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The Effects Of Soil Radioactivity On The Levels Of The...
The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are measured in the material collected from two
locations .The collected materials are analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity
concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in building material it
varies from 12.6 to 121.4, 13.6 to 142 and 69.5 to 620.6 Bqkg_1, respectively. The radium
equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose and hazard index are also calculated.
Keywords Radionuclides, radiological hazard, building material radioactive 1. Introduction Natural
sources exists in several geological formations such as soils, rocks, sediments, vegetation, water and
air emit radiation. While 4% is of artificial origin (Chougan–kar et ... Show more content on
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Currently, a world wide effort is underway to measure the activity concentrations in building
materials (Tufail et al., 1992 [3]. A range of radionalytical methods can be used for determination of
activity concentrations in naturally occurring materials. Gamma–ray spectrometers are widely used
for this purpose. These are typically based on either germanium semiconductor or Na I(Tl)
scintillator detectors. They are the preferred choice in cases where the photo–peaks of concern are
well separated (IAEA, 1992) [4]. Some radioactivity studies have been previously carried out in soil
and sediment samples in some parts of the world (Beaza et al., 1992 [5]; Kannan et al. [6], 2002;
Kirchner et al., 2002 [7]; Mehra et al., 2007 [8]; Noordin, 1999 [9]; Patra et al., 2006 [10];
Selvasekarapandian et al., 2000 [11]; Senthilkumar et al., 2010) [12]. The materials used in building
collected from soil, sand and byproduct of industry, which contain varying amounts of natural
radionuclides. The knowledge of the natural radioactivity level of building materials is important for
determination of population exposure to radiation, the affection of this exposure almost occur
indoors .radioactivity statistics is useful for understanding and monitoring the radiation hazard to
human. Building materials contribute to
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Patient Preparation Of High Blood Glucose Intravenous Insulin
Patient preparation: Patient preparations are important for obtain the best image quality in PET–CT.
All patients should fast more than 4 hours (it depend on the hospital protocol). Patient should have
good hydration during the uptake phase. Blood glucose must check before the tracer injection. In
case of high blood glucose Intravenous insulin should be administered to reduce the blood glucose
level. The patient must avoid exercise before the PET–CT scan. Patient should keep relax and warm
during the uptake phase to avoid needless uptake in the muscles and brown fat. After that patients
must be asked to take away all metal objects and to void as completely as possible just prior to the
examination. Image quality reduce because of small ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In case of longer emission acquisition times per bed position increase the PET image quality will
obtain, but this should be balanced with patient relief and ability to durability longer procedure.
Patient motion through both the CT and PET image acquisitions will reduce image quality and
image artifacts will happen, usually each bed position of the PET scan takes 3 to 5 minutes, for the
thin and small patients that time is dropped to 2 minutes in some PET–CT centers, and that time can
drop to 1 minute in case of extreme pain or claustrophobia patients. Generally Patients placed supine
with arms above the head for most of them. To obtain the patient's relief and reduce motion during
the scan acquisition use positioning tool to support the head and arms and raise the patient's knees.
In case of head and neck is preferred with arms down and usually more support to the head. Some
patients they can't hold having their arms above their head during the whole body scan, and other
scan like sarcomas, melanomas, and other disease that need to scan upper extremities, patients
should be asked to put their arms down to involve them to the scan too. It is important to insure that
is the scout and the CT scan is obtained without peripheral truncation happened before move to the
PET scan. Even in case of arms down patient ,technologist should remained the patient to keep the
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The Pros And Cons Of The Patriot Act
The tragic events of September 11th, 2001 showed the vulnerabilities of this country as a whole,
reflecting the lack of attention this nation gave to terrorism. Following September 11th, it was clear
that drastic preventative measures needed to be taken in order to avoid reoccurrence of a destructive
and deadly act of terrorism (Simon, 2009). As a response to the attacks, The Patriot Act was passed
in October of 2001 in order to give federal agencies a substantial increase in power in accessing,
monitoring, and examining records and citizens who have been identified as, or could potentially be,
risks to this country. This act also allowed federal agents to single out and watch potential
individuals labeled as terrorists without evidence linking them to an actual terrorist organization, as
well as allowing for an increase in wiretapping phones of potential suspects (Banks, 2010). ... Show
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President Bush intended through legislation, to aid federal agencies in identifying potential terrorists
and to ultimately protect this country from possible potential terrorist attacks in the future (Banks,
2010). Both individuals in power and ordinary citizens were greatly supportive of giving up certain
liberties and privacy in order for the protection of the greater good. However, The Patriot Act was
extremely controversial and advocates feared that power could be abused and that non–threatening
citizens were being examined for crimes in which were not terrorist related (Sievert, 2007).
Additionally, the most controversial aspect of The Patriot Act was the fear of privacy in relation to
the first and fourth amendment (Xhelili and Crowne,
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WolfeC Evaluating website NR500 Essays
Evaluating a Website for Credibility Charles B Wolfe Chamberlain College of Nursing Evaluating a
Website for Credibility A search for men's health related website conducted using the public search
engine Google.com. Men's Health Network (MHN), http://www.menshealthnetwork.org, is a
nonprofit organization reaching out to males and their families focusing on the growing health crisis
that affect the premature mortality of men (Men's Health Network, 2014). Approximately 50% of
the population is male; evaluating the sites credibility is important when using it as an educational
tool for male patients related to prevention and management of health. Evaluation of website MHN
is comprised of spokespersons and advisory board. The website ... Show more content on
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MHN website navigation is user friendly with headings at the top of the web pages that are identical
on every page. The font utilized is clear, easy to read, and not strenuous on the eyes. All links in
headings are operational and link phrases are clearly described to target page. MHN security link
states commitment to ensuring user privacy and that any information collected is used only in
accordance to the November 2012 policy (Men's Health Network, 2014). MHN informs that the
website will request permission to place "cookies" on user's computer. The term "cookie" is defined
and gives the user informed consent. MHN clearly states that clicking links to partnerships and
outside sources link takes the user away from MHN site and states, "we cannot be responsible for
the protection and privacy of any information which you provide whilst visiting such sites and such
sites are not governed by this privacy statement." (Men's Health Network, 2014). Empirical
evidence Building credibility for a website requires providing links to reputable organizations which
increase traffic, thereby increasing its relevance in search outcomes (Calabro, 2010). MHN achieves
this with a banner containing links to other organizations for the reader to get additional
information, but the sites that the reader is linked to do not always reciprocate a link back. Calabro
(2010) suggests that updating the home page
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Determining Website Credibility Essay
Determining Website Credibility
Jessica Rojas
Chamberlain College of Nursing
Abstract
Advancements in technology have led people to be affected by an overflow of information. Many
websites contain information that is unmonitored making it difficult for nurses to obtain accurate,
credible information. It is essential for people such as health care professionals to know how to
determine the credibility of a website in order to ensure that the information being provided to the
patients is accurate. Nurses guide their practice by the use of evidence based practice and provide
their patients with information on a routine basis. Thus, it is important for them to ensure a website
is credible before providing the patient with any type of information. By the use of the criteria
authority, information, objectivity, ease of navigation, and privacy/security policies, nurses can more
effectively and efficiently determine website credibility. The criteria was applied to the Center for
Disease Control (CDC) website in order to determine the credibility of this website with satisfactory
results.
Determining Website Credibility While advances in technology can be beneficial, the growing need
to have answers at our fingertips has contributed to issues with the credibility of websites. The
internet is bursting with information that can be obtained through search engines or databases.
However, problems arise when it comes to determining the accuracy behind the content obtained
because some of
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Forelimb Ladder Experiment
The purpose of this experiment was to compare rat forelimb preference in the cylinder task and
performance on the horizontal ladder task before and after ischemic stroke in the left motor cortex.
This demonstrates the behavioural effects of ischemic strokes in localized brain regions, including
motor areas. Our results implicate the motor cortex in the production of voluntary movement, and
illustrate the effect of neuronal death on this behaviour. These results support our hypotheses,
revealing that stroke produces deficits in horizontal ladder task performance and decreases forelimb
preference for the limb contralateral to the stroke region. Our results for the horizontal ladder task
found that, on the side contralateral to where stroke ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It is also likely that the rat forepaws could not fit through this gap, and that fewer errors were
recorded simply due to the close spacing of the rungs. In the '1–Irregular' condition, it is possible
that compensatory changes in locomotion to the stroke occurred. This is unlikely, however, as the
purpose of irregular spacing is to control for post–stroke compensation (Metz and Whishaw, 2009).
All other ladder conditions showed an increase in paw slip errors post–stroke, including the regular
patterns. This suggests that rats were unable to compensate behaviourally to the regular patterns
post–stroke. Regardless, literature shows that compensatory behaviours occur on the horizontal
ladder task within a few sessions (Metz and Whishaw, 2002; Metz et al., 2005). However, our rats
only performed three trials for each condition on the horizontal ladder over one day. Thus, the
compensatory mechanisms may have needed more time to develop in response to stroke. Results
from the cylinder task showed a significant increase in left forelimb preference (with a
corresponding decrease in right forelimb preference) after ischemic stroke induced in the left motor
cortex, supporting our hypothesis. This is most likely due to the stroke in the left forelimb motor
area making it difficult to control digit movements, wrist extension, elbow flexion, and shoulder
movements for the right limb (Neafsey and Sievert, 1982; Tennant et al., 2011). Therefore, the left
forelimb would be
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Argumentative Essay On Mars
Today's scientists would agree that no planet has been more "steeped in myths and misconception"
than Mars. Just about a hundred years ago, several scientists sincerely believed that extraterrestrial
life was present on planet Mars, so the US government listened for radio signals from Mars until
1924. In movies such as Flight to Mars (1951), Mars was portrayed as a scary, mysterious place
inhabited by hostile aliens which we know today is false. However, in 1965, NASA and JPL sent the
first spacecraft, Mariner 4, to fly by Mars. Today, there are seven active missions that are being used
to collect more data, including two rovers, Opportunity and Curiosity, which explore the surface.
Mars has been garnering a lot of attention from the media ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
It is made up largely of Carbon dioxide (95.32%), along with Nitrogen (2.7%), Argon (1.6%), and
Oxygen (0.13%). The biggest issue caused by a significantly thinner atmosphere synergized with not
having a global magnetic field is radiation. The magnetic field generated by Earth's liquid iron core
shields the planet from 99.9% of harmful radiation. However, in space, radiation is a serious hazard.
The radiation dosage from the shortest round trip to Mars is about 0.66 sieverts, which is equivalent
to receiving a CT scan every five or six days. The dose of radiation one will absorb from staying at
Mars for a year would range from 0.2 sieverts to 0.3 sieverts depending on the location. To put
things in perspective, absorbing a total of 8 sieverts will most likely result in death. Also, with a
significantly small amount of Oxygen (0.13%), humans would have to wear a space suit while
outside and live in pressurized habitats. Furthermore, Mars' gravity is 31% compared to that of
Earth's gravity, which means that readjustments would have to be made in order to properly walk
and run. Although this is a minor difference, it is more ideal compared to Earth's moon whose
gravity is 17% of
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Army Profession Of Arms
The Army Profession of Arms Essay 4 The Army Profession of Arms Essay The HR Sergeants Role
SSG Sievert, Eric J 42A30 ALC Class 003, B Class The Army White Paper, The Profession of
Arms, provides an insight into what it means for the Army to be a Profession of Arms, what it means
to be a professional Soldier, and how Soldiers individually and as a profession meet these
aspirations after a decade of war. The Army is made up of numerous jobs that have multiple roles.
One in particular is the Human Resource Sergeant. HR Sergeants are a profession of its own; they
provide a broader framework for the Profession of Arms, balance the role of the Profession's leaders,
and are greatly influenced by the Army's professional culture. ... Show more content on
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The culture around the HR Sergeant can very easily change negatively by having a toxic leader in
place. HR Sergeants strive to have the best leadership skills and strive to develop their subordinates
to be the best leaders they can be. This ensures the culture will not be negatively impacted due the
HR Profession. HR Sergeants can be counted on in tough times because they are both self–aware at
an intuitional level and personal level. Being aware ensures the unit will be ready for whatever task
comes next which shows the strong culture of the Profession of Arms. HR Sergeants have a
professional identity unlike any other. Their leadership helps guide their fellow soldiers to strive for
excellence in every aspect and live by the Army
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Chernobyl Unit 4
On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM, a chain reaction in the core of Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear
Power Station in the then–Soviet Union resulted in an initial explosion having a force of between 30
and 40 tons of TNT. The explosion came as a result of an ill–planned experiment, where the pumps
from the plant's emergency water cooling systems were shut down. In RBMK reactors (which stands
for "reaktor bolshoy moshchnosty kanalny", or "high–power channel reactor" in Russian) such as
the Chernobyl Unit 4, graphite is used as a moderator and water as a coolant. Moderators are
necessary to slow down the speed of the neutrons because slower neutrons are more effective at
fission than faster ones, which will make the fission chain reaction end. In many ... Show more
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Because of this, larger predators like wolves have higher doses of radiation. Fish bones from an
amur carp found near the cooling pond were too radioactive to even be touched. With this being the
case, we can only imagine what the effects upon the animals that eat them are, eagles. However,
there are other factors that affect internal doses of radioactive elements. Rodents contain higher
doses for their size than other animals because they spend a lot of time closer to the ground as well
as in burrows where the concentration of radioactivity is still high. And decomposers such as fungi
and bacteria contain high levels of radioactivity as they decompose and circulate the radionuclides
and absorb it like nutrients directly from the soil. A wild boar, with mushrooms being its favorite
food, can absorb over 30 times safe levels of radiation during mushroom's peak growing
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Radiation Threats Of Astronauts On A Long Journey Through...
