
the early church fathers, and later divines" (Christian History Institute). Arminius later became
firmly against Calvinism after thoroughly studying the Epistle to the Romans. He found that "it is an
eternal and gracious decree of God in Christ, by which he determines to justify and adopt believers,
and to endow them with eternal life but to condemn unbelievers, and impenitent persons" (Galli 42).
A year after Arminius's death in 1609, Arminius's followers came to be known as the
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Comparison Of Calvinism And Meritocracy
Meritocracy: an ideal system in which personal effort–or merit–determines social standing
Calvinism: The religious doctrines of John Calvin. Calvin stressed that people are saved through
God's grace, not through their own merits. The most famous of Calvin's ideas is his doctrine of
predestination.
Meritocracy and Calvinism are very different. Counties that following the Meritocracy style of
living are better off and more advanced than those who believe in Calvinism. Calvinism is about
God grace and effort in the next life, while Meritocracy strongly supports putting effort and working
towards wealth and materialist good in this life.
2. Classism: prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class. It includes individual attitudes,
behaviors, systems of policies, and practices that are set up to benefit the upper class at the expense
of the lower class.
The class that benefits the most from this is the high class (rich), and the high end middle class.
3. Welfare reform : movement to change the federal government's social welfare policy by shifting
some of the responsibility to the states and cutting benefits.
The advantages of welfare reform is a greater level of equality amongst citizens, happier people and
... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It can be hard to help each other because sometimes we don't want to lose the luxury of our current
life. We don't see how someone could need the help, and believe that they brought it upon
themselves. We also could believe" why should i give XXX dollars for this when i could use it for
the ________ that i have always wanted and saved up for. I'm sure someone else will do it." Also
other times we tell ourselves: "well i got here all by myself without help, so why should i help
them?" Or even if there is no public merit for us find it hard to do things for others because we are
greedy and selfish. A lot of time people will put themselves before all, and will never give an ichi
unless there something in it for
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Calvinism: A Look Into Domestic Life in Catherine...
Catharine Sedgwick's novel, A New–England Tale, tells the story of an orphan, Jane Elton, who
"fights to preserve her honesty and her dignity in a household where religion is much talked about
but little practiced" (Back Cover). The story take place in the 1820s, a time when many children
were suffering in silence due to the fact that there was really no way to get people to understand
exactly how bad things were for them. The only way anyone could ever really get a true
understanding of the lives of the children in these households would be by knowing what took place
in their homes. Outside of the home these women seemed perfectly normal and there was not reason
to suspect any crookedness. The author herself was raised by a woman of ... Show more content on
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Upon arrival to her aunts she is quickly confronted about the items and her aunt is dissatisfied with
her disobedience. "I did not understand your note, Ma'am, to contain positive order; and Mary and I
did not think it was quite right to take the things. Right! pretty judges of right to be sure. She a hired
girl, and a Methodist into the bargain" (37). Jane makes the claim that she and Mary did not "think"
it was right and purposefully leaves out the face that they had a brief discussion about what she
should do before she made her decision. She also emphasizes that she failed to "contain positive
order" thus hinting to her aunt that she understood what she asked of her but knew it was wrong and
thus, she did not carry out her wishes. Here Mrs. Wilson decides to mock Mary Hull's occupation, as
well as religion, in an effort to show her inferiority. She makes it know that Mary Hull is a
Methodist woman and basically shows no respect towards her or her religion of choice. Earlier in
the text she speaks about how she believes that Mary's religion had conveyed a reproach to take of
her own and for this reason she was not very fond of her. The rules that Mrs. Wilson conveys to Jane
in the earlier days of her stay are very repressive and extreme. She states "Now as to what I expect
from you:– in the first place, my word must be your law; you must not hesitate to do any
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Examples Of Calvinism In The Devil And Tom Walker
"The Devil and Tom Walker" (1824) by Washington Irving is a faustian tale about a man named
Tom Walker who develops a relationship and strikes a life altering deal with the devil. The short
story takes place in the time period of 1727 near Boston, Massachusetts when Puritans were very
prevalent and the ideas of Calvinism were contemplated by many. A main aspect of Calvinism
Washington Irving disagrees with is called predestination. This belief is when one does not have
control of their afterlife because it is already chosen by God. I'll be exploring Calvinist and Puritan
beliefs along with the concept of the faustian deal to show why Irving had Tom Walker agree to such
a lopsided pact with the devil. To further understand Tom Walker's personality and how it
contradicted Calvinism, I will also be exploring what was the perception of death for Bostonian
Puritans around 1727? Understanding the Puritan perception of death is central to understanding
why Tom easily sold his soul to the devil. Through the encounter with the devil at the Native
American stronghold, Tom's wife dying and the faustian deal, Washington Irving shows he is against
the Calvinist belief of predestination brought to the Massachusetts Bay colonies. The nature of the
Native American stronghold and remarks said here by the devil are interesting examples of how
Washington Irving shows he is against the concept of predestination. Predestination is both
introduced for the first time in the short story and is
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Max Weber Theory Of Capitalism
Capitalism has captivated many of the greatest sociologists, philosophers and economists. It is
perhaps the most dominate and influential economic system that has ever existed. Its extensive reach
has affected the lives of nearly all people in world today, whether they live in a capitalist country or
not, global capitalism has become an unstoppable force of production and trade. It seems natural for
many people. The ideals and principles of capitalism are taught in everyday life and the goal of
earning large sums of money reinvesting it and earning more and more feels not only normal but
unquestionably right. People are taught certain values that reinforce a capitalist view; work hard to
accumulate as much money as possible, be a good person in order to make money, and people with
money are generally good people. These lessons may seem intrinsic, but according to Max Weber
this code of ethics was not born from capitalism, rather it was adopted from the Protestant religion,
specifically Calvinism. Weber explains that the ethics of modern capitalism began in the Calvinist
religious tradition, and were in a way retrofitted to fit capitalism, propelling it into its current
dominance. A focus for Weber in showing how the Protestant ethic and especially Calvinist ethics
were precursors to capitalist principles was on rationality. Weber claimed that the West had a
fixation on rational systems. Not only with economics but also science. He claimed that this
rationality was unique
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Calvinism : John Calvin And The Protestant Reformation
Born just a few years before the beginnings of the Protestant reformation, John Calvin is a widely
acknowledged theologian from the sixteenth century who created the idea of Calvinism. With the
principle of humanism, scholarship and the Renaissance, he expanded his knowledge through years
of studying Greek culture and used his resources to outline the fundamentals of Protestant faith. He
used Calvinism to challenge people to live a life being a "good Christian" and constantly expressed
his views on church and state. Jeheun Calvin was born on July 10, 1509 to two middle class parents
named Gerard and Jeanne Calvin in French territory. His father, Gerard, was an extremely
influential lawyer and was a financial administrator for the Roman Catholic bishop of Noyon. This
made him a member of the professional class and an important figure in society. Gerard longed for
his son to follow in his footsteps and often heavily implemented his religious ideologies throughout
John's childhood. Calvin entered the University of Paris, the leading educational institution at the
time, to study theology for priesthood although it was far from his own interests. At the University,
he was exposed to studies about humanism, scholarship and Renaissance which were extremely
prevalent topics at the time. Although he graduated with a masters degree and was an impeccable
student, Calvin found an extreme interest in the study of religion and how it impacted society, but
was forced to study otherwise
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Lake 's Assertion Of Religious Conflict
Lake's assertion that religious conflict in early Stuart England was the result of a pursuit of
traditional conformity by the Puritans holds true to a large extent. In the earlier half of the 17th
Century, the Puritans have consistently sought for reforms to make changes to the English Church,
with an unfaltering insistence of removing any perceived popish practices to create church in the
model of a more traditional Calvinism. He should not, however, go as far as to proclaim that there
was no 'rise of Arminianism' as there was indeed an ostensible influx of Arminianism during the
reign of Charles I. Arminianism did burgeoned steadily, especially under the quasi–Catholic policies
of Charles I and innovations that William Laud brought to the Church. However, with or without the
antagonistic ideological differences of Arminianism and Calvinism, there was always the constant
seeking of reforms by the Puritans, to move as far away from Catholicism as possible. The
introduction of Arminianism merely 'created a politically assertive Puritanism '. The fear that
Arminian practices would force the English Church towards a more Catholic–liked system invoked
fear amongst the Puritans resulting in a 'call for more sweeping changes'. The Puritans wanted
change before any major form of Arminianism took shape and with the latter's increasing influence
from the 1620s, puritans simply became more aggressive in seeking reforms. The accession of
James I in 1603 saw the Millenary
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Predestination And Its Impact On The Theological Landscape
Predestination Any study on predestination as it pertains to salvation would be incomplete without
the mention of John Calvin. Calvin was born in 1509 and died in 1564. He is well known for his
book titled Institutes of the Christian Religion, in which he explained his views on the church and
other subjects like the sacraments, justification, Christian liberty and the sovereignty of God.
