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Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing According To The...
Formal (Conventional) Assessments
According to the Glossary of Education Reform, 2014, formal assessments are organized,
techniques of testing learners that are utilized to ascertain how well students have learned the
information that is being taught in the classroom. Formal assessments present a method to
distinguish what the learner has understood. (Glossary of Education Reform, 2014)
Each formal assessment has identical expectations for all of the learners, additionally the assessment
has specialized criteria used for scoring and interpretation. The principal objective of formative
assessment is to evaluate the amount of knowledge that learners have remembered from previously
taught instructions. There are four principal categories of formal ... Show more content on
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Criterion–referenced tests:
According to the Glossary of Education Reform, 2014, criterion–referenced assessments are
constructed to measure a learners' performance versus an established set of predetermined criteria or
learning standards; written descriptions of expectations for students at a specific stage of their
education. In elementary and secondary education, criterion–referenced tests are utilized to evaluate
whether students have learned a specific body of knowledge or acquired a specific proficiency set,
for instance, the curriculum taught in a course, academic program, or content area. (Glossary of
Education Reform, 2014)
Learners that perform at or above the determined expectations let's say, answer a specified
percentage of questions accurately, will pass the test, meet the expected standards, or be considered
proficient. On a criterion–referenced test, every student undertaking the exam could hypothetically
fail if they don't meet the expected standard; on the other hand, every learner could earn the highest
possible score. Criterion–referenced tests have been compared to driver's–license exams, which
require would–be drivers to achieve a minimum passing score to earn a license. (Glossary of
Education Reform,
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Integrated Criteria Decision Making And Multi Criteria...
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Research Report – CS6705 Prioritized Multi–Criteria Decision
Making and Multi–Criteria Aggregation By Rizwan Umaid Ali Student # 3494784 Multi–Criteria
decision making (MCDM) is an area of Artificial Intelligence which provides capabilities to assess
complex decision problems. The decisions can depend on our preferences of some criteria over
others. In this report, we analyze formulations of MCDM and Multi–Criteria Aggregation. To
further understand this, we also see how we calculate prioritized measure of Multi–Criteria
Aggregation and its Shapley index. Introduction For a modern application, reaching satisfaction can
depend upon several criteria. Each criteria in it can be satisfied to reach an optimal result, but in real
world scenarios satisfying every criteria is impossible and even not required. For example, if a bill
needs to be passed by an executive committee, we will need only half of the committee's approval to
pass it. This leads us to think that we can reach satisfaction with any set of members of the
committee. In fact, there are several cases where certain criteria have a higher priority than others
and satisfaction cannot be reached without them. For instance, if the president of the executive
committee has to approve the bill and other members just have to favour it, then the president will
dominate the other criteria. To logically state this we can say 'Satisfy criterion A and if possible
satisfy criterion B'. We
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Types Of Rubrics : Analytic And Holistic
The Vermont Book Award is a contest that would be best judged using a rubric. A rubric is simply a
guide for assessment based on specific criteria. Its purpose is to grade a piece of work by
performance and quality. It gives structure to observations and judgements, making it easier to give
a subject an overall grade (Bookhart). Not only would the books be easier to grade, the structure of a
rubric gives the grader a clear target which encourages the accuracy and fairness of a grade, as well
as the advancement of personal learning (Wolf). There are two types of rubrics: analytic and holistic.
A holistic rubric is a more general which can be applied to many things (Bookhart). However, I
chose to create an analytic rubric because it is more specific, allowing me to produce the best
possible analysis and winner for the Vermont Book Award. The most effective personally created
rubrics have comprehensible language, a theme, description, and criterion that speaks to you as
being significant (Miller). I believe that the rubric I created follows these aspects directly.
The rubric I generated is very specific, organized, and detailed in order to produce the best winner
for the Vermont Book Award. I separated it into boxes of what I thought would be the criteria of the
best book with a detailed description, the criteria weight, the percent to be earned, and page number,
along with three sections to include quotes for the defense of a books earned percent in each
category. First,
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Obtaining A House Keeper For Building An Organization Essay
Obtaining a house keeper to come clean three times out of the week is simple to do. One only needs
to look on–line and hire the one that is available at the time. However, when you operate an
organization that has 1,000 employees, 12 departments, 25 restrooms, 15 break rooms, 10 proposal
rooms, 8 Executive offices suites, and one large dining area you need more than just three days a
week of cleaning. A solution needs to address the specifics of what our organization requires in
cleaning our facility. The solution for this will come by way of developing a Request for Proposal
[emphasis added] and to establish a specific contract type that will address the needs of our
organization. The cleaning services organization that we offer the contract too must understand the
specific tasks that we want them to perform. For starters they must provide commercial cleaning.
The specifics would include, cleaning of draperies and upholstery, lobby entrances, windows and
floor care, break rooms and restrooms. Furthermore, they must demonstrate a high level of
experience with their employees. The second task will be with janitorial services. This service
provided will ensure that all garbage bins or emptied on a regular basis to prevent overflowing. The
refrigerators in all the break rooms will be cleaned to prevent mold from accumulating, all
microwaves and coffee machines will be cleaned daily, and vacuuming of all carpeted areas will be
performed twice a day. It is vital that
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Performance Management Systems Are Important For A Wide
Performance management systems are important for a wide range of reasons, and can be used for
multiple purposes. One of these reasons is to help make good employment decisions, such as
deciding who to promote within an organization. In order to make effective promotion decisions for
mid–level information technology (IT) managers, it is necessary to outline the domain that
performance takes place in, which is discussed in the first section. In the next section, criterion
measures for relevant performance management systems will be given that can act as predictors in
the promotion process of IT managers. In the final section, a summary of the criterion will be
explored regarding relevance, sensitivity, and practicality. These evaluations are ... Show more
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Although O*NET (2016) lists 49 technology skills necessary for an information technology (IT)
manager, Hysong (2008) suggests that technical skill in a particular field is unnecessary for
managerial performance. The lack of actual necessity in technology skills may be true, considering
only 9 tools are listed by O*NET (2016) for IT managers; which include relatively low technical
skill to operate (e.g. laser printer, smartphone, various computers, USB flash drive). Therefore,
technical skills, although helpful, are likely not essential for an IT manager. Furthermore, research
suggests the same personality characteristics required for general IT work are not the same
personality characteristics that help to make good managers (Hysong, 2008). Therefore, the primary
focus of an IT manager's performance domain will rely on managerial knowledge, skills, and
abilities (KSAs) reflected in work activities, along with the leadership and personality
characteristics needed to provide a favorable behavioral environment.
Criterion Measure
It is beyond the scope of this paper to go through all KSAs, work activities, and personality
characteristics that make up the criterion being considered when making decisions concerning IT
manager promotions. However, it is not necessary to evaluate each area
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Essay On Medical Billing
Among the most vital things about in the medical billing rates business is coming up with a criterion
of what rates to charge for your services. The rate that you decide to settle upon is what you charge
the ensuing provider's office for billing on their behalf. As such, it implies that the 'billing rate' is the
amount of money your doctor pays you for doing the billing for them.