Samantha Stickles
ESS102 Section AD
Due: 10/23/15
Radiation Threats to Astronauts on a Long Journey through Space Astronauts travelling to Mars or
another distant area of interest would face numerous challenges throughout their journey, one of
which is being exposed to radiation from space. There are two types of radiation: ionizing radiation
and non–ionizing radiation. [1] Non–ionizing radiation is radiation that cannot cause electrons to
become detached from the atom, like visible light and radio waves. [1] This type of radiation is not
dangerous for astronauts and is commonly found on Earth. Ionizing radiation, on the other hand, has
enough energy to remove electrons from their orbits around an atom, causing a charged particle. [1]
... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
[1] This type of radiation would be dangerous for astronauts, and it would need to be shielded
against for long distance space travel to be viable. SPE are the ejection of very energetic protons,
alpha particles and heavier particles into space; these include solar flares and coronal mass ejections.
[1] Under normal conditions, astronauts would not be concerned about this, but occasionally, very
large SPEs occur that can produce radiation with energy levels high enough to be lethal in a very
short period of time. In fact, between Apollo missions 16 and 17, one of the largest SPEs ever
recorded occurred, and it produced radiation with energy levels that would be lethal to astronauts
outside the atmosphere in under 10 hours. [1] The health risks of radiation exposure can be
described as either acute or chronic. Acute exposure is short term and the severity of symptoms
ranges from nausea to central nervous system damage and even to death in large doses. [2] Chronic
exposure is usually less intense radiation but for a longer period of time, and the health risks include
developing cataracts and an increased risk of cancer. [2] This is the most pressing issue for astronaut
safety. Normally, when exposed to the low levels of radiation we encounter every day, cells are able
to mend themselves very quickly. When we are exposed to high doses, such as astronauts would
encounter in space, cells may not be able to repair themselves and can become mutated
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The Ncaa 's Policy On Amateurism
The NCAA's policy on amateurism has been around since the creation of the NCAA by Theodore
Roosevelt. This policy was created to prevent teams from hiring ringers to play in games and to
limit point shaving/corruption in collegiate sports. Currently, prospective student athletes have to be
certified as an amateur by the NCAA Clearinghouse in order to compete in any competitions. Over
the last decade, there has been an increase in the National Collegiate Athletic Association or
NCAA's policy on Amateurism. As previously stated, this policy has been around since the creation
of the NCAA, but the elements of the policy are almost the same. According to the NCAA Manual,
a student–athlete is considered an amateur if they have not: "signed a contract with a professional
team, received payment for participating in athletics, played with professionals, received benefits
from an agent or prospective agent, or agreed to be represented by an agent" (NCAA, 2015). The
main reason why amateurism has been such a hot topic is the lawsuit by Ed O'Bannon and others
against the NCAA and its' licensing partner. This lawsuit was based on the fact that the NCAA, EA
Sports, and the NCAA's licensing partner for using his (Ed O'Bannon) likeness and image for video
games without compensating him (Sievert, 2015; Tracy and Strauss, 2015). This lawsuit was started
because Ed O'Bannon, a former UCLA basketball player, noticed that the NCAA was using classic
teams, including the 1996 UCLA team that he
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The Death Of The Medical Physicist
. Knickerbocker had no explanation to scanning Jacoby 151 times, she said she only pressed the
button 4–6 times and the machine must have malfunctioned. Her story changed several times, she
said Jacoby's parents distracted her, the scanning table wouldn't move incrementally, and Jacoby's
father was leaning on the table. Knickerbocker also stated that when she suspected the machine was
malfunctioning, she called for help, but none arrived. Knickerbocker left the hospital two weeks
after the incident and her license was suspended on September 30th by the California Department of
Public Health. A report by the hospital's medical physicist calculated that the boy's absorbed
radiation dose was 2.8 Gy (2,800 mSv) and possibly as high as 11 Gy (11,000 mSv). The dose the
boy received compared to a range of 1.5–4.0 mSv for a normal pediatric CT study of the entire
spine. A report by the hospital 's medical physicist concluded the child had a lifetime increased risk
of a fatal cancer of 39%, (Estimated Risk of Radiation Induced Fatal Cancer from Pediatric CT.
(2001, February 1). American Journal of Roentgenology, Pp 289–296). Bruce Fleck, the hospital's
former radiology manager, testified that there was no way the machine could have automatically
taken the images, the machine was in the manual axial mode, "She had to hit the button each time."
Fleck continued on to say "I think it was just a rogue act of insanity", (Bogdanich, W. (2009,
October 15). Jacoby Roth and the Mad River
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Nuclear Plant Epidemic: Effect Of Fukushima Radiation On...
Jung Won Lee & Josh Dill Lee 1
Professor Ritu Kansal
CHM 111
11/04/2014
Effect of Fukushima Radiation on Matter
It is a term that mankind has come to be familiar with ever since the Great World War, but exactly
what radiation does to matter, including living and nonliving, is a subject that only a few know
about. The Nuclear Plant catastrophe caused by the tsunami that devastated the
Tohoku region of Japan was thought to be of a local problem but wasn't so. In this research paper,
we will detail information about what radiation is and how radiation caused by
Fukushima affects matter, even to a distance across the vastness of the Pacific Ocean; or should I
say – the entire Planet. "In vitro and in vivo" studies conducted ... Show more content on
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Effects include diseases such as birth defects and many forms of cancer. Alpha particles, although
they are stopped rather easily, can be ingested by the living organism; thus causing damage from the
interior of the organism. Beta particles effect the DNA of the organism, and Gamma particles are
viewed to be the most devastating form of radiation for a living organism. Due to their penetrating
strength, Gamma particles can damage a wide depth of cells (Tissues) before they dissipate, but after
already establishing much damage such as Radiation sickness (Chou & Su). The two types of
particles that are of interest from Fukushima's fallout is Iodine 131 and
Cesium 137. These two particles emit both Gamma particle radiation and also Alpha particle Lee 4
radiation, as these radioactive elements were the by–product from the Fukushima nuclear power
plant. Emphasized by the World Nuclear Association, a singular dosage rate of a micro Sievert is
enough to cause symptoms of radiation sickness and a low white blood cell count for
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Using Signing Statements
Ramification of Using Signing Statements
According to Strauss (2006), "the presidential signing statements have come out of obscurity and
into the headlines. Along with salutary attention to an interesting issue, the new public visibility of
signing statements have generated much overblown commentary. The desire to make these little–
known documents interesting to the public–and to score points in the inevitable political battles over
any practice engaged in by a sitting President–has produced a lot of discussion that misleads the
public. Signing statements constitute a striking official power that has recently caught insightful and
political consideration. Earlier writing recommends that presidents utilization signing statements to
increase extra strategy concessions from Congress. Confirmation of approach inspirations are,
nonetheless, hard to exhibit and arrangement thought processes neglect to clarify a wide range of
existing statements.
Evans (2007) infers that the affluent antiquity of the U.S. presidency is confused with illustrations of
presidents endeavoring to practice their influence through this apparatus. The initially archived
utilization of the signing statement is when President Monroe issued an announcement to ensure his
presidential privilege. Be that as it may, the instrument did not turn into a generally utilized vital
weapon until the Reagan organization had the capacity to get it included into the administrative
history (Kelley 2007). Kelley
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Essay
9:01 AM Harold sets Gerald's carrier next to his computer at his desk. "There you go Gerald."
Harold assures Gerald. "Meow." Gerald meows. "Harold!" Winford shouts from his office.
"Coming!" Harold shouts back. Harold steps into the office to find Richards on video call again.
"So, cross–referencing these emissions with what I already had, the new readings seem to be more
series of numbers that I can't attribute to anything, but when converted to English letters it spelled
out 'S–E–N–D–C–A–T–O–R–D–I–E'. Now, I'm not sure what this means or if it's just happenstance,
but I also happened to notice that the amplitudes of the frequencies happened to be much larger than
the other readings I'm sure you noticed as well. It's almost as if ... Show more content on
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"NO!" Harold screams as he lunges to grab Gerald.
"Harold! We don't have a choice! The fate of humanity is at stake here! They said 'SEND CAT OR
DIE.'" Winford reminds Harold.
"That could mean anything!" Harold cries, tears forming in his eyes.
Gerald puts a paw on Harold's face. "Meow." He meows, assuring Harold.
"Ok. I trust you Gerald. Go save the human race." Harold says softly.
Gerald turns back and nods at Winford, then turns to the sphere. He then leaps out of Winford's arms
into the sphere of infinite darkness.
"MEOWEOOWW!" Gerald meows.
The sphere closes up and vanishes.
Harold murmurs gently, "Where did he go?"
"He could be anywhere." Winford replies.
"Do you think he's somewhere in space?"
"I don't know."
"What if he gets radiation sickness from the large amounts of radiation exposure?! The radiation
emitted from the galactic cosmic rays are going to be cancer inducing to Gerald–just like they are
for humans. The radiation dose in space is well over 100 mSv. This could decrease the lifespan of
his life. He could go blind or suffer from other impairments [12]. If he gets radiation exposure of
over 1000 rem, he's going to die in days [13]!"
"Harold I–"
"And what about muscle atropy?! You know that if he ever comes back to Earth from space that he'll
suffer the same fate as every other human astronaut. He doesn't have gravity to push him down and
get blood flowing into his legs. He doesn't have the exercise
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A Short Note On Ct Dose Calculation ( Ct )
iSAP – CT Dose Calculation
Introduction:
The role of computed tomography (CT) in imaging has risen substantially in the previous decade
(Hess et al. 2014). With its increasing demand, one of the most predominant concerns for radiation
workers is the dose administered to the patient (Hess et al. 2014). Therefore, the calculation of dose
is a parameter that must be monitored closely.
Task 1:
Exposure
Exposure is the amount of electrical charge produced by ionising radiation per unit mass of air. It is
measured in Coulomb per kilogram C kg–1, where its former unit was Roentgen (Schoepf 2005).
Absorbed dose
The absorbed dose is the energy (joules) deposited by ionising radiation per unit mass of material in
kilograms, as a result of exposure to ionising radiation. The absorbed dose is therefore measured in
J/kg or gray (Gy) where 1Gy = 1J/kg. The absorbed dose is calculated by multiplying exposure with
W, where W is the conversion factor from exposure to absorbed dose depending on the absorbing
medium (Siegel 2008).
Equivalent dose
The absorbed dose is a poor indicator of the likely biological effect, as the biological effect of the
same absorbed dose will depend on the type of radiation. This is because the linear energy transfer
of radiations that produce dense ionisation tracks cause more biological damage per unit dose than
low linear energy transfer radiations, and thus must have higher radiation weighting factors.
Therefore, the equivalent dose (HT) is measured
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Nr500 Evaluation of a Website Credibility Essay
Evaluating a Website for Credibility: KidsHealth NR500 Foundational Concepts and Application
Evaluation of a Websites Credibility: KidsHealth In today's world of medicine when developing a
patient care plan nurses should use evidence–based practice that has been peer–reviewed by subject
matter experts (Miller, Jones, Graves, & Sievert 2010). The internet is frequently used by
nurses to gather more information, expand their knowledge base, and provide patient education. The
website http://kidshealth.org was found using the Google search engine, and chosen because of my
work with the pediatric population. The purpose of KidsHealth is to provide parents, teens, and kids
with a resource to consult regarding the health, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
At the end of each section the name and credentials of the individual who reviewed the information,
the date reviewed, and the name and credentials of the individual who originally reviewed the
information are stated. There are also links to webpages containing additional resources, which
include: CDC, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the United States Food and Drug
Administration. Ease of Navigation and Privacy and Security KidsHealth does not require the
creation of a user identification and password too access information, articles, or additional
resources. A broadband and wireless network connection were used to access KidsHealth; in both
cases the website loaded quickly without errors present. Images and sounds could be visualized and
heard using both connections, and the links provided were functioning with information loaded in a
timely manner. Resources were clearly labeled with subject matters easily located. Credibility
KidsHealth is a credible site for individuals to obtain information regarding the health and
development of children. MEDLINEPlus, the CDC, Mayo Clinic, and KidsHealth are recommended
to both consumer and professional
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Should We Support Nasa's Plan To Explore Mars?
In my opinion I believe NASA'S plan to explore mars is not a good idea. I think the money paid by
taxpayers should be used for solving other issues concerning the welfare of the country. U.S.A.
government should channelize the financial as well as technological resources into something that is
beneficial for the present generation.
According to the various articles I read I learnt that mars mission is a difficult task and there are a
number of reasons attached to it. Firstly, talking about the technology required to carry out the mars
mission is not currently available. The spacecraft present today is not equipped to land on mars. A
huge amount of technological advancements need to be made. The technological improvements that
need to be made are definitely going to be time consuming. No major changes occur in one night.
Therefore it is important to notice that time is an obstacle that might hinder the technological growth
which is extremely essential for this mission to take place. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
I would not support NASA's manned mission to mars because of the financial constrains attached
with it. Data from several readings suggest that the total cost of the mission is going to be
approximately $80 to $100 billion which is definitely a huge amount. A workshop group of more
than 60 individuals representing more than 30 government, industry, academic and other
organizations has found that a NASA–led manned mission is not feasible with current budget in
hand. NASA already spends around $4 billion a year on exploration programs; most of that is
devoted to developing the Orion spacecraft and a new rocket that would one day carry astronauts to
Mars or other deep–space destinations. This amount of money could be used for present issues like
poverty, unemployment that are cause of serious concern for a large group of
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Radiation Safety And Protection Standards
X–rays were first discovered in 1895, and from that moment on, the use of x–rays as a diagnostic
tool has been instrumental in diagnosing disease. Although commonly called x–rays, or simply
radiation, scientists have more specifically termed the form of radiation, "ionizing radiation." The
World Health Organization defines ionizing radiation as "radiation with enough energy, so that
during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from the orbit of an atom,
causing the atom to become charged or ionized" (2014). Because the human body is made up of
atoms, ionizing radiation has the ability to alter the composition of atoms in the body, by targeting
electrons. This effect can alter DNA structure and function, which ... Show more content on
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Ionizing radiation is used worldwide in medicine to help physicians diagnose and treat a multitude
of health problems. According to the World Health Organization, "annually, worldwide, more than
3,600 million X–ray examinations are performed, 37 million nuclear medicine procedures are
carried out, and 7.5 million radiotherapy treatments are given" (2014). With so many patients
exposed to ionizing radiation in medicine, strict global safety regulations must be enforced to ensure
patient exposure is kept as low as possible. Using the basic principle of ALARA (As Low As
Reasonably Achievable), global organizations analyze patient exposures to ensure their radiation
dose levels are kept as low as possible, without compromising the integrity of examinations. These
organizations also ensure that radiation workers are not receiving unnecessary occupational
exposure. Certain cells and tissues are more susceptible to radiation damage than others. Those cells
considered most radiosensitive can include those of the "the basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus,
gonads, and lens," meaning they can be affected even by small doses of radiation (Goodman, 2010).