Norman Geisler of the Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics described him as, "a pioneer
Protestant exegete of the Bible." Nevertheless, his theories on predestination, foreordination, and
election have had a tremendous influence on the study of theology and helped to shape the
theological landscape during his time as well as the current theological landscape. His influence is
so predominate regarding the predestination doctrine that it is often also referred to as Calvinism.
Some scholars would even point to the doctrine's origins as being developed by Calvin. Calvinism's
main focus is on God's sovereignty, but a portion of Calvinism directly addresses predestination,
election, and foreordination. To get a better understanding of the Calvinists interpretation of
predestination, as well as what is commonly the general consensus for those espousing the
predestination doctrine, one need go no farther than John Calvin himself,
We call predestination God's eternal decree, by which he compacted with himself what he willed to
become of each man. For all are not created in equal condition,
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Five Points Of Calvinism
Calvinism is the arrangement of Christian religious philosophy grew by John Calvin as a different
option for the Catholic Church's convention. Calvinism can be a deceptive term in light of the fact
that the religious custom it indicates is and has dependably been different, with an extensive variety
of impacts instead of a solitary organizer. The development was initially called Calvinism by
Lutherans who restricted it, and numerous inside the custom would want to utilize the word
changed. While the Reformed religious custom addresses the greater part of the conventional
subjects of Christian philosophy, the word Calvinism is now and again used to allude to specific
Calvinist sees on fate, which are condensed partially by the five purposes of Calvinism. Some have
... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The "Five Points of Calvinism" were not formulated by Calvin, but rather by the Synod of Dort in
1618–1619, which was a gathering of many great leaders and teachers of the reformed churches
throughout Europe"(TrueCovenanter). Total Depravity is humanity's naturally evil and at war with
God because of our corrupt nature. Unconditional Election is that God is the Father has given a
select gathering of heathens to Christ to be His Bride, Body & Church. God's decision of these
individuals was not on account of they were any less meriting Hell than any other individual,
however just by beauty. Limited Atonement is the death of Christ's, while having vast esteem and
having the capacity to save anybody, and was just expected to be effective for the individuals who
are chosen by the Father. Irresistible Grace is that God is sovereign in attracting sinners to Himself.
The individuals who are chosen, and for whom Christ died, will be spared by the beauty of God and
not one of them will die. Persistence or Preservation of the Saints. Specifically, salvation is
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Protestant Reformation, Religious Unity, and Calvinism...
Introduction
The Protestant Reformation of the Catholic Church devastated the religious unity of Christian
Europe, resulting in a great deal of antagonism, which in turn led to the persecutions, denial of civil
rights, expulsion, and ultimately the torture and death of many men, women and children. The
ongoing conflict was not consigned to one distinct European nation, but was experienced in every
European nation that the Catholic Church ruled and reigned. There was no worldview in Europe at
that time that allowed for the religious differences of men to coexist peaceably.
As quoted by McGrath in his book, French Protestantism to the Present Day. From Britain in the
west to Hungary and Poland in the east, thousands of towns and ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
In October of 1534, the Affair of the Placard occurred, what made this event of great importance,
was that it was a planned, written Protestant attack on the Catholic doctrine of Mass. These posters,
which condemned the practice of Mass, also appeared just about simultaneously in several major
cities of France overnight to include Paris, where Calvin lived. Francis I, retaliated harshly and
swiftly possibly, because of the recent treaty that he had signed with Spain to end the Thirty Year
War. Francis, possible to ensure his loyalty toward the Pope and the treaty arrested and executed the
Protestants whom were responsible. Calvin like many other fearing for their safety left France,
Calvin choosing to escape to Switzerland.
Reforming Christianity
When Calvin arrived in Geneva, William Farel saw in Calvin the leader that Geneva needed "and he
urged the young scholar to go no farther but to stay in the city and help establish the work there"
(Shelley, 2008, 256) . Calvin's patronage from Geneva helped with the growth and development of
the French Protestant movement in the 1550s. Calvin trained French Protestant pastors at the
Geneva Academy, and helped to smuggle them back into France to establish and develop local
congregations. It was also during this time he wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, in 1536, that
put into words the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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The Importance Of Omniscience In The Holy Spirit

  • 1. The Importance Of Omniscience In The Holy Spirit It is crucial that Christians not only put trust in God and the Son but that Christians also entrust themselves in the Holy Spirit, considering he is fully divine and personal. "The Spirit of God, who raised Jesus from the dead, lives in you. And just as God raised Christ Jesus from the dead, he will give life to your mortal bodies by this same Spirit living within you." (Romans 8:11) Paul is declaring that through the spirit God will give believers new life, in which humans are transformed into the likeness of Christ "Making the debate over foreknowledge is one of the liveliest debates within evangelicalism today." (Boyd, Eddy 49) According to The Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms Foreknowledge is defined as "To know in advance". Regarding foreknowledge, "Arminian and Calvinists disagree on how God acquires his knowledge. Calvinists believe that God foreknows all that shall come to pass because he predestined it. Others, called Arminians, believe God foreknows all things simply because they shall come to pass, though humans to some extent determine it by their free will." (Boyd, Eddy 48) All orthodox Christians believe it is true that God is omniscient. The question is if God knows every detail of the future or only enough where people are still free in their decisions. It could be that God has some details of the future, but one decides definite details by their own free will. Geneses 17:5 reads, "No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Comparing Calvinism And Arminius Viewpoints And Touch On... Throughout history people have questioned election. The question is whether people are predestined to be called to heaven and can not reject the Holy Spirit's calling such as a John Calvin. Or do we have the free will to accept or deny the Holy Spirit's calling into our lives such as James Arminius believed. Or is it something else just as Karl Barth or Augustine believed in. But for the purpose of this paper we will look at Calvinism and Arminius viewpoints and touch on the view points of other theologians throughout history to come up with an accurate conclusion of which of the two main theological ideas is most likely the case of election. Election has always been a sensitive subject many in Christian circles. Most Christians lean ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the old and new testament he Understanding of election in terms of salvation was not clearly stated but there are scriptures in the Old Testament that you can see where election was in place. The Old Testament election mainly involved the nation of Israel. And when he chose the nation of Israel it almost seemed in a way that God chose the nation because he could. In Genesis God chose Abram later named Abraham to become a mighty nation from his seed and be a blessing to all nations (Genesis 18). And through that seed of Abraham in Deuteronomy chose Israel nation even though they where hard hearted often (Deut 9:6). But there are other examples outside the nation of Israel. Most notably Cyrus, Cyrus was chosen to rebuild the temple. God even revealed Himself to Cyrus but there is no evidence to suggest that Cyrus was in fact regenerated So it seems that the Old Testament does not support the concept that personal salvation is a result of individual election. In the New Testament there are verses on election and both sides to support their case. For example in Romans 8 it seems like that predestination is conformed when it mentions that we as believers would be predestined to be in Jesus image. In Ephesians 1 it states that we where predestined to be adopted. But in John 3 it seems that everyone is called to God. And in Ephesians 2 God gives us the gift of salvation. I think that what ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Differences Between Calvinism And Arminianism The purpose of this paper is to compare two theological positions, namely Calvinism and Arminianism. These are two positions on either side of the extreme concerning free will and predestination. There are those who believe that we have the free will to love and obey God or deny God, and there are those who believe that God, in his sovereignty, has predetermined who will be saved or who will not be saved and neither group is willing to budge. Both sides claim to have the support of Scripture, and both have specific verses that are twisted and manipulated to show support and reasoning. The problem is that both sides appear, on some levels at least, to be right. The question that can be answered from a comparison of these two views is this: What are the basic differences between Calvinism and Arminianism, as well as, their relation to theology, biblical evidence and worldviews? This research paper covers the five key points or articles of Calvinism and Arminianism, as well as, the history, view of God and biblical evidence or support for each position. History The history of Calvinism and Arminianism dates back to the 16th century, where a man named John Calvin was born in 1509. John Calvin was a son of a lawyer and born in Noyon, France where he developed a love for theology and literature. In 1523 he went to the University of Paris where he studied theology, yet in 1528 he went to Orleans and a year later Bourges to study law. With Calvin's father being a lawyer, he was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Calvinism And Religion Summary Abraham Kuyper goes on to continue making his point about how Calvinism is a life system through his second lecture titled "Calvinism and Religion." Even the title alone