With that backdrop, bear in mind that the biggest decision ( arguably ) that you'll ever have to make
in your line of business is settling on the rates to charge. And that's because your rates affect the
bottom line in more ways than one.
For starters, a very low rate will mean that you'll be struggling with a load of work and getting
peanuts in exchange. On the hand, charging ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
1. Percentage Pricing
Percentage pricing sits atop the pedestal of the most competitive criteria for determining medical
billing rates. Under this umbrella we have,
a.) As a percentage/portion of collections
In this case, the biller ( you ) bases their rates/fee on the net amount of money collected or revenue
associated with their collections. In such a situation, the biller is responsible for making sure that
full payments are made to the responsible party.
b. As a percentage/portion of gross claims
Using a such a criterion to base your fee means that you will be charging the healthcare provide an
agreed upon percentage of the claims associated with your billing services. Which, of course,
implies that the more claims you make and send to his clients, the more money flows into your
business.
Unlike payment as a percentage of the collections ( where you're only paid after the collections are
successful ), in this charging method – charging by gross claims – you're paid for merely sending the
doctors claims to his clients. It works best with large organizations that handle hundreds of clients
every
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Test Validity
What is Test Validity? Validity can be defined as a measure of how well a test measures what it
claims to measure. In other words, validity is the overall accuracy and credibility (or believability)
of a test. It's important to understand that validity is a broad concept that encompasses many aspects
of assessment (Test Validity Research). The main thing that people want to know is whether a test is
valid or not, but it's not as simple as it may sound. Validity is determined by a body of research that
demonstrates the relationship between the test and the behavior its intended to measure. It is vital for
a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted, especially in the
context of psychological tests. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Here is an example from the University of California, Davis...Is hand strength a valid measure of
intelligence? Certainly the answer is "No, it is not a valid measure of intelligence." Is a score on the
ACT a valid predictor of one's GPA during the first year of college? The answer depends on the
amount of research and support for such a relationship. There are many different types of validity
that exist, each type is designed to ensure that specific aspects of measurements tools are accurately
measuring what they are intended to measure and that the results can be applied to real–world
settings (Introduction: Validity and Reliability). We will discuss the three main types of validity in
the following paragraphs: Content Validity, Criterion–Related Validity, and Construct
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Aasb 15 Analysis
The introduction of the AASB 15 alters the existing accounting framework in regards to revenue
recognition in contractual transactions. The new accounting standards require revenue to be
recognised at the value that best represents the value that an entity would be entitled to, after it
satisfying its contractual obligations. A 5–step model has been introduced to streamline the revenue
reporting process. Accounting procedures for contracts under the AASB 15 requires the contract to
be identified first. The contract can be done through written or verbal means, but the contract must
have commercial substance and the approval of both entity and the customer. Both party's
commitment towards their respective obligations is also a necessary notation ... Show more content
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The allocated transaction prices are allocated on the basis of a single stand–alone selling price, a
price that reflects the price of the good or service when sold by the provider. If such price is not
available, the stand–alone selling price is estimated thought observable evidence (e.g. market
approach). Variable amounts, such as discounts, that stem from transaction costs are also included
and allocated to performance obligations under the new accounting standard. Unless overt evidence
is used to satisfied a criterion within the AASB 15, Variable amounts such as the discount is applied
proportionately amongst all the performance obligations within the
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A Study to Evaluate the Changes in Salivary ph, after...
Materials & Method The present study was a clinical study carried out to evaluate the changes in
salivary ph, after consumption of different snacks and beverages and to estimate their oral clearance
time. SAMPLING: 60 randomly selected undergraduate students from hostel inmates of K.D.
Dental College and Hospital, Mathura were examined. Out of these, 5 subjects were selected on the
basis of following inclusion and exclusion criterion: Inclusion Criterion: Subjects who were caries
free i.e. DMFT score =0 Exclusion Criterion: Subjects who did not give consent for the study.
Subjects who were using alcohol or tobacco in any of the form. Subjects who were using any
medication at the time of study or in period of last 15 days prior to the study. Subjects who were
suffering from any systemic disease. All the study subjects were similar with respect to their age,
dietary habits, oral hygiene measures and other lifestyle factors which could have significant effect
on the study results ETHICAL CLEARANCE: Before carrying out the present study the ethical
clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical clearance committee. Before the start of the
study, the purpose and methodology of the study was explained to each of the subject and informed
consent was obtained. STUDY DESIGN: Unstimulated salivary sample was collected for each study
subject in the Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry at least one hour after their
breakfast. After the collection of
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Finally The Characteristics Of The Tissue At And Surrounding
Finally the characteristics of the tissue at and surrounding the impact site has been shown to
influence the resulting response [19]. These characteristics are referred to as collectively as contact
phenomena. Contact phenomenon includes local variables such as skull shape, size, geometry,
density and mass of neural tissue, thickness of scalp and skull, hair style, ratio of brain–head weight
and strength of the head–neck junction[19]. These local variables seem to greatly different between
the two sexes, with females typically showing greater responses to a specific impact then males
[27]. These variables contribute greatly to determine the response that occurs due to impact [19].
Additionally, any accessories or protective equipment of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Typically, football is the primary sport studied. This is largely due to the convenience in the ability
to place sensors and other technologies inside a helmet which do not increase the risk of injuries for
the athletes, and the large number of athletes in the sport. For instance, six degree of freedom
measurement devices have been placed inside of football helmets so that the head acceleration
measures me be obtained. Instrumented helmets can then be used to directly measure the linear and
rotation accelerations, as well as the location of impacts without interfering with normal sporting
play [28].
Human surrogates Human surrogates include dummies and computational models. Surrogates allow
for investigation of impacts that could not be performed on human or animal models, while
additionally standardizing the contact phenomena. This allows for the differences in response to
impact to be said to be due to the treatment conditions or impact characteristics, rather than the
variations between the subject being impacted. Dummies can be made of a variety of materials.
What the dummy is made from helps determine its reliability and accuracy of the measurements
obtain from its use. Metal head forms produce more reliable data, while biofidelic heads produce
more realistic data [15]. The most accurate biofidelic dummies are based on the tissue
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Management Of Workforce Performance : School District Essay
Management of Workforce Performance Napavine School District uses the Washington State
Teacher Principal Evaluation Project (TPEP) model to manage teacher (instructional) and principal
(leadership) performances. The state allows districts to choose one of three frameworks adopted by
the state September 2012: CEL's 5D+, Danielson, and Marzano. Napavine uses the Marzano
framework. There are two tiers of evaluation: Comprehensive and Focused. Any core subject teacher
must be evaluated on a comprehensive model if they are on a provisional or probationary contract,
or once every four years, or if they did not receive a proficient or distinguished score the prior year,
or if they or the evaluator elects to complete a comprehensive evaluation model. Core academic
teachers must be evaluated on a focused model in years they are not evaluated on the comprehensive
model. Factors that Impact Workforce Engagement Napavine's small size has its benefits and
drawbacks. It can lead to isolation in the classroom, yet it allows for a more personal relationship
among staff members. Paradoxically, while the staff gets to know each other very well and develop
intimate bonds, we also lack the ability to form sizable groups for collaboration. For example, every
two weeks, we have collaboration time from 3 – 3:45 p.m. This is a time for teachers to collaborate
within their departments. The problem is that there are only one or two teachers in each department.