In contrast, "Muscle, bones, and nervous system tissues have a relative low radiosensitivity,"
meaning they require larger amounts of radiation exposure to show damaging effects (Goodman,
2010). Patient exposure is determined by dosimeters,
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Research Paper : Space Travel Space
Research Paper: Space Travel Space Habitability Synopsis: For my Sci–fi paper I am going to write
about a manned mission to Mars focusing mostly on the space travel there rather than what happens
when the colonist get there. I will be researching life support systems and what would be required to
support a small manned mission during their trip. I will also be doing additional research on possible
issues we might encounter in space travel and incorporate some of them into the story such as
effects of zero gravity and cosmic radiation. My story will be focused on the Mars Two mission (In
this story the first manned mission had failed) with their ship the United Nations Ship (UNS)
Utopia. Which will successfully launch from low Earth orbit where it was constructed. Research:
Life support systems are critical to any kind of manned space mission especially if it's going to be
one way which will most likely be the case for a mission to mars. We will need to take into account
oxygen, water, food, radiation protection and a way to generate energy to power all these systems.
The recommended minimum for a worker living in space is, "about 3000 Cal/day... 2000g of water,
470g dry weight of various carbohydrates and fats, 60 to 70 g of dry weight proteins and adequate
quantities of various minerals and vitamins" (Richard D. Johnson 1975). Due to these human dietary
needs if we wanted to transport a large enough quantity of people to start a colony on mars we
would need have so much
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Describe The Chemical Process In Making Americium
Chemical process in making americium:
The most popular type of smoke alarm is an ionization chamber smoke alarm. These contain 0.28
micrograms of the radioactive isotope americium 241, in the form of americium dioxide. Americium
is a synthetic element, so it must be produced in a nuclear reactor. Americium is made from
plutonium 241, yet this needs to also be made in a nuclear reactor. Uranium 238 in a nuclear reactor
it is hit with a neutron, which makes uranium 239. Uranium 239 has a half–life of 23.5 minutes, the
uranium goes through beta decay becomes neptunium 239. This neptunium will then form
plutonium 239 via beta decay over two days, this is then bombarded with two neutrons to become
plutonium 241. Plutonium 241 has a half–life of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It has become a social (as well as a government) expectation to have them installed in your home.
Smoke alarms save lives; without a smoke alarm you are 4 times more likely to die in the event of a
fire. The americium inside the alarm is an alpha and low–energy gamma emitter. Alpha radiation can
be stopped by a piece of paper or a few centimetres of air, meaning you could stand under a raw
sample of americium and not be in any danger. Yet, gamma radiation has the wavelength near that of
an atomic nuclei (10 Pico meters) meaning that they penetrated far more easily. These rays are weak
enough not to do any harm, yet are the major factor to the radiation from a smoke alarm. It has
become a misconception that smoke alarms are a threat to health because of their radioactivity. The
radiation emitted from a smoke alarm annually is 9–50 nano–sieverts, eating banana releases the
equivalent of 100 nano–sieverts, the average background radiation in Australia is 2000000 nano–
sieverts, to put how little radiation is absorbed from a smoke alarm. The real problem is only when
americium is internalised into the body, because it is an alpha emitter. It poses a threat to health
because even though the alpha particles themselves are harmless, the speeds they travel give them
the ability to break bonds and ionize atoms, thus causing cancer. When in the body 90% stays in you
and the rest is excreted, it goes to the liver, bones and ovaries or testicles where it has the possibility
to cause cancer or birth
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An Analysis Of Online Health Information From Psychology...
An Analysis of Online Health Information from Psychology Today Sarah E. Basuric University of
Alberta Faculty of Nursing 1229968 The purpose of this discussion is to analyze an article from
Psychology Today entitled A Multitasking Molecule: Melatonin Does a lot More Than Help you
Sleep. This discussion will explore the credibility of the site, the purpose of the article, the
congruency of content versus audience, the methods used, and the balance of information. Upon
viewing the site, the top of the screen urges the reader to find a therapist, and contains a clearly laid
out navigation bar. Advertisements and links to other Psychology Today articles run down the right
side of the screen. The site is quite user–friendly. This article was written by Rachel Uda; the date of
publication and date of last review are listed. Lorraine Roberts (2010) explains criteria for
evaluating a health website. The first is credibility, in which the reader is to seek out specific
qualifications of the author (Roberts, 2010, p. 322). A search of both the "experts" drop–down menu
and the general search bar of Psychology Today did not yield any credentials for Uda. A Google
search brought up her LinkedIn site, which states that she attended Graduate School of Journalism
from Columbia University. This leads the writer to question the qualifications of the author, as it
appears she has credentials as a journalist, not as a psychologist or expert on
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C-Arm Fluoroscopy
The purpose of this assignment is to find a topic in patient care that is significant in patient care in
radiography. Then review and summarize an article pertaining to this topic that was selected. Then it
will be connected to how it is valuable it is as a future radiographer and to professionals and how it
is relevant. The topic that will be discussed is the effect on radiation exposure in pediatric patients
with c–arm fluoroscopy. This is because one of the most common radiographic procedures for
pediatric patients is fluoroscopy and it is important to lower their radiation dose as much as possible.
C–arm is known to have high amounts of radiation to the patient and if a patient is exposed to
radiation it increases their risk for problems ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the class, it has been stressed that there is an importance to lower the radiation dose to the patient.
It is important to lower the dose of radiation because it reduces the chance of radiation induced
complications. It is the one of the priorities of a radiographer to reduce the radiation dose to the
patient. This article was informative of another way to reduce the dose to the patient. Radiation dose
for all patients should be reduced as much as possible because radiation does have harmful effects
and should be limited throughout a year. The project was done to "determine if having a laser
targeting system would decrease the radiation dose by eliminating unintentional radiation prior to
localizing the region of interest" (Schenk & Johnston p. 39). The idea behind laser targeting was to
limit and reduce the time it took to do the procedure, by reducing time exposed to radiation it lowers
the dose to the patient. The laser "aids the technologist in properly aligning the c–arm in the desired
position without exposing the patient to radiation" (Schenk & Johnston p. 42). Before the radiation
dose was higher because the part of interest was located while radiation was occurring. Now to
know that the laser can locate the part of interest before exposing the patient to radiation will help
allow me to reduce patient dose if there is a laser with that particular fluoroscopic machine. Even
though this experiment was done using pediatric patients, it is relevant information for adult patients
as well because it is important to lower radiation dose regardless of age. This information will be
helpful in the future because fluoroscopy is a common procedure and if there is a laser available on
the machine, it should be utilized so radiographers and students can help reduce the radiation dose to
that patient especially, now that it was found to have some effect on
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Nuclear Power in the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union, after World War II, had begun building many facilities for nuclear reprocessing
using many radioactive components. The Russian government, being behind in the nuclear era,
decided they needed to move quickly and start producing a sustainable nuclear chain reaction with
secrecy. One of these facilities they built was so discreet it wasn't on any official maps at that time.
In the town of Ozyorsk, Russia they built the Mayak nuclear fuel processing complex. This
particular accident has been titled and associated with Kryshtym because that was the closest town
on an official map that they could categorize it with. They built this complex between 1945 and
1948 to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. Since they had to move fast at building this
complex, as well as poor understanding or little education of nuclear safety, and major disregards for
human wellness, the systems were poorly built. They used what is called an open cycle cooling
system, in which they pumped the water back and forth into their water source. Their main water
source was Lake Karachay, as well as the Tech River. All 6 reactors that the Mayak nuclear complex
had used the open cycle cooling system. They used huge lids weighing 160 tons for the tops of these
radioactive components and systems, and even had them buried 8.2 meters (27 feet) under ground.
With these cooling systems being built with the eager notion to be ahead in the nuclear era, they
weren't prepared for any kind of error. If
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Radiation Quantity And Units Essay
Radiation quantity and units Most scientists in the international community measure radiation using
the System International (SI), a uniform system of weights and measures that evolved from the
metric system. In the United States, however, the conventional system of measurement is still
widely used.
2.2.1) Units of Radioactivity:
The original unit for measuring the amount of radioactivity was the curie (Ci)–first defined to
correspond to one gram of radium–226 and more recently defined as: 1 curie = 3.7x1010 radioactive
decays per second. In the International System of Units (SI) the curie has been replaced by the
Becquerel (Bq), where One Ci is equal to 37 billion (37 X 109) Bq.
Ci or Bq may be used to refer to the amount of radioactive materials released into the environment.
2.2.2) Radiation exposure unit:
The exposure rate defined as the exposure per unit time. The special unit of exposure is the roentgen
(R) defined as the amount of gamma ray and X– ray radiation that produced a charge of 1
electrostatic unit (esu) of charge per 0.001293 g (1cm3) of dry air at standard temperature and
pressure (IAEA, 1989). The SI (stander international) units of exposure are coulomb/Kg of dry air.
1R = 2.58 × 10–4 C/Kg in air
2.2.3) Absorbed dose unit:
Sometimes also known as the physical dose, defined by the amount of energy deposited in a unit
mass in human tissue or other media. The original unit is the rad [100 erg/g]; it is now being widely
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Medical Imaging And Ionizing Radiation Effects On Human...
Medical Imaging and Ionizing Radiation Effects on Human Health
Abstract:
Ionizing radiation that is used in medical imaging releases free radicals. These radicals can interfere
with the molecular chemical bonds that is responsible for regulating the cellular function inside the
cell. The interaction between free radicals and the molecules inside the cell might lead to genetic
mutations in the DNA and it can damage cellular enzymes leading to the proliferation of cancer
cells. In the United States, 50% of the environmental exposure to ionizing radiation is mainly
attributed to medical imaging. Computed tomography (CT) scans are the main source of X–rays, a
form of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this project is to present an overview of the main reasons
for exposure, explaining the possible future effects of ionizing radiation on human health,
enlightening the imaging modalities with ionizing radiation, addressing the population at risk, and
explaining the main principles and recommendations to avoid and limit the exposure to ionizing
radiation. _
Key Words: Computed tomography (CT) scans. X–rays.
Medical Imaging and Ionizing Radiation Effects on Human Health
Introduction: Ionizing radiation is a form of radiation that is characterized by displacing electrons
from atoms or molecules, forming ions. Some examples
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The Disaster Preparedness Cycle Of Chernobyl
Chernobyl, in northern Ukraine and bordering Belarus, was one of the worst industrial disasters in
the world's history (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Even though the immediate effects were
catastrophic, the long–term effects have reached far, and continue to affect the area even today. The
history of the disaster, preparedness, and will be discussed, as well as the disaster preparedness
cycle. The disaster at Unit 4 at Chernobyl occurred at 0124 on April 26, 1986 (Smith and Beresford,
2005). At this time, there were four functional units for generating electricity, with two more being
built (Smith and Beresford, 2005). On April 25, these RBMK–1000 reactors were having supply
failure testing performed at the time of the disaster ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This happened due to a flaw in the RBMK design (Smith and Beresford, 2005). In most reactors, a
pending disaster would lead to the machine reducing its power, and avoiding this type of disaster
(Smith and Beresford, 2005). However, in this design of reactor, when water or steam is lost, power
levels rise, steam is created, and toxins can be released (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Thus, the
radiation from this explosion was spread in the air. After the explosion, first responders rushed in
with no comprehension of what they were exposing themselves to (Smith and Beresford, 2005).
During the immediate aftermath, the levels of radiation were not able to be measured, as no
equipment could measure that high (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Days after Chernobyl Unit 4 had
its explosion, the core was still burning (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Emergency employees
attempted to cool the core with sand, clay, and other materials, but it did not stop until ten days later
(Smith and Beresford, 2005). 134 of these workers had acute radiation illness, and 28 of these died
months later, with 20 cases having severe radiation illness (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Symptoms
included burns, sterility, and nausea; these were deterministic effects (Smith and Beresford, 2005).
This was a result of both gamma and beta
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Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear Medicine
Nuclear medicine has been around for more than 50 years now and stems from the discovery of x–
rays and artificial radioactivity. In 1946, nuclear medicine made a monumental breakthrough when
radioactive iodine led to the complete disappearance of cancer in a patient's thyroid. Nuclear
medicine became widely used in the 1950's to measure the function of the thyroid, to diagnose
thyroid disease, and for the treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism. By the 1970's nuclear
medicine was used to visualize other organs of the body other than the thyroid such as scanning of
the liver and spleen, localizing brain tumors, and images of the gastrointestinal track. The use of
digital computers and detection of heart disease arose in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This table shows the common risks that people face in everyday life compared to that individual
dying from taking that risk. These figures were taken from "Living with Risk", published by the
British Medical Association, 1987.