strongly makes this point in the way that it implies that Calvinism and religion are not synonymous. It almost feels like Kuyper is pushing this chapter's main idea that Calvinism holds a dominant and impressive position in the domain of religion by using dramatic language that insinuates the bragging that Calvinism is better than everything else. For example, on page 42, Kuyper says, "...look at the giant spirit of Calvin, who, in the sixteenth century, with one master–stroke, placed before the gaze of the astonished word an entire religious edifice, erected in the purest Scriptural style." It is clear that Kuyper is trying very hard to defend Calvinism against the vile enemies of Rationalism, Materialism, mysticism, and modernism. However, I do like the sentence after the prior criticized quote, which gracefully justifies the vulnerabilities of Calvinism by saying, "So rapidly was the whole building completed that most of the spectators forgot to pay attention to the wonderful structure of its foundations." Kuyper then sets off to outline these structures of Calvinism's religious foundations with three answers to the question of what was the secret to Calvinism's religious energy. The first of his three answers involves exploring the concept of "Religion as such," using an abundance of italicizing. This ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. What Influence Did John Calvin Have On Church History "WHAT INFLUENCE DID JOHN CALVIN HAVE ON CHURCH HISTORY" John Calvin was born at Noyon, France, on 10 July 1509, the son of a notary. He went to the University of Paris in 1523 (it was not unusual to attend university at so young an age), where he learned Latin from the humanist Mathurin Cordier. He developed a strong love of languages and earned his Master of Arts in 1528 in theology. Then, in 1532, Calvin experienced a spiritual conversion. It was typical of Calvin that he gives us virtually no details of this crucial moment in his life. In contrast with Luther, who is extensively autobiographical, Calvin wrote merely that he had experienced a "sudden conversion," and we must be satisfied with that ("The Reformation: Calvin." The Reformation: Calvin. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2015.). John Calvin is not at the last–place level on an equivalence with Martin Luther as the inventor of the Reformation. Actually, Luther 's followers produced a formal church; however, Calvin 's followers created several churches; to name a few the French Huguenots, the English Puritans, the Scottish Presbyterians, and the Dutch Reformed Church. In fact, Calvin had an outstanding way to the German lands, and Luther had a large influence in Western Europe, however, you will not stray incorrectly by going to see Calvin 's influence in the churches west of the Rhine River, and Luther 's hand in the churches east of the Rhine. Likely the best known aspect of Calvinist theology regards predestination, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Calvin's Epistemology Essay "How is it possible to know anything at all?" John Calvin gives his answer to this timeless question in Chapters 1–3 of his Institutes. His theory of epistemology is based on his belief that humans are naturally aware of God. He also asserts two fundamental knowledges– God and self– and he elaborates upon the relationship between the two. I. Biography of John Calvin A. Birth and childhood B. Schooling and further education C. Early works and accomplishments II. How is it possible to know anything? III. John Calvin A. brief introduction of the Institutes B. Calvin's theory of epistemology 1. Humans have a natural awareness of God. a. our minds b. nature 2. knowledge of God a. requires holiness b. requires knowledge of self ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There, he sought more education, and opted to further his intellectual career. Years later in 1536, Institutes of the Christian Religion, was released by Calvin himself in Basel, Switzerland.6 To this day, it remains one of the most important and influential literary works regarding theology. This piece also made Calvin known as a key follower of Protestantism. His theory of epistemology is based on his belief that humans are naturally aware of God. He also asserts two fundamental knowledges– God and self– and he elaborates upon the relationship between the two.7 How is it possible to know anything at all? Theologians and philosophers across the ages have contemplated, debated, and wrote about this timeless question. There have been many proposed theories, and many still exist while others have been modified, or totally abandoned. As Christians, we like to use "God" as the answer for everything we do not understand, so one might respond, "God allows us to know things." Okay, yes, in a sense, because He is absolutely sovereign, so anything at all that ever occurs happens with his permission.8 While this simplistic answer may be enough for the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. The Church Of Trinity Fellowship The church I decided to study was St. Luke Presbyterian Church in Amarillo, Texas. I selected this church because my best friend attends this church and I sought to go out of my norm and learn more about my friend's religious background. I normally attend the non–denominational church of Trinity Fellowship. I am considered to be a Conservative and my friend is a Liberal. Many Presbyterian churches in Amarillo are liberal, but the majority of Presbyterian churches are known to be conservative because of their beliefs. I assumed it would be interesting to visit this church due to the fact it would help me to keep an open mind of how people worship and have different beliefs than I do. St. Luke Presbyterian Church was a relaxed church. Presbyterian churches abide by the sovereignty of God, the scriptures, and grace through faith. The Presbyterian Church members that attended the service were dressed from casual pants to dresses and suits. The church setting was considered to be a small, local church with roughly about 30 rows of pews. The choir included 15 women and a teenage boy. The members were very welcoming and seemed eager to get to know the guests that were new that Sunday morning. The preacher was an older man, in about his late 60's or early 70's. This was mainly a diverse family church with a few college students. At the beginning of the sermon they had children's church, which is when they relate the word of God to the younger kids so they can understand what the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. An Analysis Of John Donne's 'Holy Sonnet 2' John Donne's 'Holy Sonnet 2' is primarily written in the traditional Petrarchan sonnet form. One way in which Donne applies this traditional form is through the use of an octave, in which the narrator establishes a problem that causes anxiety and personal turmoil. The octave is then followed by a sestet, where the narrator attempts to organise and present a solution to the issue given in the octave, or there is a change of tone in the narrator's voice. "Wisheth that still he might be imprisoned; / Yet grace..." Although there is a change in tone with the narrative voice, Donne's use of punctuation and enjambment between lines eight and nine suggests that Donne does not rigorously adhere to the traditional Petrarchan form. As the poem becomes detached from this tradition and increases the narrator's conflict and feeling of entrapment and suppression. This, in turn, might indicate that the narrator has no solution for his "black soul" and reflects the narrator's anxiety and fear about not being able to repent, or, at least, not being able to repent the way in which would correspond to the narrator's personal religious beliefs. Anne Coles Kimberly argues that the "Calvinist doctrine held that man is resistant to God (due to sin), but that God will draw his elect to him. Donne, however, is not ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. The Colonial Period Essay The Colonial period is abundant in its source of influential people who help shape present society through questioning past beliefs. Martin Luther leads the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin expands on the idea of predestination. The Puritans live strictly by the word of the Bible, and the Quakers inspire many people to join them in their friendly lifestyle. All of these people contribute to our society today and brave the face of adversity. Martin Luther, born in 1483, comes from a poor upbringing. Religious as a boy, Martin Luther earns his wages by singing hymns. He later enters the Augustinian monastery and becomes a monk. However, he fails to acquire the solace from this lifestyle as his fellow monks do (Project Gutenberg ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In today's society, people continue to start controversial ideas about how they think society should operate. Madalyn Murray O'Hair is comparable to Martin Luther in that they both brought up a subject that is very contentious. Madalyn Murray O'Hair brings atheism out during a time period where most are strongly fixated in their religious beliefs. However, she gains many followers just as Martin Luther does. Although Martin Luther impacts history greatly, people must remember what role John Calvin has to offer as well. Born in France in 1509, John Calvin is raised as a Roman Catholic by his family. His family is so devoted to the Roman Catholic Church that his dad aspires for his son to become a priest (John Calvin– Calvin College 1). John Calvin later reads Luther's works and converts to the 'faith of the Reformation.' He strongly believes that salvation is achieved through faith and predestination (Cowie 44). In 1537, John Calvin publishes, Institutes of the Christian Religion. In this book, John Calvin states his beliefs on Christianity. He proposes that God has been veiled by the devotion of the people to the Virgin Mary and the saints. He also insists in his book that predestination is how God determines who goes to hell and who goes to heaven. John Calvin writes, "We call predestination, God's eternal degree, by which He determined that He willed to become of each man. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Similarities Between Calvinism And Calvinism Moreover, Calvinism was highly ascetic. Whereas, Catholicism and Lutheranism maintained that believers could essentially "work" for God's forgiveness through faith, good works, etc., Calvinism stressed "systematic self–control necessary, in every moment" (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 127) and the "intensification of good works into a system" (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 129). These qualities suggested to Weber that Calvinism was the epitome of rationalism (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 130). In the context of religion, rationalization refers to the process of systematically organizing one's life according to a methodical approach, with an intense orientation towards discipline, and the absence of "magic" or mystical elements (i.e., sacraments that can save the "damned") (Kalberg 2011a: p. 422). This characteristic is what distinguishes Lutheranism from Calvinism. As opposed to Lutheranism, Weber ([1905] 2011) argues that "Calvinism forced [a] methodical organization of life upon the believer" (p. 135). This is due to the fact that salvation could always be won back in Lutheranism through penance. In contrast, Calvinism offered no means to acquire salvation, only hints or signs which were based on "uninterrupted self–control" and the "planned regulation of one's own life" (Weber [1905] 2011: p. 136). Lutheranism was also characterized by less asceticism due to its teaching that salvation could be acquired. Therefore, Weber ([1905] 2011) also maintains that "Lutheranism lacks the psychological ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. John Calvinism Research Paper Calvinism– Calvinism is a religious sect derived from Protestantism. Its creator, John Calvin (1509– 1564), was influenced by the humanist movement and Martin Luther to oppose the Catholic church and develop a religion based on his own beliefs. The main doctrine of Calvinism is predestination, which means that instead of earning salvation through worship, like the Catholic church preaches, humans were predestined by God, before the creation of the Earth, to either salvation or damnation. John Calvin published the belief system in 1536 in The Institutes of the Christian Religion; this marked the beginnings of the faith. Calvin's reformation movement took off in the 1560's and was centered in Geneva. It spread across Eastern and Central Europe ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The plague spread to Europe with the migration of people and goods on ships. Little did they know that the disease was carried onto the ships, and eventually onto the land, by the fleas that lived on black rats that would stow–away in the vessels. The plague would continue to thrive in intervolves until the 18th century when it disappeared. The estimated death toll in the 14th century was between one–third to one–half of the entire population of Europe. The devastation from the Black Death was heightened in times of agricultural hardships because the resulting famine would hinder a person's ability to fight off the disease. Cities would issue mandatory quarantines, stricter sanitation laws, and halt all travel. Many religious citizens believed that God was punishing them for their sins, which led to the persecution of Jew's and public physical repentance in the form of brutal whippings. Due to the drastic loss in population, birth rates increased, as well as provided agricultural and economic opportunities that resulted in an overall increase in the standard of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Compare And Contrast Calvinism And Arminianism Arminianism and Calvinism both have five points. The first point in Arminianism is Freewill or Human Ability. God enables all sinners to repent and believe, but at the same time, He does not interfere with man's freedom. Calvinism's first point is Total Inability or Total Depravation. This takes regeneration by which the Spirit makes the sinner alive and gives us a new nature. The second point of Arminianism is Conditional Election, in which God chooses certain individuals to be saved before the foundation of the world was based upon His foreseeing that they would respond to His call. This is in contrast to Calvinism's Unconditional Election, in which God's choice of certain individuals into salvation before the foundation of the world rested on His will. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In this point, Christ's redeeming work made it possible for everyone to be saved but did not actually secure the salvation for them. Calvinism, on the other hand, believes that Christ's redeeming work was intended to save the elect only and actually secured salvation for them. The Spirit calling inwardly all those who are called outwardly by the gospel invitation illustrates Arminianism's fourth point, The Holy Spirit Can Be Effectually Resisted. The Holy Spirit extending to the elect a special inward call that inevitable brings those to salvation is Calvinism's fourth point, The Efficacious Call of the Spirit or Irresistable Grace. The last point of Arminianism is Falling From Grace. According to this point, those who believe and are truly saved can lose their salvation by failing to keep up their faith. Calvinism's last point, Perseverance of the Faith, says that all who are chosen by God, redeemed by Christ, and given faith by the Spirit are eternally saved. In summary, the Arminianism theological system says that salvation is accomplished through the combined efforts of God and man while the Calvinism system believes that salvation is accomplished through the power of God. (Steele, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Paul 's Epistles : An Theologian And Church History Scholar People studying Paul 's epistles know that to understand them, they must first put them in their proper context. We like to state that Paul's epistles were "occasional" writings. This simply means, they were occasioned by their context. This can relate to the current situation that is also important for understanding the perspective that Olson portrays in his book. Olson is an Arminian theologian and church history scholar who is aware of the climate of evangelicalism. Olson has also become aware of Calvinists who would like to see him removed from his position as professor and theologian based on the fact that he is not a Calvinist. He identifies these Calvinists as those who have been called the, "young, restless, and Reformed." And Olson ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It seems as though Olson finds it difficult to believe, when he encounters this form of Calvinism, "to see the difference between God and the devil" (23). Olson is very aware that some Calvinists accuse non–Calvinists of rejecting their theology because of "a latent humanistic love for free will" (23). But it is not humanism that leads Olson and other non–Calvinist theologians to embrace free will, he does so because: (1) "it is necessary to preserve human responsibility for sin and evil" and (2) "it is necessary to preserve God from being responsible for sin and evil." Olson operates with the criteria of theological truth defined by Wesley and this statement is "the primary source and norm" (24). So Olson will argue in this book that high Calvinism: (1) "is not the only or the best way of interpreting Scripture," (2) "stands in tension with the ancient faith of the Christian church and much of the heritage of evangelical faith," and (3) "falls into contradictions" (24–25). If one has such a firm belief in a theology, then one should be able to teach it "standing in front of the gates of Auschwitz" (25); however, Olson "could not stand at those gates and preach a version of God's sovereignty that makes the extermination of six million Jews, including many children, a part of the will and plan of God such that God foreordained and rendered it certain" (25). The issue of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Calvinism And Abaptism The Reformation was a time of religious reform and development in Europe, which began with Martin Luther in 1517 and continued through the next hundred years into the seventeenth century. Various branches of Protestantism emerged during this time period, including Anabaptism, Anglicanism, and Calvinism, all of which differed in their views and influence upon Reformed Europe. Although Anabaptism, Anglicanism, and Calvinism all had an effect on Europe during the Reformation, Calvinism proved to be the most dynamic of these three movements because of its radical changes to the Christian doctrine which resulted the birth of the capitalist spirit, coupled with the development of a society which maintained a balance of church and state. Calvinism ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... German sociologist and historian Max Weber describes this spirit as "that attitude which seeks profit rationally and systematically in the manner which we have illustrated by the example of Benjamin Franklin [i.e. that time is money, credit is money, and money can beget money]" (Weber). Weber goes on to describe the Calvinistic 'calling' as a cause of capitalistic spirit, which was essentially a vocation which a Calvinist is called by God to do. The calling is connected to the gifts that God had given each human being for the good of society. Weber also asserts that because of the Calvinist belief in predestination, there was an uncertainty of purpose among Calvinists, as they felt deeply troubled as to whether they would be saved or not and actively sought signs as to what God's plan for them was. Eventually, these Calvinists sought God's approval based upon the commercial profit and monetary gain that came as a result of their calling (Weber). It was the hard work which came as a result of this that gave birth to capitalist spirit. Undoubtedly, Calvinistic economic theory had a huge impact on modern forms of capitalism. The Anglican church, while having some effect on the economy of England at the time, had no profound influence on economics outside of the immediate time period. The only event worth noting is the dissolution of the Benedictine monasteries by Henry VIII in 1536. He destroyed the monasteries in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Calvinist Views Of Calvinism In 18th Century Religion In... In the Eyes of a Neutral I have never been to church outside of Christmas, Easter, and my baptism. Some would call me an avid Chreaster, while others could say I have not kept in touch with God (like my Great Grandmother), and my methods need to change. Without a proper education in the realm of religion, and in the form of Sunday school, I cannot say I am any sort of expert when it comes to theology. After having read three different viewpoints of religion throughout the 1700s from Fox, Nichols, and Prothero, I can easily say I have gained a huge understanding of conflicting ideologies within 18th century religion. In the 18th century hymn, "Not to The Terrors of The Lord" , Isaac Watts shows a clear Calvinistic view and devotion to Jesus. I will explain how this hymn is clearly Calvinistic through the Calvinist viewpoint of the "Trinity", and their views on salvation and judgment day. In Watts' poem, he repeatedly mentions God and Jesus, almost interchangeably. Not only does the Calvinist view see 3three different beings when it comes to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, but they see God himself in all 3 three, separately. In Watts' hymn, he states, "And God, the Judge of all, declares Their vilest sins forgiv'n. The saints on earth and all the dead all join in Christ their living head" , which is a clear reference to the obvious statement that Jesus is the same being as God, though the father is the one who chooses the elect. We know that only the elect share ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Ideas Of Calvinism 