If one of the teachers in a
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The Statements And Actions Of Prophet
INTRO
The statements and actions of Prophet are recorded in a set of literary texts that modern Muslim call
the Hadith. The original term for the customs of the Prophet was "Sunnat Al– Nabi", which is an
exact translation of "customs of the Prophet" in the native tongue of the Prophet's time, which was
Arabic (textbook). While the entire genre of Islamic literature that surrounds the Prophet
Muhammad is called Sunnat Al–Nabi, the individual reports that outline the personal and private life
of the Prophet are called Hadith. The Hadith is an official collection of the sayings and actions of the
last and final Prophet of Islam throughout the 22 years of his prophetic ministry (Dustin). The
Hadith is arguably one of the most important practical text for modern Muslims, as the many books
on Hadith outline the life of the man that Muslims around the world have been told to emulate.
Muslims have been instructed to practice the behaviour of the Prophet as his behaviour is considered
a guideline on the perfect way for a Muslim to live. The Hadith outlines all relationships between a
Muslim and God, as well as discussing how relationships between humans should be conducted.
The Hadith outlines every affair possible, and how the Prophet acted in this affair, and Muslims
should aspire to model this way of life (Encyclopedia J). Therefore, the Hadith can be considered
one of the most important literary texts on the planet, because it guides a religion of nearly 1.6
billion people. The
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Bilingualism And Bilingualism
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a pervasive problem in the United States, and is likely to become even
more problematic as the population of older Americans grows in the coming years. In addition to the
many genetic factors that contribute to AD, it has been suggested that cognitive reserve (CR) plays a
role. CR is thought to mediate the relationship between language experience (LE) and later onset of
AD in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. However, the literature on the proposed protective
qualities of bilingualism is not conclusive. To help address questions about the relationship between
bilingualism and later onset and/or lower incidence of AD, I proposed a large, prospective,
longitudinal study of Americans. The collection of data on predictive variables, LE, and AD (if and
when onset occurs) will be facilitated through collaboration among many US research institutions.
These data will lend themselves to multiple–regression analyses. The results of this study will have
important implications for Americans' quality of life, as well as for the economy.
Is Bilingualism Associated with Lower Incidence and/or Later Onset of Alzheimer's Disease?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a
leading cause of death among older American adults, and the population of adults ages 65 or older
with AD is projected to increase to over 13 million by 2050 (Alzheimer's Disease, 2017). The
prevalence of AD constitutes a major public
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Reliability and Validity
Reliability and Validity Dede Kendrick BSHS/382 January 16, 2012 Angela Heads Reliability and
Validity Evaluating human services is a task that can be very complex. People can have different
interpretations of the same event. Another concern is that people are not always honest. Therefore,
human services will gain from effective, high quality evaluations of data collection methods. This
requires that the data collection methods supply accurate and dependable information. This paper
will define and describe 2 concepts of measurement known as reliability and validity,–provide
examples and supporting facts as to how these concepts apply to data collection in human services,
and evaluate the importance of the validity and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
When multiple people are given assessments of some kind or are the subjects of some test, then
similar people under the same circumstances should lead to scores that are similar or duplicates
("Types Of Reliability", 2011). This is the idea of inter–rater reliability. Another mode of reliability
is the administration of the same test among different participants and expecting the same or similar
results ("Types Of Reliability", 2011). This is known as Test–retest reliability. This method of
measurement might be used to make determinations about the effectiveness of a school exam or
personality test ("Types Of Reliability", 2011). Surveys and other methods of research present the
appropriate avenues for data collection. Data collection and measurement methods are used in
human services to help organizations achieve leadership capacity and to achieve high performance
outcomes. Agencies that track the effectiveness of their services through field studies and surveys
will have a record of techniques that have worked best to fulfill mission goals. The evidence of such
reported facts will come in handy in terms of funding, policy efforts, and keeping professionals
educated. From psychological and behavioral aspects, interviews, test groups, and random
assignment are just a few ways to collect data in controlled and uncontrolled environments. Human
services use these methods to apply theory to real life situations. Human services depends on the
effective analysis
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Observation and Measurement in Human Services Research
Observation and measurement in human services research Types of reliability The theory of
reliability states that it is impossible to calculate the reliability of a study in an exact way. Instead,
reliability is estimated and this creates an imperfection in research. There are four major types of
reliability. The first is inter–rater or inter–observer reliability. This means the reliability that is used
to assess the degree to which the different people who are observing or rating the items being
studied give estimates that are consistent regarding the same phenomenon. A good example is the
popular example of a glass half empty and one that is half full. This is to mean that people who are
in essence similar in every nature may have different ideas or views of the same phenomenon. This
kind of reliability is estimated by using a pilot study which is used to establish the expected
reliability in the main study(Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2012). The second form of reliability is the test–
retest reliability. This kind of reliability is used to assess the consistency of a measure from one
period of time to another. This reliability is estimated when the same test is administered to the same
sample group but at two different periods in time. This approach makes an assumption that there is
no substantial change in the construct that is being measures in the two different occasions(Rosnow
& Rosenthal, 2012). The third form of reliability is the parallel–forms reliability. This form
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Taking a Look at Correlational Studies
A correlational study is a quantitative research method, which there are two or more variables in
which the researchers goal is to determine a relationship using statistical data. The significance of
this approach is that is does not analyze or try to prove cause and effect type patterns or
relationships. Using this type of research study can determine behaviors in human actions or any
other variables that can be evaluated for a relationship. Using a correlational approach can be a
stepping–stone for further experimental studies and is an important approach used in educational
research.
Correlational Research
Correlational research is a type of study in which two non–manipulated variables are measured to
determine if there is a relationship. This type of research observes the connection between the two
variables. Correlational research is often called Association research and has two basic purposes. In
the remainder of this text, the purposes, steps, threats and a comparison of correlational research will
be discussed.
There are two basic purposes of correlational research. The first purpose would be to help explain
human behaviors, such as behaviors in an Explanatory design. In this type of design "the extents to
which two or more variables co–vary, that is, where changes in one variable are reflected in changes
in the other" (Creswell, 2008, p. 358). When conducting an explanatory correlational study,
researchers usually gather data at one time, as their
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An Analysis Of Assess And Balance Financials
Strategic Position:
Asses and Balance Financials is a small firm that works with the government on the county level
and helps departments in the county with their financial needs. This firm analyzes, creates, and
finalizes budgets for these departments and ensures that each is equipped with the necessaries for
their role in the county. Assess and Balance Financials is in search of filling a position for a budget
analyst. Currently, there are two interns in the firm, a staff accountant, a purchasing coordinator, and
the finance director. This firm works closely with the county manager as well. The firm is struggling
to function with the employees that are currently working, but they can provide the minimum
required information, so the firm ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Recruitment: In order to recruit to fill this budget analyst position, we will be seeking individuals
who have a four–year, bachelor's degree, in accounting or finance. At Assess and Balance
Financials, needs qualified individuals who understand basic accounting and financial rules and
equations learned through course material and experience. This is best for Assess and Balance
Financials because the material covered affects many firms and creates a domino effect down to the
taxpayers if the numbers are not handled with precision and accuracy, so it is imperative that this
individual understand and have experience working with budgets and have knowledge in
accounting. This audience is best for Assess and Balance Financials because these individuals will
have the four–year degree and internships and if older, some additional job experience.