ACTIVITY RISK OF AN INDIVIDUAL DYING IN ANY ONE YEAR
Smoking 10 cigarettes a day 1 in 200
Influenza 1 in 500
Natural causes, 40 years old 1 in 850
Road Accident 1 in 8,000
Playing Soccer 1 in 25,000
Accident at Home 1 in 26,000
Accident at Work 1 in 43,500
Hit by Lightning 1 in 10,000,000
Release of radiation from a nearby Power Station 1 in 10,000,000
Radiation Exposure at the rate of: * Theoretical worst case figures *
5 mSv per year 1 in 16,000
50 mSv per year 1 in 1,600
OCCUPATION
Deep Sea Fishing (sea accidents before 1970) 1 in 360
Offshore Oil and Gas Industry 1 in 600
Quarrying 1 in 3,000
Coal Mining 1 in 5,000
Railways 1 in 6,000
Construction Industry 1 in 7,000
Agriculture 1 in 9,000
Chemical and Allied Industries 1 in 12,000
Motor Vehicle manufacture 1 in 70,000
Clothing and Footwear manufacture 1 in 200,000
Timber and Furniture manufacture 1 in 250,000
(http://www.petnm.unimelb.edu.au/nucmed/detail/risks.html) "A millisievert (mSV) is a unit of
measure that allows for some comparison between radiation sources that expose the entire body
(such as natural background radiation) and those that only expose a portion of the body (such as
radiographs)."
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The Earth 's State, Photographic Evidence And Data Samples
A MISSION TO MARS
This manned mission to Mars was based on the planet's state, photographic evidence and collected
data samples to conduct the analysis. The crew utilized drilling materials and roving equipment for
movement around Mars to facilitate this process. After descending into Mars surface, gathering of
rock samples was carried out, although further analysis for the time remaining was hindered by the
low pressure present. Also, the cold weather conditions demanded the use of special clothing and
there was no conclusion with evidence on presence of water. The roving equipment captured photos
indicating presence of water below the Martian surface. Though man's mission to the moon has been
the most publicized by media and the scientific community, there has been increased interest on
missions to planet Mars, but this has mostly been based on robotic missions. Robotic missions have
encouraged further explorations on the outer space as there is a possibility to prepare for future
emissions with availability of photographic evidence and technological advancement. With visual
capabilities, our team explored and collected information regarding human future. Mars has an easy
accessibility from earth due to the fact that it is close and the most accommodating among the
others, making the mission viable. It is crucial to implement technological values in this mission to
allow adequate preparation since there has been no prior manned mission to Mars. Before the
commencement
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Long Term Space Flight
Sci–fi Paper Synopsis The scientifically accurate sci–fi paper will be a log of the journey of a couple
on a one way trip to mars. The two know full well they may not return and are dealing with the
ramifications of their decision to make the trip. They will be the first to land on and colonize the
planet and the log will explore some of the logistics of their trip including space habitability and
radiation exposure. The two will experience both the physical and metal effects of long term space
flight as well as some of the methods to combat it. The log chronicles their journey to Mars and the
effects of long term space flight. Health Effects of Long Term Space Flight As humans push out
further, exploring the solar system, the lengths ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In space, outside of the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere which blocks 99.9% of damaging
radiation17, large amounts of radiation from solar flares and coronal mass ejections can reach
astronauts. The damaging effects of radiation varies depending on the amount of exposure.
Radiation can either ionize water inside cells and these ionized water molecules can react with DNA
or radiation can directly hit the DNA molecules. Either way damage is done to the DNA. Damaged
DNA, if not repaired, can lead to mutated cells that can result in cancer. Higher levels of radiation
can lead to radiation sickness and death13. Radiation can also cause central nervous system damage
which can cause neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, motor function damage and even
behavioral changes. Effects of radiation can also be similar to rapid aging14. Of the physiological
effects of space travel, damage from radiation can cause the longest term and most deadly harm.
Currently limits are set on the levels of radiation an astronaut can get in their lifetime based on how
their chance for cancer will increase. But for deep space missions, it won't be possible to follow the
current guidelines15. Inside a spaceship, astronauts are exposed to 1.8 mili–Sievert of ionizing
radiation per day. It has been found that after being exposed to 1 Sievert of
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Radiation Is Natural Part Of The Earth
Radiation is natural part of the Earth. Radiation exists all around us, in the air, the soil, and rock.
Humans have lived, and thrived in a radioactive environment since the beginning of time. Radon is
one form of radiation, it's odorless, tasteless, invisible, and it's in the air we breathe. Cosmic
radiation is in space as heavily charged particles and gamma rays. Terrestrial radiation is emitted
naturally in the form of heat from the Earth. Then we have manmade radiation. In 1895 Roentgen
discovered radiation in his laboratory, the medical benefits of this invisible source of energy were
experimented with in every direction from beauty, to health for many years, and continues to this
day. Radiation is a part of our environment both naturally and unnaturally (Sources of Radiation
Exposure. (2013, June 12). Retrieved from http://epa.gov/radiation/sources/index.html). Just as the
Earth has supplied us with natural radiation, it has supplied us with ways in which to protect us
through nutrition. In the same way we can protect ourselves from natural radiation, we can protect
ourselves from unnatural radiation. Minerals, spices, herbs, seaweed, and plants bind the radiation
particles in our bodies and are removed naturally. Our bodies are incredible healing machines, given
the correct nutrition and avoiding foods that impair the immune system, we are designed to heal and
thrive in a world filled with toxins and even radiation. Natural sources of radiation are everywhere.
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Chronic Roentgens
Clinical Tip #5 Prior to taking radiographs, swipe your gloved finger on your patient's palate and
under the tongue to check for a bony protuberance called tori. It is important not to scratch tori when
placing the film or sensor.
Definitions
Acute effects: Results from high doses of radiation (whole body) normally more than 100 rad. It
may cause transient illness to death.
ALARA principle: Efforts to minimize the amount of radiation "As low as reasonable achievable."
Background radiation: Ionizing radiation, both naturally occurring and artificial, present in the
environment.
Cell recovery: Depending on time, interval, dose and sensitivity of affected cells to radiation, the
cells may repair themselves and recover from harm.
Chronic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Secondary radiation is developed from any matter being hit by primary radiation. Secondary x–rays
have less penetrating energy than primary radiation. Acute (short term) effects of radiation result
from high doses of whole body radiation, 100 rads and above. Clinically, a person may experience a
mild and transient illness to death. It may occur minutes, hours, or weeks after the exposure. The
median lethal whole body dose for humans is 450 rads. Chronic (long–term) effects of radiation can
arrive years after the original exposure. It also may have cumulative effects on the somatic cells over
the lifetime of the patient. Future generations may experience genetic
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Ionizing Diffuse Lung Cancer
Introduction/Background
High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an imaging method that provides more detail than
either chest radiography or conventional CT scanning 1
Compared to other diagnostic tests, like chest radiography and lung function test, HRCT can be
more sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases and detecting abnormalities at
an early stage. HRCT can more accurately assess the pattern and distribution of diffuse lung disease,
and to a lesser degree, assess the activity and potential reversibility of diffuse lung disease. #This
may be beneficial when trying to narrow the differential diagnosis, as it helps exclude certain
diseases, but also help in guidance for further testing in form of for example ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
However, this does not mean that this risk is not present at low radiation dose, as even large
epidemiological studies would not have the statistical power to detect increased risk. 9 10 11
Because not all types of radiation produce the same biological effect, the dose equivalent, expressed
in Sieverts (Sv) is often used instead of absorbed dose, measured in grays (Gy). In medical imaging
radiation doses are typically expressed as millisievert
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EHR In Healthcare
The implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) in the hospital is very complex and requires
detail planning. Recognizing organizational and technical aspects of the EHR is crucial matter
because those factors affect the outcome of the implementation directly and indirectly. The culture
of an organization and its structure, the building block of the organization (infrastructure), money,
management, and human skills play a major role in the implementation phase of EHRs in an acute
care setting (Boonstra, Versluis, & Vos, 2014). The EHR implementation in the hospitals would be
more challenging compared to outpatient settings because confidentiality, safety, security and data
entry intricacy concerns.
Many experts believe that communication,
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Computed Tomography Of A Hospital
The Hospital is a workplace that houses a wide variety of careers. Nurses and therapists alike find
employment in hospitals around the world and are each a part of a unique department. One
department in particular, though, is as about as diverse as they come. The medical imaging
department can be home to over 10 different modalities, some of which include X–ray, Computed
Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR), Nuclear Medicine, and Sonography. Each specialty
has its own purpose and is as vital to the hospital as the next. I am attending St. Catharine in hopes
of obtaining a bachelor's degree in radiographic technology, as well as certification in CT and
possibly MRI. For now and for the sake of the paper, however, I will concentrate ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The largest of these categories is CT–based diagnosis in adults, but the category that has seen the
most increase is diagnosis in pediatrics and adult screenings. The growth of CT use in children has
been mostly in pre–surgical diagnosis of appendicitis and is primarily due to the decreasing in time
needed to perform a scan. The shorter exposure times reduce the need for anesthesia to stop a child
from moving while the image is being taken. A large portion of the increase in scanning for adults
probably comes from the new CT–based screening programs for asymptomatic patients. The four
areas attracting the most interest are CT colonography, lung screening for smokers, cardiac
screening, and whole–body
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The Long Term Health Risk For The General Population...
Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 PURPOSE OF PROJECT To quantify the long term health risk for the
general population exposed to radiation by the Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear disaster in the aftermath
of the 2011 Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. 1.2 BACKGROUND On the 11th March
2011, following a magnitude 9 earthquake in the Pacific, a fifteen meter tsunami hit Honshu, the
main island of Japan, killing over 19,000 people and damaging the Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear
Power Plant. Over the following days while workers worked to contain the accident days the
crippled Nuclear Power Plant released dangerous nuclear isotopes into the atmosphere resulting in
the biggest nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in April 1986. Experience from the ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The exposure to the radiation released will not only result in heightened risks for cancer in
populations, but may also result in other, non–cancer related health problems such as thyroid
diseases, visual impairment, circulatory diseases, hereditary disorders and teratogenic defects
(developmental defects in fetuses). It is important that exposure to radiation be estimated so that
cancer risks can be estimated and appropriate responses and health measures can be implemented by
governments to deal with future development in health problems related to the release of radiation
from Fukushima. In 2013 the World Health Organization released its health risk assessment for the
Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear disaster concluding that for the general population "the lifetime risk for
some cancers may be somewhat elevated above baseline rates for certain age and sex groups that
were in the areas most affected" and that disease attributable to the disaster is likely to remain below
detectable levels. In 2012 Ten Hoeve and Jacobson provided the first estimates of the health impact
of the Fukushima nuclear accident, estimating an additional 15 to 1100 (most likely 130) cancer
related mortalities for the general population. Both Sophisticated modeling to come to these
conclusions. This work to attempts to independently without reference to either's methodology
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Optimization Of Radiation Spectroscopy Equipment For...
University of Portsmouth Applied Physics BSc (Hons) U20283 Applied Physics Project
OPTIMIZATION OF RADIATION SPECTROSCOPY EQUIPMENT FOR AIRBORNE
RADIONUCLIDES 645137 Supervisor(s) DSTL – Laurence Jones University of Portsmouth – Dr.
Chris Dewdney PROPOSAL & INITIAL LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction, Aims and
Objectives Defence Science Technology Laboratory (DSTL) is investigating the potential for aerial
monitoring of gamma rays (ɣ–rays) from airborne particulate contamination. They are in possession
of two ⌀20cmx20cm cylindrical, thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Ti)) scintillator detectors for
mounting onboard an aircraft for the recording of count rate and collection of spectroscopic data.
Initially, surveying will ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The aim of this project is: To evaluate different ways of aerially measuring the count rate and
collecting spectroscopic data of ~2 MeV emissions from airborne radioactive particulate
contamination. The objectives that will be met in order to achieve the aims are as follows: A
comprehensive literature review will be carried out in order to investigate methods of shielding and
or discriminating against cosmic radiation that are currently used in this field or methods used in
other fields (particle physics, spacecraft design etc.) that could be adapted to this purpose. A
selection process of four ɣ–ray reduction methods, two muon reduction methods and two neutron
reduction methods will take place (these numbers are arbitrary but have been chosen due to the time
constraints of the project). These eight methods will be modeled using Monte Carlo (MC)
simulations to estimate there sensitivity and resulting background in order to determine their
MDA's. A subset of the most promising modeled methods will be tested experimentally in the lab to
confirm the validity of the models. A conclusion will be drawn as to the best method(s), via the
development and use of a weighted comparison factor. Rationale Existing methodologies of back
ground reduction such as shielding (F.A. Danevich et al., 2007), large coincidence counting methods
or the burying of the detector underground (E.W. Hoppe et al., 2014), each present their own
difficulties and limitations in the
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Analyzing Rachel Carson’s “the Obligation to Endure” Essay
Analyzing Rachel Carson's "The Obligation to Endure" In her essay "The Obligation to Endure",
Rachel Carson alerts the public to the dangers of modern industrial pollution. She writes about the
harmful consequences of lethal materials being released into the environment. She uses horrifying
evidence, a passionate tone, audience, and the overall structure of her essay to express to her readers
that the pollution created by man wounds the earth. There are many different ways that pollution can
harm the environment, from the nuclear explosions discharging toxic chemicals into the air, to the
venomous pesticides sprayed on plants that kills vegetation and sickens cattle. The adjustments to
these chemicals would take generations. Rachel ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This is an efficient strategy. It makes her audience want to get involved and preserve the natural
resources the environment has to offer. In her essay she describes the devastating effects chemicals
have on the environment with such conviction; it might make the reader feel obligated to make
changes in his or her own life to help the natural world. Rachel Carson uses an assertive tone to get
her point across. She has a one–sided argument and is very aggressive to those who oppose her point
of view. She is very effective at stating her opinion to her audience. In her essay Rachel Carson
targets anyone who will listen as her audience. She wants to inform human beings of the effects
chemicals have on the environment. Rachel Carson's audience had little knowledge of the effects
radiation and pesticides might have on nature or to themselves. She successfully enlightened her
audience to the harm man was causing to the environment not only presently, she also wrote of
future ramifications. She predicts "Future historians may well be amazed by our distorted sense of
proportion. How could intelligent beings seek to control a few unwanted species by methods that
contaminated the entire environment...?" (Carson 615). This statement might make her audience
scrutinize their actions through the eyes of future generations. Rachel Carson used cause and effect,
problem and solution, compare and contrast, and
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Pros And Cons Of Returning To The Bombing Of Hiroshima And...