3. Discuss the chief ideas of Calvinism and show how they were similar to the ideas of Lutheranism. How did they vary from Lutheranism? Why did Calvinism become the major international form of Protestantism? The main ideas of Calvinism include total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and perseverance to the saints (Barlow, n.d.). Total depravity says that sinful nature is all throughout a person. It doesn't mean that it is an intentional thing but that is an effect of human nature and original sin. It means no one is can be completely clean without God. Another aspect of Calvinism is unconditional election which is based on that God chooses people to save instead of based on good deeds, or he predetermines ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Am I An Arminian Persuasive Essay There has been an age–old disagreement on the sovereignty and providential power of God. It has always had two sides. The question to be asked is, "Am I a Calvinist or an Arminian?" Christians understand that the Lord is divine and He has written everything that pertains to life in His word. To deny a single word of the Lord is to deny one's own Father in heaven who crafted them in his image. While, Calvinism brings serenity and peace in one's mind, it shouldn't be called Calvinism, but yet it should be called scripture. Calvinism displays the beauty of God in salvation by accepting that God is an omnipotent God. To deny Him is to worship a manmade God. There are five primary points of Calvinism, Shortened to the acronym TULIP. The first point is T, which is called total depravity. This point, in short, means that man in a whole sense wicked and are completely depraved of good. Some Armenians hold the viewpoint that man can reach perfection and can become completely good. However, their viewpoint is not backed up with the facts of scripture. Scripture says, "For all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23). This scripture proves that man is a God forsaken race, who has turned their face away from holiness. If a person believes they can become perfect, one can look at John's words, "If we say that we ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Scripture says, "As it is written, I have loved Jacob, and hated Esau. What shall we say then? Is their unrighteousness whit God? God forbid" (Romans 9:13–14). In this scripture, one can see that God is the supreme judge over salvation because he is the one who grants salvations to the lost souls. People like to think that God is just a God of love, This is contrary to the bible because in his word one can see that God is a God of anger, wrath, judgment, and selfishness. God deserves all glory and praise due to man still having breath in his creation, for he gave it to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Baselism Vs Calvinism I spent close to a year congregating on Twitter and being ignorant at the time of what their "systematic theology" actually teaches, I initially followed many Reformed/Calvinist believers (lay and professional) and many in turn followed me. I got along well with all of them until I started questioning certain things I heard from them that contradicted God's Word. For example, after he tweeted a quote by Calvin I asked one of them, "Where in the Bible can I find the so called "third use of the Law" that Calvinism teaches?" He couldn't answer me because, as I pointed out to him, it's simply not taught in the Bible. It's a man made doctrine. Eventually, he assumed and insinuated and then fasley accused me, e.g, "we get you want to disagree with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Calvinism Over the past several months I have been studying the Reformed movement and the messengers that represent that theology. This class and this assignment have only served to increase my study and wonder why so many United Methodist preachers have told me that I shouldn't pay attention to that person because they are a "Calvinist". Then comes this class that deals with that era specifically and is helping with my questions on Calvinism and Methodism. This assignment does not deal with that battle but with the battle between the Catholic Church and the Reformed Church. The interesting part is how this battle and the positions taken by the combatants reflect on the character of the United Methodist Church. My opinion is that Calvin comes closer ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Who has the ultimate authority to determine doctrine and practice? Sadoleto held that the leaders and the teachings of the Catholic church were the determining authority. Calvin held that guidance should be from the Word of God and not from organizations or institutions. Calvin's belief was that if the current church's practices do not agree with the gospel as presented in the Bible then people are being led astray and it should be reformed. Calvin points out that it has been the Catholic church who has been inventing new doctrines and not the reformers. The reformers were determined to return to a dependence on the Word of God rather than any dependence on the organization of the Church. Hence my current search to find the sweet spot between the reformed church and the United Methodist Church. Can I find that point at which the two converge and become a church that can fulfill the needs of man and include a dependence on the Word. While I continue to support and defend the doctrines of the United Methodist Church, I am also concerned that we are losing our emphasis on the Bible. New issues continue to pose questions about what our position should be on certain social issues. My own feeling is that we may have lost our ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Compatibilism Vs Calvinism Third, the two–will concept is not explicit in Scripture; whereas, as cited by Piper, the express will for "all persons to be saved" is (1 Timothy 2:4; see also 1 Timothy 4:10; Titus 2:11; 2 Peter 3:9; Ezekiel 18:23, 32; 33:11). Both terms thél? (1 Timothy 2:4) and boúlomai (2 Peter 3:9) are used regarding God's express desire, will, for all to be saved. Additionally, Calvinism's reliance upon various distinctions that may matter in Extensivist soteriological approaches are distinctions without a difference in light of Calvinism commitment to compatibilism. This is because compatibilism means that God's will (what will happen) is precisely what He desires to happen, and there is not the slightest degree of deterministic difference between ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Surely the Calvinists' endeavor to defend the two wills of God makes their claim of sola scriptura seem a frail stalwart for defending the sufficiency of Scripture against foes who employ the same tactics; an ineffectualness born and sustained by their own forays into the academy of secrecy to bolster their theology when it conflicts with explicit revelation. David Engelsma, a strong Calvinist, says of this position and the Calvinists who retreat to mystery "that God is gracious only to some in predestination, but gracious to all in the gospel, and that God wills only some to be saved in predestination but wills all to be saved by the gospel, is flat, irreconcilable contradiction. It is not paradox, but contradiction. I speak reverently: God Himself cannot reconcile these ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. The Second Great Awakening Essay In the 1830's, 1840's, and beyond, There is a Second Great Awakening. The Second Great Awakening had a decided impact on American society. In the following I will describe what the Great Awakening was and how it changed life in America. In essence, the Great Awakening was a religious awakening. It started in the South. Tent camps were set up that revolve around high spirited meetings that would last for days. These camp meetings were highly emotional and multitudes of people were filled with the Spirit of God. These meeting, were sponsored mainly by Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterians, and met social needs as well as spiritual needs on the frontier. Since it was hard for the Baptist and Methodist to sustain local churches, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This reform was an attempt to defend Calvinism, (predestination) views against the new liberal ideas created by the Enlightens views. .Threatened by the spread of Unitarian ideas, a younger generation attempted to reshape New England Puritanism. The first great practitioner of the new evangelical Calvinism was Lyman Beecher. Beecher led thousands to accept their sinfulness and surrender to God. Beecher had to confront the new and more radical revivalism in Western New York which was led by Charles G. Finney. Finney challenged the Calvinist doctrines. He appealed to emotion instead of reason. Finney wanted people to feel the power of Jesus. He had adopted an extreme view that said Christians could be totally free of sin or be as perfect as their Father in Heaven. During Finney's revivals, it was not uncommon for people to fall to the floor in fits of excitement. Finney left behind him strong and active churches. Eastern opposition gradually weakened. During The Second Awakening new religious views were popping up everywhere. The Unitarians believed that the all–powerful, mysterious God was actually a Deity who was the benevolent master architect of a rational universe. Mormonism also began. Mormonism, also known as the latter Day Saints, believed that Christ would appear in the New World and that the children of Levi were present in the New World. With these new religious ideas ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. Max Weber's Protestant Ethic And The Spirit Of Capitalism Max Weber's the protestant ethic and the "spirit" of capitalism is one of the most debated and discussed pieces of sociological work, both in the years following its publication and in contemporary sociology classrooms and academia. The main focus of the work surrounds how a change in religion in certain areas during the protestant reformation created the "spirit" of capitalism which then took on a life of its own. A summary of the protestant ethic and the "spirit" of capitalism will be included later in this essay as it is important to detail what Weber was intending when he published this work. There are misconceptions about Weber's work which Weber attempted to limit during the essay with his attempts to clarify his statement and in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Weber, 1905, 1–8) Weber uses a piece of writing by Benjamin Franklin which discusses how people should act towards credit, money, debt in an attempt to show that Franklin was suggesting that people should be attempting to gain wealth as a personal duty. Weber continues by clarifying that capitalism did not originate from the Protestant Reformation and that capitalism has been viewed in societies ranging from India, Asia and the Middle East but they lacked what Weber called the "spirit" of capitalism shown in the time frame which he was looking at. Weber defines and discusses the change in economic systems from economic traditionalism to capitalism. Weber thought that religion was not the driving force in the rise of capitalism but had a greater impact in bringing about the change from economic traditionalism to capitalism. Weber also discusses one of the unintended consequences of the reformation which was the rise in rationalization in society brought about by the change in dominate religion. (Weber, 1905, 8–28) The idea of a "calling" within Lutherism is discussed as it furthers Weber's ideas about how the reformation brought about a new attitude towards work and play. The "calling" within Lutherism revolves around peoples work and business and how that relates to their religious beliefs. Weber does however say that Lutherism was not as important to his argument as Calvinism. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Total Depravity In Arminianism What is Calvinism? What is Arminianism? Calvinism is a theological system that was created and taught by the 1500's French Theologian John Calvin (Steele pg15). Arminianism was founded by late 1500's Dutch theologian by the name of Jacob Arminius (Forlines pg8). Calvinism, surprisingly like Arminianism, is based upon five points with a heavy respect for Scripture. Calvinism to start out believes in total depravity. Total depravity is the belief that man is tainted by sin and because of this cannot come to God on his or her own. This is that man has so much sin around us and in us that we are u able to come to God with out his help. Arminianism is a little different with the belief of partial depravity. Partial depravity is the belief that man is tainted by sin but can come to God on his or her own. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Unconditional Election is the process that God elects certain individuals to salvation based on his will. Conditional election, which is what Arminianism believes in, is fact that God elects those for salvation based on his foreknowledge of will accept it from him. Calvinism believes in limited atonement, which is that Jesus only died for the elect few. Arminianism believes in unlimited atonement that Jesus died for everyone. This point is one of the biggest that Calvinism and Arminianism debate over when it comes to theology. Next is irresistible grace, which is what Calvinism belief that when God calls someone to salvation that they cannot resist that call. Arminianism believes though resisting is possible, that we are able to resist the grace of God. Finally the perseverance of the saints, which that Calvinism believe, that who is elected will preserver and not turn from God, where Arminianism believe there is conditional salvation that one can turn from God. These are the biggest points in which Calvinism and Arminianism are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. John Calvin Essay At an early age, John Calvin found his calling to God to the chagrin of his father, who wanted him to be a lawyer. This calling to God helped Calvin bring about changes to the church. Even though Calvin traveled to some isolated spots in Europe preaching his sermons, the changes occurred all throughout Europe and then into the Americas. All these changes began humbly in France in the early 1500's. According to Lord, John Cauvin or Calvin as we know him, was born July 10th, 1509 in Noyon, which is in the Picardy region of France (a cathedral city), and died in 1564 in Geneva, Switzerland. He was born to a notary, Gerard Cauvin and his wife Jeanne Le Franc, Calvin was one of five sons. His mother died when he was young and when his ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In 1533, Calvin went back to France where there was a great deal of commotion going on. All of these new ideas were now reaching scholars, the courts and other circles of people. In 1534, as French parishioners were coming out of church, they had found a large piece of paper from Switzerland posted on the church door condemning the mass. This led to the royal repression, where the French government went around arresting or killing as many French protestants as they could (Hunt, Martin, Rosenwein, Hsia & Smith, 2009). Calvin was forced to take refuge with some other reformers at a castle in Pau with Queen Marguerite of Navarre (King Francis I's sister: she was a noble name in church history). After living this fugitive life style for a while he decided to flee to Switzerland, where at twenty six he published the writings of his catechism, Institutes for the Christian Religion. He published these works with a bold preface addressed to King Francis I to help convince him that protestants were of no threat to his rule, but that did not work (Lord). The Institutes for the Christian Religion consists of four books. Book one is the knowledge of God, the creator; book two is the knowledge of God the redeemer, in Christ, as manifested to the fathers; book three is the the mode of obtaining the grace of Christ and book four is the external means to which God allures us into the fellowship of Christ and keeps us in it (Smith, 2003). According to Boettner ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 49. Lutheranism And Calvinism These are the reasons I believe Lutheranism is better than Calvinism and why you should leave the Catholic Church and come and join Lutheranism. Firstly, Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther. Martin Luther (1483– 1546) was a German monk, reformer, and theologian. Calvinism is the religious doctrines of John Calvin. Calvin stressed that people are saved through God's grace, not through their own merits. The most famous of Calvin's ideas is his doctrine of predestination. John Calvin (509–1564) was a French theologian and reformer in Switzerland. He was also a leader in the Protestant Reformation. As you can already see, Martin Luther had more experience as a religious ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Calvinism, on the other hand, being a more traditional form of Protestantism, completely rejects the authority of the interpreters of God's teachings, starting with the Pope's. Lutheranism teaches that the body and blood of Jesus Christ is actually present in the actual bread and wine. That is, when celebrating the Sacrament of the Eucharist, one can be exposed to Jesus Christ physically by eating bread and drinking wine. Calvinism, on the other hand, teaches that the presence of the body and the blood has been only spiritual. Calvinism teaches the absolute supremacy of God. The concept of supremacy is of utmost importance. God accomplishes all things he has chosen to accomplish and never fails. This leaves very little for a man, since God knows better. For Lutherans, on the other hand, a concept of supremacy is not very important. Martin Luther and his followers saw the main point of theology was in Jesus Christ being given to humanity in the form of Words and the Sacraments. Predestination is a theological concept that views all the events in the Universe as having been foreseen by God. Calvinism and Lutheranism Have different views on predestination. For Calvinism, predestination is of big importance. They state that men can do nothing to change the order of things as it was envisioned by God. The Calvinists' view on predestination is the subject of many theological arguments and controversies. For Lutherans ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Arminianism and Calvinism Everyday people argue who is and isn't right, but in all honesty whose to know? A big topic of argument is religion. Now one would think that in something so pure it would be hard to twist things but mankind has found it rather easy. Especially in The Bible, there are so many questions that are unanswered. God did not do this on accident but there has been a lot for man to make the decisions. Two topics that are frequently debated are Arminianism and Calvinism. As it has already been stated no one can have a 100% correct answer to each topics 5 main points but that doesn't mean man should just avoid them, people should dig deeper and discover for themselves what is right in their hearts. Calvinism has five main topics (as well as Arminianism). Calvinism uses T.U.L.I.P; total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, and perseverance of the saints. To speak on just one of these topics is difficult due to the fact that they all relate with each other. Perseverance of the saints is also known as once saved always saved. It states that once man has been elected by God through unconditional election and then gets saved by the drawing of irritable grace that man is now saved and has salvation forever. If a man is to fall away from God it was if he was never saved to begin with. Think of a friend, you might do something that isn't agreeable by said friend's standards and that friend might not talk to you for a while but that doesn't mean that you are not friends ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. John Calvin Contribution John Calvin was born in Noyon, France in 1509 to Jeanne Le France and Gérard Calvin. His father was the secretary to the Bishop of Noyon, which allowed John the privilege to attend universities later in life. His mother was known for being a beautiful religious woman, who died about four years after John was born. He had an older brother named Charles and a younger one named Antoine. His father, a religious man himself, brought up all three children in the church. His father decided to remarry after his wife's death and made John live with the Montmors, a powerful family that lived in their neighborhood. Calvin pursued studying theology, Latin, and philosophy. He used this knowledge to train to become a priest. In the end, he studied law at the Universities of Orleans and Bourges to become a lawyer. His career path was altered to pursue law, because his father was paying for his education. Calvin grew up Roman Catholic, but became a Protestant around 1534. He escaped to France the same year due to the prosecution of Protestants who were being persecuted for not following the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. According to the Oxford Dictionary, a protestant is "a member or follower of any of the Western Christian Churches that are separate from the Roman Catholic Church in accordance with the principles of the Reformation, including the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Lutheran Churches." Calvin's major contribution to the Protestant Reformation was his writing of The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 55. Using material from Item A and elsewhere assess the... Religion can be powerful under the right certain circumstances for social change. However it can be argued that religion can be a conservative force. Weber argues that religious beliefs contributed to major social change– specifically the emergence of modern capitalism in Northern Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. Modern capitalism differs from capitalism as it is based on systematic, efficient and a rational pursuit of profit and profit for its own sake rather