In order to fill this position, Assess and Balance Financials will look internally, at the interns, and
seek to post positions online to Indeed. Assess and Balance Financials will benefit from this
recruitment, because it will already be aware of the work ethic and performance from the interns.
Additionally, Assess and Balance Financials will know that the interns fit into the organization
culture and understand expectations. Interns will also be familiar with the departments and will
require less training as
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Documented Congitive Biases
For one there is a serious problem with the general reliability of the method, and of course the raters
are under the influence of the several different, well documented cognitive biases (Murphy, 2008).
Oddly this subjective method is often used even in situations where there are more objective
criterions, like sales or turnover, available (Vinchur et al., 1998). Its weaknesses aside, supervisory
ratings of individuals can indeed be meaningful under certain conditions, and there are situations
where no other measures are available. Researchers has suggested that the method can be improved
by using a carefully conducted job–analysis as a foundation for the construction of the rating scales,
and training for the observers conducting the ratings (Borman & Smith, 2012).
Objective measures, such as turnover, sales, absences or production rates are often considered as
better measures of job performance. Sadly these criterions also have their weaknesses, at least to
some extent. A recurrent problem with these measures is that of criterion contamination. Simply put,
even if the criterion in question is of central importance to the employer such as sales, there can be
several different reasons for the individuals specific value in the criterion, for example leadership
and environmental issues which effects the compared employees differently. There are possible
efforts to be made trying to limit these factors influence's on the results, with varying efficiency
(Hammer & Landau, 1981;
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Self Evaluation Motivates Performance Essay
Self Evaluation Motivates Performance
To demonstrate that the potential for self–evaluation can motivate performance, the potential for
evaluation by external sources must be eliminated. As Bandura (1986) writes, "When environmental
constraints are reduced, the influence of self–evaluative motivators becomes most self–evident" (p.
479). Thus, to determine whether the self–evaluative concerns suggested by social comparison
theory motivate performance, one must ensure that people feel that they cannot be individually
evaluated by an externalsource. Such control of external evaluation is made possible through the use
of the social loafing paradigm (e.g., Latane, Williams, & Harkins, 1979).
Social loafing refers to the finding that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Szy@ manski and Harkins (1987) did exactly this in an experiment in which they asked participants
to generate as many uses as they could (i.e., do–your–best instructions) for a common object,
regardless of the creativity of those uses. Pilot work with this task showed that participants felt that
they knew how many uses they had generated (their output). Therefore, to manipulate the potential
for self–evaluation, Szymanski and Harkins either provided an evaluative criterion by telling
participants that at the end of the session they would be told the average number of uses generated
by participants in a previous version of the experiment, or Szymanksi and Harkins withheld the
criterion by telling participants that to preserve confidentiality they would not be given this
information. When the participants were provided with the evaluative criterion, they had an
opportunity for selfevaluation by social comparison. This manipulation of the potential for self–
evaluation was crossed with a manipulation of the potential for experimenter evaluation. Half of the
participants were told that at the end of the session, the experimenter would come in and count the
number of uses that they had generated (experimenter evaluation), whereas the other half of the
participants were told that the experimenter was interested in average performance so their
individual outputs would be pooled with those of
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Evaluation Of The Portfolio Management System
Guinn_ENVM625_M2_GradedAssign
Payback Model
As part of the portfolio management system, a selection criterion is used to determine which
projects are most in accord with the organizations mission. Selection criteria is usually either
financial or non–financial. In the example provided we are considering which project will meet the
needs of high annual cash flow for the small startup company. Using the financial criteria for
selection we will employ the payback model, which allows for the direct assessment of future cash
flows. This model measures the time it will take for the recovery of the project investment (Larson
& Gray, 2011). The limitations of this model are the assumed cash flow during only the investment
period, the exclusion of profitability, and the effect of the time value of money (Murphy, 2016).
Results: Project 1: 5.7 years; Project 2: 7.5 years; and Project 3: 5 years.
Based on the results, Project 3 would satisfy the high annual cash flow requirement with a shorter
payback period of 5 years.
Net present value (NPV)
Net present value uses managements minimum desired rate–of–return to calculate the value of all
net cash inflow (Larson & Grey, 2011). A positive value is desired, and is the indication of the
project eligible for consideration. The greater the values the higher the rank in consideration. A
negative value would indicate the project is not financially viable.
Results: Using the Investopedia NPV calculator, it was determined
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Telco Stakeholders
Role: Accounting advisor who will advise David Johnston and his company Telco. Corporation.
Users & Objectives:
David Johnston– Owner: This report is being prepared on your request so, consequently, your
objectives will be the main priorities. Working within the constraints, the goal will be to help find
the bet way to finance your expansion and ensure that appropriate accounting guidelines are being
followed. As an owner who is eager to expand and generate cash, you will want to have a strong net
income, so you are able to attract investors or convince the bank of your profitability.
Potential Investors: These are the users who will buy shares and help you raise $2 million. They will
want to ensure your company is truthful, profitable and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the first scenario, the revenue is still unearned, as the business has not provided any services so it
not a suitable point to recognize revenue. In the second scenario, the service has been performed and
the performance criterion is met. The costs and revenue pertaining to this service have also become
known and can be measured. Similar to issue 1, collection remains to be the only problem. Again,
just because corporations have up to 18 months to pay, does not mean that your company should
defer the revenue until, the third alternative, collection. These larger accounts are most likely
dependable and therefore collection should be probable. This should enable your business to
recognize the revenue when the service is completed. The problems with the CRA discussed in issue
1, might be prevalent if revenue continues to be recognized at collection. Moreover, recognizing
revenue earlier will increase your current net income by recognizing revenue for services you have
completed in this period but have not yet collected. This will make your company appear to be more
profitable, thus attracting investors. Finally, the fourth alternative, which better matches the
expenses and revenues, may be useful for services that
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Validity And Reliability Paper
Validity and Reliability
A key component of using evidence–based practices is to review the best available data from
multiple sources to ensure that a quality decisions. (Barends, Rousseau, & Briner, 2014). To identify
the best available data, one can begin by questioning the validity and reliability of a study. Validity
and reliability in evidence–based research is essential to the success of a research paper. Validity is
concerned with the extent to which the research measures what it designed or intended to measure.