Beginning with the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, a widespread belief has proliferated that
all levels of ionizing radiation are dangerous. Since 1980, radiation hormesis studies have shown
there is actually a threshold of danger with high level exposures, but below that threshold low dose
radiation is essentially safe and quite possibly beneficial to life. Yet, this relatively new, seemingly
contradictory understanding of radiation's health effects has gone essentially unknown to the general
public. In order to grasp the reasons why, we must again return to the bombing of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki. The world's first atomic bomb explosion occurred on July 16, 1945, at the Alamogordo
facility in New Mexico, and was called Trinity. Trinity
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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The Effects Of Soil Radioactivity On The Levels Of The...

  • 1. The Effects Of Soil Radioactivity On The Levels Of The... The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are measured in the material collected from two locations .The collected materials are analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in building material it varies from 12.6 to 121.4, 13.6 to 142 and 69.5 to 620.6 Bqkg_1, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose and hazard index are also calculated. Keywords Radionuclides, radiological hazard, building material radioactive 1. Introduction Natural sources exists in several geological formations such as soils, rocks, sediments, vegetation, water and air emit radiation. While 4% is of artificial origin (Chougan–kar et ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Currently, a world wide effort is underway to measure the activity concentrations in building materials (Tufail et al., 1992 [3]. A range of radionalytical methods can be used for determination of activity concentrations in naturally occurring materials. Gamma–ray spectrometers are widely used for this purpose. These are typically based on either germanium semiconductor or Na I(Tl) scintillator detectors. They are the preferred choice in cases where the photo–peaks of concern are well separated (IAEA, 1992) [4]. Some radioactivity studies have been previously carried out in soil and sediment samples in some parts of the world (Beaza et al., 1992 [5]; Kannan et al. [6], 2002; Kirchner et al., 2002 [7]; Mehra et al., 2007 [8]; Noordin, 1999 [9]; Patra et al., 2006 [10]; Selvasekarapandian et al., 2000 [11]; Senthilkumar et al., 2010) [12]. The materials used in building collected from soil, sand and byproduct of industry, which contain varying amounts of natural radionuclides. The knowledge of the natural radioactivity level of building materials is important for determination of population exposure to radiation, the affection of this exposure almost occur indoors .radioactivity statistics is useful for understanding and monitoring the radiation hazard to human. Building materials contribute to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Patient Preparation Of High Blood Glucose Intravenous Insulin Patient preparation: Patient preparations are important for obtain the best image quality in PET–CT. All patients should fast more than 4 hours (it depend on the hospital protocol). Patient should have good hydration during the uptake phase. Blood glucose must check before the tracer injection. In case of high blood glucose Intravenous insulin should be administered to reduce the blood glucose level. The patient must avoid exercise before the PET–CT scan. Patient should keep relax and warm during the uptake phase to avoid needless uptake in the muscles and brown fat. After that patients must be asked to take away all metal objects and to void as completely as possible just prior to the examination. Image quality reduce because of small ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In case of longer emission acquisition times per bed position increase the PET image quality will obtain, but this should be balanced with patient relief and ability to durability longer procedure. Patient motion through both the CT and PET image acquisitions will reduce image quality and image artifacts will happen, usually each bed position of the PET scan takes 3 to 5 minutes, for the thin and small patients that time is dropped to 2 minutes in some PET–CT centers, and that time can drop to 1 minute in case of extreme pain or claustrophobia patients. Generally Patients placed supine with arms above the head for most of them. To obtain the patient's relief and reduce motion during the scan acquisition use positioning tool to support the head and arms and raise the patient's knees. In case of head and neck is preferred with arms down and usually more support to the head. Some patients they can't hold having their arms above their head during the whole body scan, and other scan like sarcomas, melanomas, and other disease that need to scan upper extremities, patients should be asked to put their arms down to involve them to the scan too. It is important to insure that is the scout and the CT scan is obtained without peripheral truncation happened before move to the PET scan. Even in case of arms down patient ,technologist should remained the patient to keep the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. The Pros And Cons Of The Patriot Act The tragic events of September 11th, 2001 showed the vulnerabilities of this country as a whole, reflecting the lack of attention this nation gave to terrorism. Following September 11th, it was clear that drastic preventative measures needed to be taken in order to avoid reoccurrence of a destructive and deadly act of terrorism (Simon, 2009). As a response to the attacks, The Patriot Act was passed in October of 2001 in order to give federal agencies a substantial increase in power in accessing, monitoring, and examining records and citizens who have been identified as, or could potentially be, risks to this country. This act also allowed federal agents to single out and watch potential individuals labeled as terrorists without evidence linking them to an actual terrorist organization, as well as allowing for an increase in wiretapping phones of potential suspects (Banks, 2010). ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... President Bush intended through legislation, to aid federal agencies in identifying potential terrorists and to ultimately protect this country from possible potential terrorist attacks in the future (Banks, 2010). Both individuals in power and ordinary citizens were greatly supportive of giving up certain liberties and privacy in order for the protection of the greater good. However, The Patriot Act was extremely controversial and advocates feared that power could be abused and that non–threatening citizens were being examined for crimes in which were not terrorist related (Sievert, 2007). Additionally, the most controversial aspect of The Patriot Act was the fear of privacy in relation to the first and fourth amendment (Xhelili and Crowne, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. WolfeC Evaluating website NR500 Essays Evaluating a Website for Credibility Charles B Wolfe Chamberlain College of Nursing Evaluating a Website for Credibility A search for men's health related website conducted using the public search engine Google.com. Men's Health Network (MHN), http://www.menshealthnetwork.org, is a nonprofit organization reaching out to males and their families focusing on the growing health crisis that affect the premature mortality of men (Men's Health Network, 2014). Approximately 50% of the population is male; evaluating the sites credibility is important when using it as an educational tool for male patients related to prevention and management of health. Evaluation of website MHN is comprised of spokespersons and advisory board. The website ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... MHN website navigation is user friendly with headings at the top of the web pages that are identical on every page. The font utilized is clear, easy to read, and not strenuous on the eyes. All links in headings are operational and link phrases are clearly described to target page. MHN security link states commitment to ensuring user privacy and that any information collected is used only in accordance to the November 2012 policy (Men's Health Network, 2014). MHN informs that the website will request permission to place "cookies" on user's computer. The term "cookie" is defined and gives the user informed consent. MHN clearly states that clicking links to partnerships and outside sources link takes the user away from MHN site and states, "we cannot be responsible for the protection and privacy of any information which you provide whilst visiting such sites and such sites are not governed by this privacy statement." (Men's Health Network, 2014). Empirical evidence Building credibility for a website requires providing links to reputable organizations which increase traffic, thereby increasing its relevance in search outcomes (Calabro, 2010). MHN achieves this with a banner containing links to other organizations for the reader to get additional information, but the sites that the reader is linked to do not always reciprocate a link back. Calabro (2010) suggests that updating the home page ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Determining Website Credibility Essay Determining Website Credibility Jessica Rojas Chamberlain College of Nursing Abstract Advancements in technology have led people to be affected by an overflow of information. Many websites contain information that is unmonitored making it difficult for nurses to obtain accurate, credible information. It is essential for people such as health care professionals to know how to determine the credibility of a website in order to ensure that the information being provided to the patients is accurate. Nurses guide their practice by the use of evidence based practice and provide their patients with information on a routine basis. Thus, it is important for them to ensure a website is credible before providing the patient with any type of information. By the use of the criteria authority, information, objectivity, ease of navigation, and privacy/security policies, nurses can more effectively and efficiently determine website credibility. The criteria was applied to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website in order to determine the credibility of this website with satisfactory results. Determining Website Credibility While advances in technology can be beneficial, the growing need to have answers at our fingertips has contributed to issues with the credibility of websites. The internet is bursting with information that can be obtained through search engines or databases. However, problems arise when it comes to determining the accuracy behind the content obtained because some of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Forelimb Ladder Experiment The purpose of this experiment was to compare rat forelimb preference in the cylinder task and performance on the horizontal ladder task before and after ischemic stroke in the left motor cortex. This demonstrates the behavioural effects of ischemic strokes in localized brain regions, including motor areas. Our results implicate the motor cortex in the production of voluntary movement, and illustrate the effect of neuronal death on this behaviour. These results support our hypotheses, revealing that stroke produces deficits in horizontal ladder task performance and decreases forelimb preference for the limb contralateral to the stroke region. Our results for the horizontal ladder task found that, on the side contralateral to where stroke ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is also likely that the rat forepaws could not fit through this gap, and that fewer errors were recorded simply due to the close spacing of the rungs. In the '1–Irregular' condition, it is possible that compensatory changes in locomotion to the stroke occurred. This is unlikely, however, as the purpose of irregular spacing is to control for post–stroke compensation (Metz and Whishaw, 2009). All other ladder conditions showed an increase in paw slip errors post–stroke, including the regular patterns. This suggests that rats were unable to compensate behaviourally to the regular patterns post–stroke. Regardless, literature shows that compensatory behaviours occur on the horizontal ladder task within a few sessions (Metz and Whishaw, 2002; Metz et al., 2005). However, our rats only performed three trials for each condition on the horizontal ladder over one day. Thus, the compensatory mechanisms may have needed more time to develop in response to stroke. Results from the cylinder task showed a significant increase in left forelimb preference (with a corresponding decrease in right forelimb preference) after ischemic stroke induced in the left motor cortex, supporting our hypothesis. This is most likely due to the stroke in the left forelimb motor area making it difficult to control digit movements, wrist extension, elbow flexion, and shoulder movements for the right limb (Neafsey and Sievert, 1982; Tennant et al., 2011). Therefore, the left forelimb would be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Argumentative Essay On Mars Today's scientists would agree that no planet has been more "steeped in myths and misconception" than Mars. Just about a hundred years ago, several scientists sincerely believed that extraterrestrial life was present on planet Mars, so the US government listened for radio signals from Mars until 1924. In movies such as Flight to Mars (1951), Mars was portrayed as a scary, mysterious place inhabited by hostile aliens which we know today is false. However, in 1965, NASA and JPL sent the first spacecraft, Mariner 4, to fly by Mars. Today, there are seven active missions that are being used to collect more data, including two rovers, Opportunity and Curiosity, which explore the surface. Mars has been garnering a lot of attention from the media ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is made up largely of Carbon dioxide (95.32%), along with Nitrogen (2.7%), Argon (1.6%), and Oxygen (0.13%). The biggest issue caused by a significantly thinner atmosphere synergized with not having a global magnetic field is radiation. The magnetic field generated by Earth's liquid iron core shields the planet from 99.9% of harmful radiation. However, in space, radiation is a serious hazard. The radiation dosage from the shortest round trip to Mars is about 0.66 sieverts, which is equivalent to receiving a CT scan every five or six days. The dose of radiation one will absorb from staying at Mars for a year would range from 0.2 sieverts to 0.3 sieverts depending on the location. To put things in perspective, absorbing a total of 8 sieverts will most likely result in death. Also, with a significantly small amount of Oxygen (0.13%), humans would have to wear a space suit while outside and live in pressurized habitats. Furthermore, Mars' gravity is 31% compared to that of Earth's gravity, which means that readjustments would have to be made in order to properly walk and run. Although this is a minor difference, it is more ideal compared to Earth's moon whose gravity is 17% of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Army Profession Of Arms The Army Profession of Arms Essay 4 The Army Profession of Arms Essay The HR Sergeants Role SSG Sievert, Eric J 42A30 ALC Class 003, B Class The Army White Paper, The Profession of Arms, provides an insight into what it means for the Army to be a Profession of Arms, what it means to be a professional Soldier, and how Soldiers individually and as a profession meet these aspirations after a decade of war. The Army is made up of numerous jobs that have multiple roles. One in particular is the Human Resource Sergeant. HR Sergeants are a profession of its own; they provide a broader framework for the Profession of Arms, balance the role of the Profession's leaders, and are greatly influenced by the Army's professional culture. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The culture around the HR Sergeant can very easily change negatively by having a toxic leader in place. HR Sergeants strive to have the best leadership skills and strive to develop their subordinates to be the best leaders they can be. This ensures the culture will not be negatively impacted due the HR Profession. HR Sergeants can be counted on in tough times because they are both self–aware at an intuitional level and personal level. Being aware ensures the unit will be ready for whatever task comes next which shows the strong culture of the Profession of Arms. HR Sergeants have a professional identity unlike any other. Their leadership helps guide their fellow soldiers to strive for excellence in every aspect and live by the Army ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Chernobyl Unit 4 On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 AM, a chain reaction in the core of Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the then–Soviet Union resulted in an initial explosion having a force of between 30 and 40 tons of TNT. The explosion came as a result of an ill–planned experiment, where the pumps from the plant's emergency water cooling systems were shut down. In RBMK reactors (which stands for "reaktor bolshoy moshchnosty kanalny", or "high–power channel reactor" in Russian) such as the Chernobyl Unit 4, graphite is used as a moderator and water as a coolant. Moderators are necessary to slow down the speed of the neutrons because slower neutrons are more effective at fission than faster ones, which will make the fission chain reaction end. In many ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Because of this, larger predators like wolves have higher doses of radiation. Fish bones from an amur carp found near the cooling pond were too radioactive to even be touched. With this being the case, we can only imagine what the effects upon the animals that eat them are, eagles. However, there are other factors that affect internal doses of radioactive elements. Rodents contain higher doses for their size than other animals because they spend a lot of time closer to the ground as well as in burrows where the concentration of radioactivity is still high. And decomposers such as fungi and bacteria contain high levels of radioactivity as they decompose and circulate the radionuclides and absorb it like nutrients directly from the soil. A wild boar, with mushrooms being its favorite food, can absorb over 30 times safe levels of radiation during mushroom's peak growing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Radiation Threats Of Astronauts On A Long Journey Through... Samantha Stickles ESS102 Section AD Due: 10/23/15 Radiation Threats to Astronauts on a Long Journey through Space Astronauts travelling to Mars or another distant area of interest would face numerous challenges throughout their journey, one of which is being exposed to radiation from space. There are two types of radiation: ionizing radiation and non–ionizing radiation. [1] Non–ionizing radiation is radiation that cannot cause electrons to become detached from the atom, like visible light and radio waves. [1] This type of radiation is not dangerous for astronauts and is commonly found on Earth. Ionizing radiation, on the other hand, has enough energy to remove electrons from their orbits around an atom, causing a charged particle. [1] ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... [1] This type of radiation would be dangerous for astronauts, and it would need to be shielded against for long distance space travel to be viable. SPE are the ejection of very energetic protons, alpha particles and heavier particles into space; these include solar flares and coronal mass ejections. [1] Under normal conditions, astronauts would not be concerned about this, but occasionally, very large SPEs occur that can produce radiation with energy levels high enough to be lethal in a very short period of time. In fact, between Apollo missions 16 and 17, one of the largest SPEs ever recorded occurred, and it produced radiation with energy levels that would be lethal to astronauts outside the atmosphere in under 10 hours. [1] The health risks of radiation exposure can be described as either acute or chronic. Acute exposure is short term and the severity of symptoms ranges from nausea to central nervous system damage and even to death in large doses. [2] Chronic exposure is usually less intense radiation but for a longer period of time, and the health risks include developing cataracts and an increased risk of cancer. [2] This is the most pressing issue for astronaut safety. Normally, when exposed to the low levels of radiation we encounter every day, cells are able to mend themselves very quickly. When we are exposed to high doses, such as astronauts would encounter in space, cells may not be able to repair themselves and can become mutated ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. The Ncaa 's Policy On Amateurism The NCAA's policy on amateurism has been around since the creation of the NCAA by Theodore Roosevelt. This policy was created to prevent teams from hiring ringers to play in games and to limit point shaving/corruption in collegiate sports. Currently, prospective student athletes have to be certified as an amateur by the NCAA Clearinghouse in order to compete in any competitions. Over the last decade, there has been an increase in the National Collegiate Athletic Association or NCAA's policy on Amateurism. As previously stated, this policy has been around since the creation of the NCAA, but the elements of the policy are almost the same. According to the NCAA Manual, a student–athlete is considered an amateur if they have not: "signed a contract with a professional team, received payment for participating in athletics, played with professionals, received benefits from an agent or prospective agent, or agreed to be represented by an agent" (NCAA, 2015). The main reason why amateurism has been such a hot topic is the lawsuit by Ed O'Bannon and others against the NCAA and its' licensing partner. This lawsuit was based on the fact that the NCAA, EA Sports, and the NCAA's licensing partner for using his (Ed O'Bannon) likeness and image for video games without compensating him (Sievert, 2015; Tracy and Strauss, 2015). This lawsuit was started because Ed O'Bannon, a former UCLA basketball player, noticed that the NCAA was using classic teams, including the 1996 UCLA team that he ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. The Death Of The Medical Physicist . Knickerbocker had no explanation to scanning Jacoby 151 times, she said she only pressed the button 4–6 times and the machine must have malfunctioned. Her story changed several times, she said Jacoby's parents distracted her, the scanning table wouldn't move incrementally, and Jacoby's father was leaning on the table. Knickerbocker also stated that when she suspected the machine was malfunctioning, she called for help, but none arrived. Knickerbocker left the hospital two weeks after the incident and her license was suspended on September 30th by the California Department of Public Health. A report by the hospital's medical physicist calculated that the boy's absorbed radiation dose was 2.8 Gy (2,800 mSv) and possibly as high as 11 Gy (11,000 mSv). The dose the boy received compared to a range of 1.5–4.0 mSv for a normal pediatric CT study of the entire spine. A report by the hospital 's medical physicist concluded the child had a lifetime increased risk of a fatal cancer of 39%, (Estimated Risk of Radiation Induced Fatal Cancer from Pediatric CT. (2001, February 1). American Journal of Roentgenology, Pp 289–296). Bruce Fleck, the hospital's former radiology manager, testified that there was no way the machine could have automatically taken the images, the machine was in the manual axial mode, "She had to hit the button each time." Fleck continued on to say "I think it was just a rogue act of insanity", (Bogdanich, W. (2009, October 15). Jacoby Roth and the Mad River ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Nuclear Plant Epidemic: Effect Of Fukushima Radiation On... Jung Won Lee & Josh Dill Lee 1 Professor Ritu Kansal CHM 111 11/04/2014 Effect of Fukushima Radiation on Matter It is a term that mankind has come to be familiar with ever since the Great World War, but exactly what radiation does to matter, including living and nonliving, is a subject that only a few know about. The Nuclear Plant catastrophe caused by the tsunami that devastated the Tohoku region of Japan was thought to be of a local problem but wasn't so. In this research paper, we will detail information about what radiation is and how radiation caused by Fukushima affects matter, even to a distance across the vastness of the Pacific Ocean; or should I say – the entire Planet. "In vitro and in vivo" studies conducted ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Effects include diseases such as birth defects and many forms of cancer. Alpha particles, although they are stopped rather easily, can be ingested by the living organism; thus causing damage from the interior of the organism. Beta particles effect the DNA of the organism, and Gamma particles are viewed to be the most devastating form of radiation for a living organism. Due to their penetrating strength, Gamma particles can damage a wide depth of cells (Tissues) before they dissipate, but after already establishing much damage such as Radiation sickness (Chou & Su). The two types of particles that are of interest from Fukushima's fallout is Iodine 131 and Cesium 137. These two particles emit both Gamma particle radiation and also Alpha particle Lee 4 radiation, as these radioactive elements were the by–product from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. Emphasized by the World Nuclear Association, a singular dosage rate of a micro Sievert is enough to cause symptoms of radiation sickness and a low white blood cell count for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Using Signing Statements Ramification of Using Signing Statements According to Strauss (2006), "the presidential signing statements have come out of obscurity and into the headlines. Along with salutary attention to an interesting issue, the new public visibility of signing statements have generated much overblown commentary. The desire to make these little– known documents interesting to the public–and to score points in the inevitable political battles over any practice engaged in by a sitting President–has produced a lot of discussion that misleads the public. Signing statements constitute a striking official power that has recently caught insightful and political consideration. Earlier writing recommends that presidents utilization signing statements to increase extra strategy concessions from Congress. Confirmation of approach inspirations are, nonetheless, hard to exhibit and arrangement thought processes neglect to clarify a wide range of existing statements. Evans (2007) infers that the affluent antiquity of the U.S. presidency is confused with illustrations of presidents endeavoring to practice their influence through this apparatus. The initially archived utilization of the signing statement is when President Monroe issued an announcement to ensure his presidential privilege. Be that as it may, the instrument did not turn into a generally utilized vital weapon until the Reagan organization had the capacity to get it included into the administrative history (Kelley 2007). Kelley ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Essay 9:01 AM Harold sets Gerald's carrier next to his computer at his desk. "There you go Gerald." Harold assures Gerald. "Meow." Gerald meows. "Harold!" Winford shouts from his office. "Coming!" Harold shouts back. Harold steps into the office to find Richards on video call again. "So, cross–referencing these emissions with what I already had, the new readings seem to be more series of numbers that I can't attribute to anything, but when converted to English letters it spelled out 'S–E–N–D–C–A–T–O–R–D–I–E'. Now, I'm not sure what this means or if it's just happenstance, but I also happened to notice that the amplitudes of the frequencies happened to be much larger than the other readings I'm sure you noticed as well. It's almost as if ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... "NO!" Harold screams as he lunges to grab Gerald. "Harold! We don't have a choice! The fate of humanity is at stake here! They said 'SEND CAT OR DIE.'" Winford reminds Harold. "That could mean anything!" Harold cries, tears forming in his eyes. Gerald puts a paw on Harold's face. "Meow." He meows, assuring Harold. "Ok. I trust you Gerald. Go save the human race." Harold says softly. Gerald turns back and nods at Winford, then turns to the sphere. He then leaps out of Winford's arms into the sphere of infinite darkness. "MEOWEOOWW!" Gerald meows. The sphere closes up and vanishes. Harold murmurs gently, "Where did he go?" "He could be anywhere." Winford replies. "Do you think he's somewhere in space?" "I don't know." "What if he gets radiation sickness from the large amounts of radiation exposure?! The radiation emitted from the galactic cosmic rays are going to be cancer inducing to Gerald–just like they are for humans. The radiation dose in space is well over 100 mSv. This could decrease the lifespan of his life. He could go blind or suffer from other impairments [12]. If he gets radiation exposure of over 1000 rem, he's going to die in days [13]!" "Harold I–" "And what about muscle atropy?! You know that if he ever comes back to Earth from space that he'll suffer the same fate as every other human astronaut. He doesn't have gravity to push him down and get blood flowing into his legs. He doesn't have the exercise ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. A Short Note On Ct Dose Calculation ( Ct ) iSAP – CT Dose Calculation Introduction: The role of computed tomography (CT) in imaging has risen substantially in the previous decade (Hess et al. 2014). With its increasing demand, one of the most predominant concerns for radiation workers is the dose administered to the patient (Hess et al. 2014). Therefore, the calculation of dose is a parameter that must be monitored closely. Task 1: Exposure Exposure is the amount of electrical charge produced by ionising radiation per unit mass of air. It is measured in Coulomb per kilogram C kg–1, where its former unit was Roentgen (Schoepf 2005). Absorbed dose The absorbed dose is the energy (joules) deposited by ionising radiation per unit mass of material in kilograms, as a result of exposure to ionising radiation. The absorbed dose is therefore measured in J/kg or gray (Gy) where 1Gy = 1J/kg. The absorbed dose is calculated by multiplying exposure with W, where W is the conversion factor from exposure to absorbed dose depending on the absorbing medium (Siegel 2008). Equivalent dose The absorbed dose is a poor indicator of the likely biological effect, as the biological effect of the same absorbed dose will depend on the type of radiation. This is because the linear energy transfer of radiations that produce dense ionisation tracks cause more biological damage per unit dose than low linear energy transfer radiations, and thus must have higher radiation weighting factors. Therefore, the equivalent dose (HT) is measured ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Nr500 Evaluation of a Website Credibility Essay Evaluating a Website for Credibility: KidsHealth NR500 Foundational Concepts and Application Evaluation of a Websites Credibility: KidsHealth In today's world of medicine when developing a patient care plan nurses should use evidence–based practice that has been peer–reviewed by subject matter experts (Miller, Jones, Graves, & Sievert 2010). The internet is frequently used by nurses to gather more information, expand their knowledge base, and provide patient education. The website http://kidshealth.org was found using the Google search engine, and chosen because of my work with the pediatric population. The purpose of KidsHealth is to provide parents, teens, and kids with a resource to consult regarding the health, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... At the end of each section the name and credentials of the individual who reviewed the information, the date reviewed, and the name and credentials of the individual who originally reviewed the information are stated. There are also links to webpages containing additional resources, which include: CDC, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the United States Food and Drug Administration. Ease of Navigation and Privacy and Security KidsHealth does not require the creation of a user identification and password too access information, articles, or additional resources. A broadband and wireless network connection were used to access KidsHealth; in both cases the website loaded quickly without errors present. Images and sounds could be visualized and heard using both connections, and the links provided were functioning with information loaded in a timely manner. Resources were clearly labeled with subject matters easily located. Credibility KidsHealth is a credible site for individuals to obtain information regarding the health and development of children. MEDLINEPlus, the CDC, Mayo Clinic, and KidsHealth are recommended to both consumer and professional ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Should We Support Nasa's Plan To Explore Mars? In my opinion I believe NASA'S plan to explore mars is not a good idea. I think the money paid by taxpayers should be used for solving other issues concerning the welfare of the country. U.S.A. government should channelize the financial as well as technological resources into something that is beneficial for the present generation. According to the various articles I read I learnt that mars mission is a difficult task and there are a number of reasons attached to it. Firstly, talking about the technology required to carry out the mars mission is not currently available. The spacecraft present today is not equipped to land on mars. A huge amount of technological advancements need to be made. The technological improvements that need to be made are definitely going to be time consuming. No major changes occur in one night. Therefore it is important to notice that time is an obstacle that might hinder the technological growth which is extremely essential for this mission to take place. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I would not support NASA's manned mission to mars because of the financial constrains attached with it. Data from several readings suggest that the total cost of the mission is going to be approximately $80 to $100 billion which is definitely a huge amount. A workshop group of more than 60 individuals representing more than 30 government, industry, academic and other organizations has found that a NASA–led manned mission is not feasible with current budget in hand. NASA already spends around $4 billion a year on exploration programs; most of that is devoted to developing the Orion spacecraft and a new rocket that would one day carry astronauts to Mars or other deep–space destinations. This amount of money could be used for present issues like poverty, unemployment that are cause of serious concern for a large group of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Radiation Safety And Protection Standards X–rays were first discovered in 1895, and from that moment on, the use of x–rays as a diagnostic tool has been instrumental in diagnosing disease. Although commonly called x–rays, or simply radiation, scientists have more specifically termed the form of radiation, "ionizing radiation." The World Health Organization defines ionizing radiation as "radiation with enough energy, so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from the orbit of an atom, causing the atom to become charged or ionized" (2014). Because the human body is made up of atoms, ionizing radiation has the ability to alter the composition of atoms in the body, by targeting electrons. This effect can alter DNA structure and function, which ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Ionizing radiation is used worldwide in medicine to help physicians diagnose and treat a multitude of health problems. According to the World Health Organization, "annually, worldwide, more than 3,600 million X–ray examinations are performed, 37 million nuclear medicine procedures are carried out, and 7.5 million radiotherapy treatments are given" (2014). With so many patients exposed to ionizing radiation in medicine, strict global safety regulations must be enforced to ensure patient exposure is kept as low as possible. Using the basic principle of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable), global organizations analyze patient exposures to ensure their radiation dose levels are kept as low as possible, without compromising the integrity of examinations. These organizations also ensure that radiation workers are not receiving unnecessary occupational exposure. Certain cells and tissues are more susceptible to radiation damage than others. Those cells considered most radiosensitive can include those of the "the basal epidermis, bone marrow, thymus, gonads, and lens," meaning they can be affected even by small doses of radiation (Goodman, 2010). In contrast, "Muscle, bones, and nervous system tissues have a relative low radiosensitivity," meaning they require larger amounts of radiation exposure to show damaging effects (Goodman, 2010). Patient exposure is determined by dosimeters, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Research Paper : Space Travel Space Research Paper: Space