than consumption. Weber calls this the spirit of capitalism. Calvinism is a form of protestant that was formed during the reformation. Weber argues that it is the Calvinist's beliefs that helped bring about social change and modern capitalism. For example one of Calvinists ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Calvinism thus brought capitalism into the world. Weber claims that religion does contribute to social change and uses Calvinism as an example. In contrast Marx puts forward an argument that economic and material factors were the driving force of change, not religion. Kautsky, who is a Marxist, argues that Weber underestimates economic factors in bringing capitalism into being. He argues that in fact capitalism preceded rather than followed Calvinism. Similarly Tawney sees that technological change, not religious ideas, caused the birth of capitalism. It was only after capitalism that the bourgeoisie adopted Calvinist beliefs to legitimate their pursuit of economic gain. Furthermore Weber clearly points out that he doesn't argue Calvinism were the cause of modern capitalism, but was one of its causes. A number of material and economic factors were necessary, such as natural resources, a money economy and a system of law. Weber also notes that other societies with higher level of economic development than Northern Europe had in the 16th and 17th century yet still failed to develop modern capitalism. For example China and India were materially more advanced than Europe but it didn't take off, he argues that this is due to the lack of religious belief systems, such as Calvinism, that would of meant development occurred. Critics argue that capitalism did not develop in every country where ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Economic Traditionalism As The Antithesis Of Economic... Economic traditionalism is essentially the antithesis of modern capitalism. Within this framework, work was viewed as a "necessary evil" (Kalberg 2011a: p. 418). It was simply the means through which people acquire the economic needs necessary for survival. Therefore, work and money did not take precedence over one's family, community, and leisure. The tasks themselves were based on custom and tradition, and were independent of the individual himself. That is, work did not constitute one's self–identity. Luther was an extreme proponent of this ideology. He was suspicious of wealth and asserted that money should only be enough to live a life of integrity. Weber ([1905] 2011) describes Luther's reservation: Luther was convinced that people of every status can become saved...Therefore, the striving for material gain that goes beyond one's own needs, Luther argues, must be a symptom of one's lack of grace. Indeed, because striving for gain appears to be possible only at the expense of others, this pursuit must be viewed as an unequivocal abomination. (P. 103) Thus, Luther was critical of those who utilized work to feed their avarice. Instead, asceticism was highly valued; as people were advised to renounce gluttony and avoid succumbing to their physical and sensual pleasures. Luther was also wary of those who attempted to venture outside of their calling. This was viewed as tinkering with God's will and undermining His plan for the individual's salvation. Therefore, "the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Comparing Calvinism And Arminianism And Two Systems Of... There is no debate in the Christian community that over 2000 years ago, Jesus Christ died on the cross. However, the question raised by many is just "who" did he die for? Whose sins did he atone? Did he die for all of us or only the elect? Many Christians have openly debated about just how one is saved for centuries, but not everyone sees eye–to–eye on the matter. Both Calvinism and Arminianism, two systems of theology, "attempt to explain the relationship between God's sovereignty and man's responsibility in the matter of salvation" (Calvinism vs. Arminianism). Just what is Calvinism and Arminianism? Which group of thoughts is right? Where did they come from? Before being able to answer that question, one must understand each ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... He was born in Oudewater, Holland in 1560, the same year "John Calvin was busy establishing the Genevan Academy to propagate his ideas of predestination" (Jacob Arminius, Christian History). In 1575 Arminius started attending the University of Leyden. While there, the municipal authorities of Amsterdam agreed to pay all of Arminius's academic expenses in return for his pledge to spend the remainder of his life serving the Amsterdam church (Christian History Institute). A year after he began his public ministry in 1588, the ecclesiastical senate of Amsterdam asked Arminius to respond to the teachings of Dutch poet, translator, playwright, and moralist Dirk Coornhert. Coornhert rejected much of Calvin's doctrine of predestination, justification, and punishment of heretics by death (Christian History Institute). "Weighing the arguments, Arminius thought Coornhert right, but would not commit himself until he had made a diligent study of the scriptures, the early church fathers, and later divines" (Christian History Institute). Arminius later became firmly against Calvinism after thoroughly studying the Epistle to the Romans. He found that "it is an eternal and gracious decree of God in Christ, by which he determines to justify and adopt believers, and to endow them with eternal life but to condemn unbelievers, and impenitent persons" (Galli 42). A year after Arminius's death in 1609, Arminius's followers came to be known as the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Comparison Of Calvinism And Meritocracy Meritocracy: an ideal system in which personal effort–or merit–determines social standing Calvinism: The religious doctrines of John Calvin. Calvin stressed that people are saved through God's grace, not through their own merits. The most famous of Calvin's ideas is his doctrine of predestination. Meritocracy and Calvinism are very different. Counties that following the Meritocracy style of living are better off and more advanced than those who believe in Calvinism. Calvinism is about God grace and effort in the next life, while Meritocracy strongly supports putting effort and working towards wealth and materialist good in this life. 2. Classism: prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class. It includes individual attitudes, behaviors, systems of policies, and practices that are set up to benefit the upper class at the expense of the lower class. The class that benefits the most from this is the high class (rich), and the high end middle class. 3. Welfare reform : movement to change the federal government's social welfare policy by shifting some of the responsibility to the states and cutting benefits. The advantages of welfare reform is a greater level of equality amongst citizens, happier people and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It can be hard to help each other because sometimes we don't want to lose the luxury of our current life. We don't see how someone could need the help, and believe that they brought it upon themselves. We also could believe" why should i give XXX dollars for this when i could use it for the ________ that i have always wanted and saved up for. I'm sure someone else will do it." Also other times we tell ourselves: "well i got here all by myself without help, so why should i help them?" Or even if there is no public merit for us find it hard to do things for others because we are greedy and selfish. A lot of time people will put themselves before all, and will never give an ichi unless there something in it for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Calvinism: A Look Into Domestic Life in Catherine... Catharine Sedgwick's novel, A New–England Tale, tells the story of an orphan, Jane Elton, who "fights to preserve her honesty and her dignity in a household where religion is much talked about but little practiced" (Back Cover). The story take place in the 1820s, a time when many children were suffering in silence due to the fact that there was really no way to get people to understand exactly how bad things were for them. The only way anyone could ever really get a true understanding of the lives of the children in these households would be by knowing what took place in their homes. Outside of the home these women seemed perfectly normal and there was not reason to suspect any crookedness. The author herself was raised by a woman of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Upon arrival to her aunts she is quickly confronted about the items and her aunt is dissatisfied with her disobedience. "I did not understand your note, Ma'am, to contain positive order; and Mary and I did not think it was quite right to take the things. Right! pretty judges of right to be sure. She a hired girl, and a Methodist into the bargain" (37). Jane makes the claim that she and Mary did not "think" it was right and purposefully leaves out the face that they had a brief discussion about what she should do before she made her decision. She also emphasizes that she failed to "contain positive order" thus hinting to her aunt that she understood what she asked of her but knew it was wrong and thus, she did not carry out her wishes. Here Mrs. Wilson decides to mock Mary Hull's occupation, as well as religion, in an effort to show her inferiority. She makes it know that Mary Hull is a Methodist woman and basically shows no respect towards her or her religion of choice. Earlier in the text she speaks about how she believes that Mary's religion had conveyed a reproach to take of her own and for this reason she was not very fond of her. The rules that Mrs. Wilson conveys to Jane in the earlier days of her stay are very repressive and extreme. She states "Now as to what I expect from you:– in the first place, my word must be your law; you must not hesitate to do any ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Examples Of Calvinism In The Devil And Tom Walker "The Devil and Tom Walker" (1824) by Washington Irving is a faustian tale about a man named Tom Walker who develops a relationship and strikes a life altering deal with the devil. The short story takes place in the time period of 1727 near Boston, Massachusetts when Puritans were very prevalent and the ideas of Calvinism were contemplated by many. A main aspect of Calvinism Washington Irving disagrees with is called predestination. This belief is when one does not have control of their afterlife because it is already chosen by God. I'll be exploring Calvinist and Puritan beliefs along with the concept of the faustian deal to show why Irving had Tom Walker agree to such a lopsided pact with the devil. To further understand Tom Walker's personality and how it contradicted Calvinism, I will also be exploring what was the perception of death for Bostonian Puritans around 1727? Understanding the Puritan perception of death is central to understanding why Tom easily sold his soul to the