(McLeod, 2013). The validity of research relates to how valuable the research findings are to the
question at hand (Leung, 2015). Validity in research is the work done that is credible and believable
because those sources find ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Researchers prove these three types of validity by having a set of measures that is valid. Content
validity measures how well the collected data represents the research question (Cooper & Schindler,
2011, 281). Criterion–related validity determines how well a set of data can estimate either reality in
the present or future (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 281–282). The best suggested way to measure this
is to "administer the instrument to a group that is known to exhibit the trait" (Key, 1997). Construct
validity determines the success in the measurement tool of validating a theory (Cooper & Schindler,
2011, 282–283). There is another less common validity factor called face validity, which determines
if "managers or others accept it as a valid indicator" (Parker, 2003). In addition to the three
categories of validity explained above, there are two types of validity to consider internal and
external. Flaws within the study, such as design flaws or data collection problems, affect internal
validity. Other factors that can affect internal validity including the size of population, task
sensitivity, and time given for data collection. External validity is the extent to which you can
generalize your findings to another group or other contexts (Henrichsen, Smith, & Baker, 1997). An
example of this is having a study done over only male football players. This study might not have
the external validity for female gymnasts due to the specific domain of the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Application Of A Project
Part 1 1.0 PROJECT DRIVERS 1.1 The User Business or Background of the Project Effort 1.2
Goals of the project 1.3 Client, Customer and other Stakeholders 1.4 Users of the Product 2.0
PROJECT CONSTRAINTS 2.1 Mandated Constraints 2.2 Implementation environment of the
current system 2.3 Partner Applications 2.4 Anticipated workplace environment 3.0 FUNCTIONAL
REQUIREMENTS 3.1 The Scope of the Work 3.2 The Scope of the Product 3.3 Functional and
Data Requirements 4.0 NON–FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 5.0 O' BRIEN APPROACH 6.0
USE CASE ANALYSIS Part 2 1.0 FEASIBILITY STUDY 1.1 Outcome: Feasibility Report 2.0
REQUIREMENT ELICITATION AND ANALYSIS 2.1 Joint Application Development Workshops
2.2 Interviews 3.0 REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION 4.0 REQUIREMENTS ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
2.0 PROJECT CONSTRAINTS 2.1 Mandated Constraints Description: The Vehicles shall use GPS
Tracking to confirm their locations. Rationale: The client will be able to view the vehicles location.
Fit criterion: The location of the vehicle shall be tracked by the client and viewed in a map format.
Description: The Autonomous Vehicle shall be a van Rationale: The vehicle will have sufficient
space to store packages Fit criterion: The Vehicle shall have a payload of between 1200–1500kg at
any one time Description: The Vehicles shall use customised hardware to sort and order packages
Rationale: The customer will receive the correct parcel Fit criterion: The hardware within the
vehicle shall select the correct package for each customer Description: The Vehicles shall use
custom–built
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Decision Tree Induction & Clustering Techniques in Sas...
International Journal of Management & Information Systems – Third Quarter 2010
Volume 14, Number 3
Decision Tree Induction & Clustering Techniques In SAS Enterprise Miner, SPSS Clementine, And
IBM Intelligent Miner – A Comparative Analysis
Abdullah M. Al Ghoson, Virginia Commonwealth University, USA
ABSTRACT Decision tree induction and Clustering are two of the most prevalent data mining
techniques used separately or together in many business applications. Most commercial data mining
software tools provide these two techniques but few of them satisfy business needs. There are many
criteria and factors to choose the most appropriate software for a particular organization. This paper
aims to provide a comparative analysis for three ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In this way, decision trees provide accuracy and explanatory models where the decision tree model
is able to explain the reason of certain decisions using these decision rules. Decision trees could be
used in classification applications that target discrete value outcomes by classifying unclassified
data based on a pre–classified dataset, for example, classifying credit card applicants into three
classes of risk, which are low, medium or high. Also, decision trees could be used in estimation
applications that have continuous outcomes by estimating value based on pre–classified datasets,
and in this case the tree is called a regression tree, for example, estimating household income.
Moreover, decision trees could be used in prediction applications that have discrete or continuous
outcomes by predicting future value same as classification or estimation, for example, predicting
credit card loan as good or bad. 2.1 Decision Tree Models
Decision tree models are explanatory models, which are English rules so they are easy to evaluate
and understand by people. The decision tree model is considered as a chain of rules that classify
records in different bins or classes called nodes [1]. Based on the model 's algorithm, every node
may have two or more children or have no child, which is called in this case leaf node [1]. Building
decision tree models requires partitioning the pre–classified dataset into three parts,
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Self Change Program (Behaviour modification) Essay
Behaviour Modification
A Self–Control Program for Smoking Cessation
Christine Chambers
Trent University
Introduction
The behaviour modified for this self–directed behaviour change project is smoking. Smoking was
selected as the behaviour I wish to change because it is known that tobacco use is the leading cause
of premature, preventable death and disease (Edwards, Bondy, Callaghan, & Mann, 2014). Smoking
is a behaviour that has been recently initiated; I started smoking occasionally in August 2013 (one
cigarette a few times a week) and intended to buy only the one pack. However over a period of
several months, my smoking has increased. The rationale for this choosing this target behaviour is
that it is still a relatively ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Self–Directed Intervention Method
The initial phase of the self–directed intervention consisted of baseline measurement of smoking
behaviour. Baseline data was collected for a period of 7 weeks and a functional assessment was
completed during this time. Upon starting the intervention phase, the final target behaviour of
smoking cessation was broken down into smaller, short–term objectives lasting 2 weeks each.
Functional assessment revealed that smoking behaviour was often preceded by a busy or stressful
environment (antecedent) and that mood and/or anxiety levels functioned as establishing operations
for smoking behaviour (smoking was often preceded by higher anxiety rating or lower mood rating).
As well, the functional assessment revealed that smoking behaviour was maintained by positive
sensory stimulation (the experience of a slight "buzz" when smoking) and by temporary
escape/distraction from a demanding environment. Based on assessment results, the intervention
phase consisted of a reinforcement schedule that provided rewards for changing criterion levels for
smoking behaviour. The initial criterion was determined by calculating the mean number of
cigarettes smoked per day during the baseline period. Each criterion level (or short term objective)
lasted for a two week period before changing the criterion level again. The timeline for baseline,
intervention, maintenance phases are outlined in table 1. The initial intervention selected was a
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Designing A Graphic Organizer That May Provide An Overview...
In researching and finding information to develop a graphic organizer that could provide an
overview of various types of assessments was insightful. Reading assessments are often mandated
by a school district or state to determine where student are academically. In the case of reading test,
the data received is supposed to give the assessor and idea of defects and growth of the reader. But is
the information received from just one assessment tool giving an accurate and complete picture of
reading skills. Assessments may determine if a student is reading with fluency, can comprehend
what they have read, are able to decode words, and so on. Because of the variety of assessments it
was difficult to narrow the field and select just five. Familiarity with the assessments assisted in my
selection. The final five selected were; 1. Collection Portfolio Assessment, 2.Miscue Analysis,
3.Running Record, 4. Criterion–Referenced Tests and 5. Each tool assesses reading in a variety of
ways. The data they provide can determine the direction of current and future reading instruction. In
researching portfolio I learned that there were various format and purposes. Portfolios can be the
process oriented or product oriented. The formats I investigated were collection, display and
teacher/student portfolios. I selected Collection Portfolio to compare with the other assessments
tools. Again I selected this format because I was familiar with it. Even with that I learned that there
was
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Relationship Between Teacher 's Assessment And Demographic...