Travel Space Habitability Synopsis: For my Sci–fi paper I am going to write about a manned mission to Mars focusing mostly on the space travel there rather than what happens when the colonist get there. I will be researching life support systems and what would be required to support a small manned mission during their trip. I will also be doing additional research on possible issues we might encounter in space travel and incorporate some of them into the story such as effects of zero gravity and cosmic radiation. My story will be focused on the Mars Two mission (In this story the first manned mission had failed) with their ship the United Nations Ship (UNS) Utopia. Which will successfully launch from low Earth orbit where it was constructed. Research: Life support systems are critical to any kind of manned space mission especially if it's going to be one way which will most likely be the case for a mission to mars. We will need to take into account oxygen, water, food, radiation protection and a way to generate energy to power all these systems. The recommended minimum for a worker living in space is, "about 3000 Cal/day... 2000g of water, 470g dry weight of various carbohydrates and fats, 60 to 70 g of dry weight proteins and adequate quantities of various minerals and vitamins" (Richard D. Johnson 1975). Due to these human dietary needs if we wanted to transport a large enough quantity of people to start a colony on mars we would need have so much ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Describe The Chemical Process In Making Americium Chemical process in making americium: The most popular type of smoke alarm is an ionization chamber smoke alarm. These contain 0.28 micrograms of the radioactive isotope americium 241, in the form of americium dioxide. Americium is a synthetic element, so it must be produced in a nuclear reactor. Americium is made from plutonium 241, yet this needs to also be made in a nuclear reactor. Uranium 238 in a nuclear reactor it is hit with a neutron, which makes uranium 239. Uranium 239 has a half–life of 23.5 minutes, the uranium goes through beta decay becomes neptunium 239. This neptunium will then form plutonium 239 via beta decay over two days, this is then bombarded with two neutrons to become plutonium 241. Plutonium 241 has a half–life of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It has become a social (as well as a government) expectation to have them installed in your home. Smoke alarms save lives; without a smoke alarm you are 4 times more likely to die in the event of a fire. The americium inside the alarm is an alpha and low–energy gamma emitter. Alpha radiation can be stopped by a piece of paper or a few centimetres of air, meaning you could stand under a raw sample of americium and not be in any danger. Yet, gamma radiation has the wavelength near that of an atomic nuclei (10 Pico meters) meaning that they penetrated far more easily. These rays are weak enough not to do any harm, yet are the major factor to the radiation from a smoke alarm. It has become a misconception that smoke alarms are a threat to health because of their radioactivity. The radiation emitted from a smoke alarm annually is 9–50 nano–sieverts, eating banana releases the equivalent of 100 nano–sieverts, the average background radiation in Australia is 2000000 nano– sieverts, to put how little radiation is absorbed from a smoke alarm. The real problem is only when americium is internalised into the body, because it is an alpha emitter. It poses a threat to health because even though the alpha particles themselves are harmless, the speeds they travel give them the ability to break bonds and ionize atoms, thus causing cancer. When in the body 90% stays in you and the rest is excreted, it goes to the liver, bones and ovaries or testicles where it has the possibility to cause cancer or birth ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. An Analysis Of Online Health Information From Psychology... An Analysis of Online Health Information from Psychology Today Sarah E. Basuric University of Alberta Faculty of Nursing 1229968 The purpose of this discussion is to analyze an article from Psychology Today entitled A Multitasking Molecule: Melatonin Does a lot More Than Help you Sleep. This discussion will explore the credibility of the site, the purpose of the article, the congruency of content versus audience, the methods used, and the balance of information. Upon viewing the site, the top of the screen urges the reader to find a therapist, and contains a clearly laid out navigation bar. Advertisements and links to other Psychology Today articles run down the right side of the screen. The site is quite user–friendly. This article was written by Rachel Uda; the date of publication and date of last review are listed. Lorraine Roberts (2010) explains criteria for evaluating a health website. The first is credibility, in which the reader is to seek out specific qualifications of the author (Roberts, 2010, p. 322). A search of both the "experts" drop–down menu and the general search bar of Psychology Today did not yield any credentials for Uda. A Google search brought up her LinkedIn site, which states that she attended Graduate School of Journalism from Columbia University. This leads the writer to question the qualifications of the author, as it appears she has credentials as a journalist, not as a psychologist or expert on ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. C-Arm Fluoroscopy The purpose of this assignment is to find a topic in patient care that is significant in patient care in radiography. Then review and summarize an article pertaining to this topic that was selected. Then it will be connected to how it is valuable it is as a future radiographer and to professionals and how it is relevant. The topic that will be discussed is the effect on radiation exposure in pediatric patients with c–arm fluoroscopy. This is because one of the most common radiographic procedures for pediatric patients is fluoroscopy and it is important to lower their radiation dose as much as possible. C–arm is known to have high amounts of radiation to the patient and if a patient is exposed to radiation it increases their risk for problems ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the class, it has been stressed that there is an importance to lower the radiation dose to the patient. It is important to lower the dose of radiation because it reduces the chance of radiation induced complications. It is the one of the priorities of a radiographer to reduce the radiation dose to the patient. This article was informative of another way to reduce the dose to the patient. Radiation dose for all patients should be reduced as much as possible because radiation does have harmful effects and should be limited throughout a year. The project was done to "determine if having a laser targeting system would decrease the radiation dose by eliminating unintentional radiation prior to localizing the region of interest" (Schenk & Johnston p. 39). The idea behind laser targeting was to limit and reduce the time it took to do the procedure, by reducing time exposed to radiation it lowers the dose to the patient. The laser "aids the technologist in properly aligning the c–arm in the desired position without exposing the patient to radiation" (Schenk & Johnston p. 42). Before the radiation dose was higher because the part of interest was located while radiation was occurring. Now to know that the laser can locate the part of interest before exposing the patient to radiation will help allow me to reduce patient dose if there is a laser with that particular fluoroscopic machine. Even though this experiment was done using pediatric patients, it is relevant information for adult patients as well because it is important to lower radiation dose regardless of age. This information will be helpful in the future because fluoroscopy is a common procedure and if there is a laser available on the machine, it should be utilized so radiographers and students can help reduce the radiation dose to that patient especially, now that it was found to have some effect on ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Nuclear Power in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union, after World War II, had begun building many facilities for nuclear reprocessing using many radioactive components. The Russian government, being behind in the nuclear era, decided they needed to move quickly and start producing a sustainable nuclear chain reaction with secrecy. One of these facilities they built was so discreet it wasn't on any official maps at that time. In the town of Ozyorsk, Russia they built the Mayak nuclear fuel processing complex. This particular accident has been titled and associated with Kryshtym because that was the closest town on an official map that they could categorize it with. They built this complex between 1945 and 1948 to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. Since they had to move fast at building this complex, as well as poor understanding or little education of nuclear safety, and major disregards for human wellness, the systems were poorly built. They used what is called an open cycle cooling system, in which they pumped the water back and forth into their water source. Their main water source was Lake Karachay, as well as the Tech River. All 6 reactors that the Mayak nuclear complex had used the open cycle cooling system. They used huge lids weighing 160 tons for the tops of these radioactive components and systems, and even had them buried 8.2 meters (27 feet) under ground. With these cooling systems being built with the eager notion to be ahead in the nuclear era, they weren't prepared for any kind of error. If ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Radiation Quantity And Units Essay Radiation quantity and units Most scientists in the international community measure radiation using the System International (SI), a uniform system of weights and measures that evolved from the metric system. In the United States, however, the conventional system of measurement is still widely used. 2.2.1) Units of Radioactivity: The original unit for measuring the amount of radioactivity was the curie (Ci)–first defined to correspond to one gram of radium–226 and more recently defined as: 1 curie = 3.7x1010 radioactive decays per second. In the International System of Units (SI) the curie has been replaced by the Becquerel (Bq), where One Ci is equal to 37 billion (37 X 109) Bq. Ci or Bq may be used to refer to the amount of radioactive materials released into the environment. 2.2.2) Radiation exposure unit: The exposure rate defined as the exposure per unit time. The special unit of exposure is the roentgen (R) defined as the amount of gamma ray and X– ray radiation that produced a charge of 1 electrostatic unit (esu) of charge per 0.001293 g (1cm3) of dry air at standard temperature and pressure (IAEA, 1989). The SI (stander international) units of exposure are coulomb/Kg of dry air. 1R = 2.58 × 10–4 C/Kg in air 2.2.3) Absorbed dose unit: Sometimes also known as the physical dose, defined by the amount of energy deposited in a unit mass in human tissue or other media. The original unit is the rad [100 erg/g]; it is now being widely ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Medical Imaging And Ionizing Radiation Effects On Human... Medical Imaging and Ionizing Radiation Effects on Human Health Abstract: Ionizing radiation that is used in medical imaging releases free radicals. These radicals can interfere with the molecular chemical bonds that is responsible for regulating the cellular function inside the cell. The interaction between free radicals and the molecules inside the cell might lead to genetic mutations in the DNA and it can damage cellular enzymes leading to the proliferation of cancer cells. In the United States, 50% of the environmental exposure to ionizing radiation is mainly attributed to medical imaging. Computed tomography (CT) scans are the main source of X–rays, a form of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this project is to present an overview of the main reasons for exposure, explaining the possible future effects of ionizing radiation on human health, enlightening the imaging modalities with ionizing radiation, addressing the population at risk, and explaining the main principles and recommendations to avoid and limit the exposure to ionizing radiation. _ Key Words: Computed tomography (CT) scans. X–rays. Medical Imaging and Ionizing Radiation Effects on Human Health Introduction: Ionizing radiation is a form of radiation that is characterized by displacing electrons from atoms or molecules, forming ions. Some examples ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 53. The Disaster Preparedness Cycle Of Chernobyl Chernobyl, in northern Ukraine and bordering Belarus, was one of the worst industrial disasters in the world's history (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Even though the immediate effects were catastrophic, the long–term effects have reached far, and continue to affect the area even today. The history of the disaster, preparedness, and will be discussed, as well as the disaster preparedness cycle. The disaster at Unit 4 at Chernobyl occurred at 0124 on April 26, 1986 (Smith and Beresford, 2005). At this time, there were four functional units for generating electricity, with two more being built (Smith and Beresford, 2005). On April 25, these RBMK–1000 reactors were having supply failure testing performed at the time of the disaster ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This happened due to a flaw in the RBMK design (Smith and Beresford, 2005). In most reactors, a pending disaster would lead to the machine reducing its power, and avoiding this type of disaster (Smith and Beresford, 2005). However, in this design of reactor, when water or steam is lost, power levels rise, steam is created, and toxins can be released (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Thus, the radiation from this explosion was spread in the air. After the explosion, first responders rushed in with no comprehension of what they were exposing themselves to (Smith and Beresford, 2005). During the immediate aftermath, the levels of radiation were not able to be measured, as no equipment could measure that high (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Days after Chernobyl Unit 4 had its explosion, the core was still burning (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Emergency employees attempted to cool the core with sand, clay, and other materials, but it did not stop until ten days later (Smith and Beresford, 2005). 134 of these workers had acute radiation illness, and 28 of these died months later, with 20 cases having severe radiation illness (Smith and Beresford, 2005). Symptoms included burns, sterility, and nausea; these were deterministic effects (Smith and Beresford, 2005). This was a result of both gamma and beta ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 55. Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine has been around for more than 50 years now and stems from the discovery of x– rays and artificial radioactivity. In 1946, nuclear medicine made a monumental breakthrough when radioactive iodine led to the complete disappearance of cancer in a patient's thyroid. Nuclear medicine became widely used in the 1950's to measure the function of the thyroid, to diagnose thyroid disease, and for the treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism. By the 1970's nuclear medicine was used to visualize other organs of the body other than the thyroid such as scanning of the liver and spleen, localizing brain tumors, and images of the gastrointestinal track. The use of digital computers and detection of heart disease arose in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This table shows the common risks that people face in everyday life compared to that individual dying from taking that risk. These figures were taken from "Living with Risk", published by the British Medical Association, 1987. ACTIVITY RISK OF AN INDIVIDUAL DYING IN ANY ONE YEAR Smoking 10 cigarettes a day 1 in 200 Influenza 1 in 500 Natural causes, 40 years old 1 in 850 Road Accident 1 in 8,000 Playing Soccer 1 in 25,000 Accident at Home 1 in 26,000 Accident at Work 1 in 43,500 Hit by Lightning 1 in 10,000,000 Release of radiation from a nearby Power Station 1 in 10,000,000 Radiation Exposure at the rate of: * Theoretical worst case figures * 5 mSv per year 1 in 16,000 50 mSv per year 1 in 1,600 OCCUPATION Deep Sea Fishing (sea accidents before 1970) 1 in 360 Offshore Oil and Gas Industry 1 in 600 Quarrying 1 in 3,000 Coal Mining 1 in 5,000 Railways 1 in 6,000 Construction Industry 1 in 7,000 Agriculture 1 in 9,000 Chemical and Allied Industries 1 in 12,000
  • 56. Motor Vehicle manufacture 1 in 70,000 Clothing and Footwear manufacture 1 in 200,000 Timber and Furniture manufacture 1 in 250,000 (http://www.petnm.unimelb.edu.au/nucmed/detail/risks.html) "A millisievert (mSV) is a unit of measure that allows for some comparison between radiation sources that expose the entire body (such as natural background radiation) and those that only expose a portion of the body (such as radiographs)." ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 58. The Earth 's State, Photographic Evidence And Data Samples A MISSION TO MARS This manned mission to Mars was based on the planet's state, photographic evidence and collected data samples to conduct the analysis. The crew utilized drilling materials and roving equipment for movement around Mars to facilitate this process. After descending into Mars surface, gathering of rock samples was carried out, although further analysis for the time remaining was hindered by the low pressure present. Also, the cold weather conditions demanded the use of special clothing and there was no conclusion with evidence on presence of water. The roving equipment captured photos indicating presence of water below the Martian surface. Though man's mission to the moon has been the most publicized by media and the scientific community, there has been increased interest on missions to planet Mars, but this has mostly been based on robotic missions. Robotic missions have encouraged further explorations on the outer space as there is a possibility to prepare for future emissions with availability of photographic evidence and technological advancement. With visual capabilities, our team explored and collected information regarding human future. Mars has an easy accessibility from earth due to the fact that it is close and the most accommodating among the others, making the mission viable. It is crucial to implement technological values in this mission to allow adequate preparation since there has been no prior manned mission to Mars. Before the commencement ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59.