devil. Through the encounter with the devil at the Native American stronghold, Tom's wife dying and the faustian deal, Washington Irving shows he is against the Calvinist belief of predestination brought to the Massachusetts Bay colonies. The nature of the Native American stronghold and remarks said here by the devil are interesting examples of how Washington Irving shows he is against the concept of predestination. Predestination is both introduced for the first time in the short story and is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Max Weber Theory Of Capitalism Capitalism has captivated many of the greatest sociologists, philosophers and economists. It is perhaps the most dominate and influential economic system that has ever existed. Its extensive reach has affected the lives of nearly all people in world today, whether they live in a capitalist country or not, global capitalism has become an unstoppable force of production and trade. It seems natural for many people. The ideals and principles of capitalism are taught in everyday life and the goal of earning large sums of money reinvesting it and earning more and more feels not only normal but unquestionably right. People are taught certain values that reinforce a capitalist view; work hard to accumulate as much money as possible, be a good person in order to make money, and people with money are generally good people. These lessons may seem intrinsic, but according to Max Weber this code of ethics was not born from capitalism, rather it was adopted from the Protestant religion, specifically Calvinism. Weber explains that the ethics of modern capitalism began in the Calvinist religious tradition, and were in a way retrofitted to fit capitalism, propelling it into its current dominance. A focus for Weber in showing how the Protestant ethic and especially Calvinist ethics were precursors to capitalist principles was on rationality. Weber claimed that the West had a fixation on rational systems. Not only with economics but also science. He claimed that this rationality was unique ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. Calvinism : John Calvin And The Protestant Reformation Born just a few years before the beginnings of the Protestant reformation, John Calvin is a widely acknowledged theologian from the sixteenth century who created the idea of Calvinism. With the principle of humanism, scholarship and the Renaissance, he expanded his knowledge through years of studying Greek culture and used his resources to outline the fundamentals of Protestant faith. He used Calvinism to challenge people to live a life being a "good Christian" and constantly expressed his views on church and state. Jeheun Calvin was born on July 10, 1509 to two middle class parents named Gerard and Jeanne Calvin in French territory. His father, Gerard, was an extremely influential lawyer and was a financial administrator for the Roman Catholic bishop of Noyon. This made him a member of the professional class and an important figure in society. Gerard longed for his son to follow in his footsteps and often heavily implemented his religious ideologies throughout John's childhood. Calvin entered the University of Paris, the leading educational institution at the time, to study theology for priesthood although it was far from his own interests. At the University, he was exposed to studies about humanism, scholarship and Renaissance which were extremely prevalent topics at the time. Although he graduated with a masters degree and was an impeccable student, Calvin found an extreme interest in the study of religion and how it impacted society, but was forced to study otherwise ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Lake 's Assertion Of Religious Conflict Lake's assertion that religious conflict in early Stuart England was the result of a pursuit of traditional conformity by the Puritans holds true to a large extent. In the earlier half of the 17th Century, the Puritans have consistently sought for reforms to make changes to the English Church, with an unfaltering insistence of removing any perceived popish practices to create church in the model of a more traditional Calvinism. He should not, however, go as far as to proclaim that there was no 'rise of Arminianism' as there was indeed an ostensible influx of Arminianism during the reign of Charles I. Arminianism did burgeoned steadily, especially under the quasi–Catholic policies of Charles I and innovations that William Laud brought to the Church. However, with or without the antagonistic ideological differences of Arminianism and Calvinism, there was always the constant seeking of reforms by the Puritans, to move as far away from Catholicism as possible. The introduction of Arminianism merely 'created a politically assertive Puritanism '. The fear that Arminian practices would force the English Church towards a more Catholic–liked system invoked fear amongst the Puritans resulting in a 'call for more sweeping changes'. The Puritans wanted change before any major form of Arminianism took shape and with the latter's increasing influence from the 1620s, puritans simply became more aggressive in seeking reforms. The accession of James I in 1603 saw the Millenary ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Predestination And Its Impact On The Theological Landscape Predestination Any study on predestination as it pertains to salvation would be incomplete without the mention of John Calvin. Calvin was born in 1509 and died in 1564. He is well known for his book titled Institutes of the Christian Religion, in which he explained his views on the church and other subjects like the sacraments, justification, Christian liberty and the sovereignty of God. Norman Geisler of the Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics described him as, "a pioneer Protestant exegete of the Bible." Nevertheless, his theories on predestination, foreordination, and election have had a tremendous influence on the study of theology and helped to shape the theological landscape during his time as well as the current theological landscape. His influence is so predominate regarding the predestination doctrine that it is often also referred to as Calvinism. Some scholars would even point to the doctrine's origins as being developed by Calvin. Calvinism's main focus is on God's sovereignty, but a portion of Calvinism directly addresses predestination, election, and foreordination. To get a better understanding of the Calvinists interpretation of predestination, as well as what is commonly the general consensus for those espousing the predestination doctrine, one need go no farther than John Calvin himself, We call predestination God's eternal decree, by which he compacted with himself what he willed to become of each man. For all are not created in equal condition, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Five Points Of Calvinism Calvinism is the arrangement of Christian religious philosophy grew by John Calvin as a different option for the Catholic Church's convention. Calvinism can be a deceptive term in light of the fact that the religious custom it indicates is and has dependably been different, with an extensive variety of impacts instead of a solitary organizer. The development was initially called Calvinism by Lutherans who restricted it, and numerous inside the custom would want to utilize the word changed. While the Reformed religious custom addresses the greater part of the conventional subjects of Christian philosophy, the word Calvinism is now and again used to allude to specific Calvinist sees on fate, which are condensed partially by the five purposes of Calvinism. Some have ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The "Five Points of Calvinism" were not formulated by Calvin, but rather by the Synod of Dort in 1618–1619, which was a gathering of many great leaders and teachers of the reformed churches throughout Europe"(TrueCovenanter). Total Depravity is humanity's naturally evil and at war with God because of our corrupt nature. Unconditional Election is that God is the Father has given a select gathering of heathens to Christ to be His Bride, Body & Church. God's decision of these individuals was not on account of they were any less meriting Hell than any other individual, however just by beauty. Limited Atonement is the death of Christ's, while having vast esteem and having the capacity to save anybody, and was just expected to be effective for the individuals who are chosen by the Father. Irresistible Grace is that God is sovereign in attracting sinners to Himself. The individuals who are chosen, and for whom Christ died, will be spared by the beauty of God and not one of them will die. Persistence or Preservation of the Saints. Specifically, salvation is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. The Protestant Reformation, Religious Unity, and Calvinism... Introduction The Protestant Reformation of the Catholic Church devastated the religious unity of Christian Europe, resulting in a great deal of antagonism, which in turn led to the persecutions, denial of civil rights, expulsion, and ultimately the torture and death of many men, women and children. The ongoing conflict was not consigned to one distinct European nation, but was experienced in every European nation that the Catholic Church ruled and reigned. There was no worldview in Europe at that time that allowed for the religious differences of men to coexist peaceably. As quoted by McGrath in his book, French Protestantism to the Present Day. From Britain in the west to Hungary and Poland in the east, thousands of towns and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In October of 1534, the Affair of the Placard occurred, what made this event of great importance, was that it was a planned, written Protestant attack on the Catholic doctrine of Mass. These posters, which condemned the practice of Mass, also appeared just about simultaneously in several major cities of France overnight to include Paris, where Calvin lived. Francis I, retaliated harshly and swiftly possibly, because of the recent treaty that he had signed with Spain to end the Thirty Year War. Francis, possible to ensure his loyalty toward the Pope and the treaty arrested and executed the Protestants whom were responsible. Calvin like many other fearing for their safety left France, Calvin choosing to escape to Switzerland. Reforming Christianity When Calvin arrived in Geneva, William Farel saw in Calvin the leader that Geneva needed "and he urged the young scholar to go no farther but to stay in the city and help establish the work there" (Shelley, 2008, 256) . Calvin's patronage from Geneva helped with the growth and development of the French Protestant movement in the 1550s. Calvin trained French Protestant pastors at the Geneva Academy, and helped to smuggle them back into France to establish and develop local congregations. It was also during this time he wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion, in 1536, that put into words the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...