CHAPTER 3: Research Methodology
Introduction
The purpose of this non–experimental quantitative study will be to examine the relationship between
teacher's assessment of their school's implementation of EBS, teacher's demographic information,
and student referrals. This chapter will discuss the proposed research methods of this study. First,
the research design and rationale of the study will be discussed, followed by a restatement of the
research questions. Next, data collection and analysis will be discussed.
Research Design and Rationale The present study will utilize a non–experimental quantitative
predictive design. The non–experimental design is appropriate, as random assignment, control
groups, and manipulation of an independent variable will not be employed (Cramer, D., 1998). A
quantitative design was chosen over a qualitative design, as this study seeks to make inferences
based on quantifiable results rather than assess individuals' experiences (Craighead & Nemeroff,
2001). Because the aim of this study is to use several variables to predict student behavior, the
predictive design is most appropriate (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2001). This study will use a multiple
linear regression to evaluate the relationship between teacher's assessment of their school's EBS
implementation, teacher demographics, and student behavior in an urban middle school. The
predictor variables for this analysis will be teacher's assessment of their school's EBS
implementation, as well as the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
The Success Of The Database And Data Warehouse
The success of the database and data warehouse (DW) project really depends on the quality of data.
If data quality is not good enough, the information will logically be unreliable when the business
users retrieve it from the database/DW environment. Good quality of data will be useful for the
decision maker to make the right decision, gain more trust and make the organization more efficient.
In contrast, the bad quality of data will drive the decision maker to make a wrong decision.
Debbarma, Nath and Das (2013) stated that "good quality of data will enable DW environment to
provide right information in the right place at the right time with the right cost in order to support
the right decision". Thus, data quality needs to be maintained ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
The most prominent issue that always occurs is duplicated records "the records that represent the
same real–world object in numerous ways" (Christie, Timothy, 2005). Such duplicates could cause
many significant problems. Therefore, data cleaning strategy is essential to ensure these
redundancies. However, duplicate elimination is one of challenge tasks because it is caused by many
different types of errors such as typographical errors, null values, abbreviations, word
transformation and different representations of the same word. To detect and eliminate data
duplication, there are many algorithms that have been proposed by researchers and scholars. Those
algorithms include standard duplication elimination algorithm (SDE), adaptive duplication detection
algorithm (ADD), sorted neighborhood algorithm (SNA), duplicate elimination sorted neighborhood
algorithm (DE–SNA), etc. Most of the algorithms use the following techniques in different ways to
achieve a duplicate detection and elimination goal: Character–based similarity measure techniques.
Phonetic similarity measure techniques Numeric similarity measure techniques Semantic similarity
measure techniques To measure the similarity between characters, numbers and semantic words, the
above techniques use standard string similarity functions such as edit distance, generalized edit
distance, hamming distant, cosine metric, and Jaccard coefficient function, etc. There are many
approaches
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Persuasive Essay On Standardized Testing
If standardized testing is going to change, then now is the time. The Every Student Succeeds Act
[ESSA] has recently been enacted, and states are feeling the pressure to integrate a balanced
assessment system as mandated. As this essay has presented, the current system and models of
standardized testing are rife with problems. This proposed solution addresses the core elements of
this problem with education in the United States today. Standardized testing is here to stay. Although
there is a strong argument for it to be removed from the system of education, it is a tool used by
politicians to gage school and student performance. The best solution for the future of education is
to develop a standardized testing system that work. Standardized testing is meant to measure student
performance and growth. It would be imperative to remove the high stakes accountability
component. I agree accountability is important. However, that should be a completely separate
entity. The solution I am proposing to fix standardized testing is a multi–level criterion referenced
digital portfolio which assess multiple measures through low stakes on–demand adaptive tests, and
stealth assessments. This solution is designed from an amalgamation of individual alternatives to
standardized testing that have been developed by experts in an article titled 8 Alternatives to High–
Stakes Standardized Tests, by Sarah Briggs. On their own they are okay, but mixed and molded,
they are the answer. One of the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Apple Behavior Analysis
There are several different research designs that are used frequently in Applied Behavior Analysis.
These different research designs are very helpful to the behavior analyst in several ways. Behavior
analysts look at the behavior that is to be changed, but more so, they look at the close relationship
between the stimuli and the behavior that is being changed, as well as the individual whose behavior
is being changed (Richards, Taylor, Ramassamy, & Richards, 1999). These methods help the
behavior analyst determine whether a particular behavior plan is working well for that individual or
whether it needs to be modified. Since the analysts wish to encourage "valuable behaviour," the
behavior that is being targeted will be one that will continue to be reinforced and maintained even
after the experimental conditions of the design are withdrawn (Richards, et al, 1999). One such
design is the changing criterion design. This design looks at and evaluates the effects of a treatment
on the gradual and systematic increase/decrease of a single target behavior (Richards, et al, 1999).
This is done by changing the levels necessary to meet contingencies to increase or decrease a
behavior. So, the intervention is shown to be effective when the target behavior changes to the
predetermined criterion level. There is a baseline phase where baseline data of the behavior to be
changed is collected. Then the intervention/treatment phase is divided into subphases, each with its
own criterion
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Evaluating Revenue Systems
Perry & Christensen (2015) provide insight on the design and administration of a revenue system, as
well as how it is evaluated. A revenue system is a collection of sources that is used by the
government that are extracted through the means of tax and charges. Designing a revenue system is
not merely created from scratch; it is an older system that has been modified to comply with and be
accepted by society. These systems have been trending since the beginning of socioeconomic
development and continue to evolve. Revenue systems are evaluated through a set of criteria;
economic efficiency, equity, feasibility, and adequacy. It is noted that transparency is also part of the
criteria, but it is a separate criterion in itself. Research and evidence examine the set of criteria by
focusing on the income tax and how it has been the main source of revenue for the US Federal
government. There have been many innovations in the technology of tax collection that have been
implemented in the US, and have also been adopted globally by both developed and developing
countries. Efforts to improve current systems and policies are examined based on the set used to
evaluate the revenue system. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The process of designing of a revenue system, as mentioned by Perry & Christensen (2015), raises
the question of how stable can it be, if it will create enough revenue, and if it will be accepted
politically. There is no mention by Holzer & Schwester (2015) on the design of a revenue system,
but they do discuss in depth the process by which government builds and plans it budget with the
revenue that is created through tax systems. Before any revenue system or budget can be
implemented, it must be evaluated in order for it to be accepted by taxpayers and how the changes in
the economy will affect
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Variable Selection Via Penalized Likelihood Plays An...
Variable selection via penalized likelihood plays an important role in statistics and machine learning.
In this paper, we first review some classical methods like AIC, BIC, Mallow's Cp, then discuss some
regularization methods including Lasso, adaptive Lasso, elastic–net, adaptive elastic–net and group
Lasso. We also consider the application of regularization methods in generalized linear model, Cox's
model and time series analysis. At the end, we give suggestions for future work. 1 Classical Method
The problem of variable selection is always the center of statistical research. Some classical
methods like best subset selection, forward selection and backward elimination are proposed to
handing massive data set. These methods are basically based on the idea of grid search. For
example, the best subset selection searches the optimal model by all possible combination of the
predictors. The forward selection find the best model by adding one predictor at each time, while the
backward elimination finds the best model by removing one predictor at each time. Although these
methods are powerful and accurate, they also cost a lot. For instance, suppose our model has 10
predictors, if we run the best subset selection to get the optimal model, we need to compare 1024
combinations of the predictors. It is unrealistic to perform such method in our real life because it
time consuming. As a result, more efficient methods to solve the problem of variable selection are
urgently desired. In
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
T.S Eliot
From His Life to the Page T. S. Eliot's work was greatly influenced by his life. There was a basic
pattern in his works that corresponded with the events in his life. This pattern brought about many
changes and phases in his poetry. Even Eliot's attitude was reflected in his work. A quote from T. S.