  • 60. Long Term Space Flight Sci–fi Paper Synopsis The scientifically accurate sci–fi paper will be a log of the journey of a couple on a one way trip to mars. The two know full well they may not return and are dealing with the ramifications of their decision to make the trip. They will be the first to land on and colonize the planet and the log will explore some of the logistics of their trip including space habitability and radiation exposure. The two will experience both the physical and metal effects of long term space flight as well as some of the methods to combat it. The log chronicles their journey to Mars and the effects of long term space flight. Health Effects of Long Term Space Flight As humans push out further, exploring the solar system, the lengths ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In space, outside of the protection of the Earth's magnetosphere which blocks 99.9% of damaging radiation17, large amounts of radiation from solar flares and coronal mass ejections can reach astronauts. The damaging effects of radiation varies depending on the amount of exposure. Radiation can either ionize water inside cells and these ionized water molecules can react with DNA or radiation can directly hit the DNA molecules. Either way damage is done to the DNA. Damaged DNA, if not repaired, can lead to mutated cells that can result in cancer. Higher levels of radiation can lead to radiation sickness and death13. Radiation can also cause central nervous system damage which can cause neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease, motor function damage and even behavioral changes. Effects of radiation can also be similar to rapid aging14. Of the physiological effects of space travel, damage from radiation can cause the longest term and most deadly harm. Currently limits are set on the levels of radiation an astronaut can get in their lifetime based on how their chance for cancer will increase. But for deep space missions, it won't be possible to follow the current guidelines15. Inside a spaceship, astronauts are exposed to 1.8 mili–Sievert of ionizing radiation per day. It has been found that after being exposed to 1 Sievert of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61.
  • 62. Radiation Is Natural Part Of The Earth Radiation is natural part of the Earth. Radiation exists all around us, in the air, the soil, and rock. Humans have lived, and thrived in a radioactive environment since the beginning of time. Radon is one form of radiation, it's odorless, tasteless, invisible, and it's in the air we breathe. Cosmic radiation is in space as heavily charged particles and gamma rays. Terrestrial radiation is emitted naturally in the form of heat from the Earth. Then we have manmade radiation. In 1895 Roentgen discovered radiation in his laboratory, the medical benefits of this invisible source of energy were experimented with in every direction from beauty, to health for many years, and continues to this day. Radiation is a part of our environment both naturally and unnaturally (Sources of Radiation Exposure. (2013, June 12). Retrieved from http://epa.gov/radiation/sources/index.html). Just as the Earth has supplied us with natural radiation, it has supplied us with ways in which to protect us through nutrition. In the same way we can protect ourselves from natural radiation, we can protect ourselves from unnatural radiation. Minerals, spices, herbs, seaweed, and plants bind the radiation particles in our bodies and are removed naturally. Our bodies are incredible healing machines, given the correct nutrition and avoiding foods that impair the immune system, we are designed to heal and thrive in a world filled with toxins and even radiation. Natural sources of radiation are everywhere. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 64. Chronic Roentgens Clinical Tip #5 Prior to taking radiographs, swipe your gloved finger on your patient's palate and under the tongue to check for a bony protuberance called tori. It is important not to scratch tori when placing the film or sensor. Definitions Acute effects: Results from high doses of radiation (whole body) normally more than 100 rad. It may cause transient illness to death. ALARA principle: Efforts to minimize the amount of radiation "As low as reasonable achievable." Background radiation: Ionizing radiation, both naturally occurring and artificial, present in the environment. Cell recovery: Depending on time, interval, dose and sensitivity of affected cells to radiation, the cells may repair themselves and recover from harm. Chronic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Secondary radiation is developed from any matter being hit by primary radiation. Secondary x–rays have less penetrating energy than primary radiation. Acute (short term) effects of radiation result from high doses of whole body radiation, 100 rads and above. Clinically, a person may experience a mild and transient illness to death. It may occur minutes, hours, or weeks after the exposure. The median lethal whole body dose for humans is 450 rads. Chronic (long–term) effects of radiation can arrive years after the original exposure. It also may have cumulative effects on the somatic cells over the lifetime of the patient. Future generations may experience genetic ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65.
  • 66. Ionizing Diffuse Lung Cancer Introduction/Background High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an imaging method that provides more detail than either chest radiography or conventional CT scanning 1 Compared to other diagnostic tests, like chest radiography and lung function test, HRCT can be more sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases and detecting abnormalities at an early stage. HRCT can more accurately assess the pattern and distribution of diffuse lung disease, and to a lesser degree, assess the activity and potential reversibility of diffuse lung disease. #This may be beneficial when trying to narrow the differential diagnosis, as it helps exclude certain diseases, but also help in guidance for further testing in form of for example ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, this does not mean that this risk is not present at low radiation dose, as even large epidemiological studies would not have the statistical power to detect increased risk. 9 10 11 Because not all types of radiation produce the same biological effect, the dose equivalent, expressed in Sieverts (Sv) is often used instead of absorbed dose, measured in grays (Gy). In medical imaging radiation doses are typically expressed as millisievert ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 68. EHR In Healthcare The implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) in the hospital is very complex and requires detail planning. Recognizing organizational and technical aspects of the EHR is crucial matter because those factors affect the outcome of the implementation directly and indirectly. The culture of an organization and its structure, the building block of the organization (infrastructure), money, management, and human skills play a major role in the implementation phase of EHRs in an acute care setting (Boonstra, Versluis, & Vos, 2014). The EHR implementation in the hospitals would be more challenging compared to outpatient settings because confidentiality, safety, security and data entry intricacy concerns. Many experts believe that communication, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69.
  • 70. Computed Tomography Of A Hospital The Hospital is a workplace that houses a wide variety of careers. Nurses and therapists alike find employment in hospitals around the world and are each a part of a unique department. One department in particular, though, is as about as diverse as they come. The medical imaging department can be home to over 10 different modalities, some of which include X–ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR), Nuclear Medicine, and Sonography. Each specialty has its own purpose and is as vital to the hospital as the next. I am attending St. Catharine in hopes of obtaining a bachelor's degree in radiographic technology, as well as certification in CT and possibly MRI. For now and for the sake of the paper, however, I will concentrate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The largest of these categories is CT–based diagnosis in adults, but the category that has seen the most increase is diagnosis in pediatrics and adult screenings. The growth of CT use in children has been mostly in pre–surgical diagnosis of appendicitis and is primarily due to the decreasing in time needed to perform a scan. The shorter exposure times reduce the need for anesthesia to stop a child from moving while the image is being taken. A large portion of the increase in scanning for adults probably comes from the new CT–based screening programs for asymptomatic patients. The four areas attracting the most interest are CT colonography, lung screening for smokers, cardiac screening, and whole–body ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 71.
  • 72. The Long Term Health Risk For The General Population... Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 PURPOSE OF PROJECT To quantify the long term health risk for the general population exposed to radiation by the Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear disaster in the aftermath of the 2011 Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. 1.2 BACKGROUND On the 11th March 2011, following a magnitude 9 earthquake in the Pacific, a fifteen meter tsunami hit Honshu, the main island of Japan, killing over 19,000 people and damaging the Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Over the following days while workers worked to contain the accident days the crippled Nuclear Power Plant released dangerous nuclear isotopes into the atmosphere resulting in the biggest nuclear disaster since Chernobyl in April 1986. Experience from the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The exposure to the radiation released will not only result in heightened risks for cancer in populations, but may also result in other, non–cancer related health problems such as thyroid diseases, visual impairment, circulatory diseases, hereditary disorders and teratogenic defects (developmental defects in fetuses). It is important that exposure to radiation be estimated so that cancer risks can be estimated and appropriate responses and health measures can be implemented by governments to deal with future development in health problems related to the release of radiation from Fukushima. In 2013 the World Health Organization released its health risk assessment for the Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear disaster concluding that for the general population "the lifetime risk for some cancers may be somewhat elevated above baseline rates for certain age and sex groups that were in the areas most affected" and that disease attributable to the disaster is likely to remain below detectable levels. In 2012 Ten Hoeve and Jacobson provided the first estimates of the health impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident, estimating an additional 15 to 1100 (most likely 130) cancer related mortalities for the general population. Both Sophisticated modeling to come to these conclusions. This work to attempts to independently without reference to either's methodology ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 74. Optimization Of Radiation Spectroscopy Equipment For... University of Portsmouth Applied Physics BSc (Hons) U20283 Applied Physics Project OPTIMIZATION OF RADIATION SPECTROSCOPY EQUIPMENT FOR AIRBORNE RADIONUCLIDES 645137 Supervisor(s) DSTL – Laurence Jones University of Portsmouth – Dr. Chris Dewdney PROPOSAL & INITIAL LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction, Aims and Objectives Defence Science Technology Laboratory (DSTL) is investigating the potential for aerial monitoring of gamma rays (ɣ–rays) from airborne particulate contamination. They are in possession of two ⌀20cmx20cm cylindrical, thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Ti)) scintillator detectors for mounting onboard an aircraft for the recording of count rate and collection of spectroscopic data. Initially, surveying will ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The aim of this project is: To evaluate different ways of aerially measuring the count rate and collecting spectroscopic data of ~2 MeV emissions from airborne radioactive particulate contamination. The objectives that will be met in order to achieve the aims are as follows: A comprehensive literature review will be carried out in order to investigate methods of shielding and or discriminating against cosmic radiation that are currently used in this field or methods used in other fields (particle physics, spacecraft design etc.) that could be adapted to this purpose. A selection process of four ɣ–ray reduction methods, two muon reduction methods and two neutron reduction methods will take place (these numbers are arbitrary but have been chosen due to the time constraints of the project). These eight methods will be modeled using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to estimate there sensitivity and resulting background in order to determine their MDA's. A subset of the most promising modeled methods will be tested experimentally in the lab to confirm the validity of the models. A conclusion will be drawn as to the best method(s), via the development and use of a weighted comparison factor. Rationale Existing methodologies of back ground reduction such as shielding (F.A. Danevich et al., 2007), large coincidence counting methods or the burying of the detector underground (E.W. Hoppe et al., 2014), each present their own difficulties and limitations in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 75.
  • 76. Analyzing Rachel Carson’s “the Obligation to Endure” Essay Analyzing Rachel Carson's "The Obligation to Endure" In her essay "The Obligation to Endure", Rachel Carson alerts the public to the dangers of modern industrial pollution. She writes about the harmful consequences of lethal materials being released into the environment. She uses horrifying evidence, a passionate tone, audience, and the overall structure of her essay to express to her readers that the pollution created by man wounds the earth. There are many different ways that pollution can harm the environment, from the nuclear explosions discharging toxic chemicals into the air, to the venomous pesticides sprayed on plants that kills vegetation and sickens cattle. The adjustments to these chemicals would take generations. Rachel ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is an efficient strategy. It makes her audience want to get involved and preserve the natural resources the environment has to offer. In her essay she describes the devastating effects chemicals have on the environment with such conviction; it might make the reader feel obligated to make changes in his or her own life to help the natural world. Rachel Carson uses an assertive tone to get her point across. She has a one–sided argument and is very aggressive to those who oppose her point of view. She is very effective at stating her opinion to her audience. In her essay Rachel Carson targets anyone who will listen as her audience. She wants to inform human beings of the effects chemicals have on the environment. Rachel Carson's audience had little knowledge of the effects radiation and pesticides might have on nature or to themselves. She successfully enlightened her audience to the harm man was causing to the environment not only presently, she also wrote of future ramifications. She predicts "Future historians may well be amazed by our distorted sense of proportion. How could intelligent beings seek to control a few unwanted species by methods that contaminated the entire environment...?" (Carson 615). This statement might make her audience scrutinize their actions through the eyes of future generations. Rachel Carson used cause and effect, problem and solution, compare and contrast, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 77.
  • 78. Pros And Cons Of Returning To The Bombing Of Hiroshima And... Beginning with the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, a widespread belief has proliferated that all levels of ionizing radiation are dangerous. Since 1980, radiation hormesis studies have shown there is actually a threshold of danger with high level exposures, but below that threshold low dose radiation is essentially safe and quite possibly beneficial to life. Yet, this relatively new, seemingly contradictory understanding of radiation's health effects has gone essentially unknown to the general public. In order to grasp the reasons why, we must again return to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The world's first atomic bomb explosion occurred on July 16, 1945, at the Alamogordo facility in New Mexico, and was called Trinity. Trinity ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...