Eliot: The Man and His Work states, " Eliot was a man with the highest standards in his poetry, his
critisism, and his behavior to others." ( Spender 34). Perhaps much of this can be attributed to his
birth toward the end of the Victorian Era. Eliot's background also had a major effect on his writing
style. He was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on September 26, 1888. Though Eliot was born in
America, he spent much of his life in England. Although ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Eliot published many religious works including Idea of a Christian Society. The plays that Eliot
wrote in this period reflected a spiritual content as well as many journeys and tasks. His works also
became more political. He spoke of how corrupt and apathetic the new age had become. His new
political views were probably sparked from his life as a British citizen. Analyzation of Eliot's life
provides great insight on why his writing was divided into these four periods. Eliot's demeanor was
also evident in his work. Many said that Eliot often had a very serious look about him. He was very
sophisticated in his speech and actions, and when he was humorous, it was in a very strange way. He
often would make remarks that made very little sense. Both sides of his personality showed up in his
work. Most of his writing was serious in nature, but sometimes it was amusing such as his Old
Possum's Book of Practical Cats. Many people know of this work because the very popular musical
Cats was based on it. Both of these were filled with nonsense humor. Eliot's influences made a huge
impact on his writing. He was completely immersed in the works from Greek and Roman literature,
as well as modern and medieval Europe. Eliot also greatly love the Rubiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Much of this influence was evident in the work. One of Eliot's greatest influences was Ezra Pound.
Eliot met Ezra Pound in 1914, and that meeting proved to be of great significance to Eliot's writing
career. Ezra
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Depression Case Study
esults
Description of the participants
In total, 18 patients met the inclusion criteria with all of these patients completing the groups. Data
was not available on how many sessions participants may have missed. Pre and post intervention
measures were obtained from 18 patients who completed the groups.
Course facilitators were reluctant to collect demographic information as it was felt that collecting
demographic information could impact on the response rate. Demographic information was
therefore not collected.
Participant characteristics Depression severity as measured by the PHQ–9 saw 5.56% (n=1) of the
participants (N=18) begin the study within the normal range for depression (scores between zero and
nine), while the remainder of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Criterion c was selected given normative values were available for the PHQ–9 in both clinical and
non–clinical populations. Means, standard deviations and Cronbach's Alpha co–efficient values for
the PHQ–9 were obtained from the PHQ–9 manual (Kroenke et al., 2009). See Appendix G for a
screenshot of LRCIC input and output.
RCI Analysis: PHQ–9
The RCI value calculated using the LRCIC (Agostinis et al., 2008) for the PHQ–9, was 4.61. As
such, participants' scores must have changed a minimum of 4.61 points between baseline and end of
the group to be considered as showing either reliable improvement or deterioration. Table 2 below
shows the frequencies and percentages of participants' change categories according to RCI outcome.
Table 2
Frequencies and percentages of participants demonstrating a RC or no change between baseline and
end of intervention according to RCI outcome for PHQ–9
PHQ–9 Improved (RC in desired direction) Unchanged (Not significant change) Deteriorated (RC in
opposite direction)
Week 16 – n 11 7 0
Week 16 – % 61.11% 38.89% 0
Table 2 above shows that the majority of participants (61.11%) had a RC in PHQ–9 depression
scores following completion of the group intervention. 38.89% of participants did not have RC in
their PHQ–9 scores and notably, zero participants reported a deterioration in their depressive
symptoms at the end of the intervention.
CSC Analysis: PHQ–9 To find out if any RC could
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Recommendations For Evaluation
While they claim the data is still useful to the stakeholders, it is evident the amount of data and
likely the analysis performed was likely less then what was desired. Recommendations by the
Evaluators The evaluator recommends that the programs should be continued based on the results
indicating that majority of recreation centers were meeting their performance objectives.
Additionally, the evaluators suggest that the PAAS tool should be continued, but a different version
should be used. Finally, the evaluators suggest that the evaluation process should be improved
through centralizing the data collection process and develop a data cleaning process. Thoughts of the
evaluation Interpretation of Conclusions The recommendations for the ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Improvements on the Evaluation Scope of Evaluation I would continue to use a mixed method
approach in the evaluation of the summer programs. However, I would first address the survey and
interview questions, and how the observation process occurred. Before doing anything else I would
attempt to make sure that these questions being evaluated were being asked in a manner suited to the
age appropriateness of the participants. This may entail that several different versions of the surveys
to exist. I would also ensure that the number of questions each survey contained was limited in
hopes to increase accuracy and completion due to the limited amount of time needed for completion.
In the questions asked, I would make sure to ask how the summer program impacted the
participants. Additionally, I would also survey the parents of the participants to get a take on what
their perceptions of the summer program were. Criterion Following revamping the scope of the
evaluation a criterion in which the data will be compared would be established. The established
criterion would be presented in the evaluation in length. The current evaluation seems to arbitrarily
make a judgment of the worth of the program, and there were no references to the criterion process
used.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Health And Office Operation Graduates: Case Study
Dear Cycle 4 Health & Office Operation Graduates, Upon completion of the Health & Office
Operation program, we joined an elite group of individuals who have successfully completed the
program by positively reflecting the core values taught by Strive Inc. Of equal importance, we set
the bar for future participants of the program. It is my hope that we will continue to do so by
securing employment and being a consummate professional to ensure our continued success.
Following through with those key aspects will put us in a position to give back to Strive, an
organization that has made a considerable investment in our career development. With this in mind,
I consulted with Mr. Emmanuel Pacheco, Department Coordinator of Supportive Services during
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Multiple Base Line Design: A Case Study
According to Rapoff, M., & Stark, L. (2008) the most important reason for using a Multiple baseline
design is to show the effects of treatment when the treatment occurs. There are other reasons why a
research would select to use a multiple base line design over the other single subject designs. The
first reason is that multiple base lines are versatile additionally they are relatively easy to understand
(Richards, Taylor, & Ramasamy, 2014). In other words multiple baseline designs can be used on a
variety of situations, behaviors, and individuals. The second reason is to target behaviors that are
likely to be irreversible (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). In other words multiple base line designs
are often used when the intervention promotes learning that alters the target behivors and original
state of the behavior can no longer be observed. The third reason to conduct a multiple base line
design is when it would be unethical to withdraw the treatment (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007).
The fourth and final reason for using a multiple baseline approach is when ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
In this case the goal is to assess the effects of a treatment based on an increase or decrease in a
specified targeted behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). This design uses repeated
intervention phases after a single baseline is collected. The ABA design value is enhanced when the
ABA phases are repeated across several sets of stimuli (Beeson, & Robey, 2006). Additionally in a
change in criterion design delayed or withdrawal of treatment is not required, as is the case for the
multiple–baseline design or withdrawal designs (McDougall, Hawkins, Brady, & Jenkins, 2006).
Although Baseline collection is continued throughout the series of the ABAB designs the intention
is that the targeted behavior will either be increase of decreased from the original baseline in the
direction of the experiment
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Reliability and Validity Paper
Reliability and Validity Paper
University of Phoenix
BSHS 352
The profession of human service uses an enormous quantify of information to conduct test in the
process of service delivery. The data assembled goes to a panel of assessment when deciding the
option that will best fit the interest of the population, or the experiment idea in question. The content
of this paper will define, and describe the different types of reliability, and validity. In addition
display examples of data collection method and instrument used in human services, and managerial
research (UOPX, 2013).
Types of Reliability
Reliability is described as the degree to which a survey, test, instrument, observation, or
measurement course of action generating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A high–quality test will mainly deal with these issues and provide somewhat minimal difference. In
contrast a changeable test is extremely susceptible to these issues and will provide unstable ending.
Validity
Validity is the degree to which the test measures what it is set out to measure (Reshow &
Rosenthal, 2008).The types of validity includes "construct, content, convergent or discriminant,
criterion, external, face, internal, and statistical" (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 2008, p. 125). It is
important to distinguish the validity of the research outcome because it cannot contain any room for
error, nor pending variable without an applicable explanation. Validity is not verified by a statistic;
rather by a uniform of examiner that reflects exemplify knowledge, and relationship among the test,
and the performance it is projected to measure. Therefore, it is important for a test to be applicable
in order for the product to securely, and correctly apply, and translated.
Construct validity is the extent to which suggestion can be made from a broad view standpoint
lining ideas to observations in the research to the hypothesis on which those ideas are based.
Content validity reflect on a personal pattern of measurement because it transmit on people's insight
for measuring hypothesis, which is complicated to measure if the test–to retest type was to
performed. Convergent is the degree
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing According To The...

  • 1. Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing According To The... Formal (Conventional) Assessments According to the Glossary of Education Reform, 2014, formal assessments are organized, techniques of testing learners that are utilized to ascertain how well students have learned the information that is being taught in the classroom. Formal assessments present a method to distinguish what the learner has understood. (Glossary of Education Reform, 2014) Each formal assessment has identical expectations for all of the learners, additionally the assessment has specialized criteria used for scoring and interpretation. The principal objective of formative assessment is to evaluate the amount of knowledge that learners have remembered from previously taught instructions. There are four principal categories of formal ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Criterion–referenced tests: According to the Glossary of Education Reform, 2014, criterion–referenced assessments are constructed to measure a learners' performance versus an established set of predetermined criteria or learning standards; written descriptions of expectations for students at a specific stage of their education. In elementary and secondary education, criterion–referenced tests are utilized to evaluate whether students have learned a specific body of knowledge or acquired a specific proficiency set, for instance, the curriculum taught in a course, academic program, or content area. (Glossary of Education Reform, 2014) Learners that perform at or above the determined expectations let's say, answer a specified percentage of questions accurately, will pass the test, meet the expected standards, or be considered proficient. On a criterion–referenced test, every student undertaking the exam could hypothetically fail if they don't meet the expected standard; on the other hand, every learner could earn the highest possible score. Criterion–referenced tests have been compared to driver's–license exams, which require would–be drivers to achieve a minimum passing score to earn a license. (Glossary of Education Reform, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Integrated Criteria Decision Making And Multi Criteria... Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Research Report – CS6705 Prioritized Multi–Criteria Decision Making and Multi–Criteria Aggregation By Rizwan Umaid Ali Student # 3494784 Multi–Criteria decision making (MCDM) is an area of Artificial Intelligence which provides capabilities to assess complex decision problems. The decisions can depend on our preferences of some criteria over others. In this report, we analyze formulations of MCDM and Multi–Criteria Aggregation. To further understand this, we also see how we calculate prioritized measure of Multi–Criteria Aggregation and its Shapley index. Introduction For a modern application, reaching satisfaction can depend upon several criteria. Each criteria in it can be satisfied to reach an optimal result, but in real world scenarios satisfying every criteria is impossible and even not required. For example, if a bill needs to be passed by an executive committee, we will need only half of the committee's approval to pass it. This leads us to think that we can reach satisfaction with any set of members of the committee. In fact, there are several cases where certain criteria have a higher priority than others and satisfaction cannot be reached without them. For instance, if the president of the executive committee has to approve the bill and other members just have to favour it, then the president will dominate the other criteria. To logically state this we can say 'Satisfy criterion A and if possible satisfy criterion B'. We ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Types Of Rubrics : Analytic And Holistic The Vermont Book Award is a contest that would be best judged using a rubric. A rubric is simply a guide for assessment based on specific criteria. Its purpose is to grade a piece of work by performance and quality. It gives structure to observations and judgements, making it easier to give a subject an overall grade (Bookhart). Not only would the books be easier to grade, the structure of a rubric gives the grader a clear target which encourages the accuracy and fairness of a grade, as well as the advancement of personal learning (Wolf). There are two types of rubrics: analytic and holistic. A holistic rubric is a more general which can be applied to many things (Bookhart). However, I chose to create an analytic rubric because it is more specific, allowing me to produce the best possible analysis and winner for the Vermont Book Award. The most effective personally created rubrics have comprehensible language, a theme, description, and criterion that speaks to you as being significant (Miller). I believe that the rubric I created follows these aspects directly. The rubric I generated is very specific, organized, and detailed in order to produce the best winner for the Vermont Book Award. I separated it into boxes of what I thought would be the criteria of the best book with a detailed description, the criteria weight, the percent to be earned, and page number, along with three sections to include quotes for the defense of a books earned percent in each category. First, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Obtaining A House Keeper For Building An Organization Essay Obtaining a house keeper to come clean three times out of the week is simple to do. One only needs to look on–line and hire the one that is available at the time. However, when you operate an organization that has 1,000 employees, 12 departments, 25 restrooms, 15 break rooms, 10 proposal rooms, 8 Executive offices suites, and one large dining area you need more than just three days a week of cleaning. A solution needs to address the specifics of what our organization requires in cleaning our facility. The solution for this will come by way of developing a Request for Proposal [emphasis added] and to establish a specific contract type that will address the needs of our organization. The cleaning services organization that we offer the contract too must understand the specific tasks that we want them to perform. For starters they must provide commercial cleaning. The specifics would include, cleaning of draperies and upholstery, lobby entrances, windows and floor care, break rooms and restrooms. Furthermore, they must demonstrate a high level of experience with their employees. The second task will be with janitorial services. This service provided will ensure that all garbage bins or emptied on a regular basis to prevent overflowing. The refrigerators in all the break rooms will be cleaned to prevent mold from accumulating, all microwaves and coffee machines will be cleaned daily, and vacuuming of all carpeted areas will be performed twice a day. It is vital that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Performance Management Systems Are Important For A Wide Performance management systems are important for a wide range of reasons, and can be used for multiple purposes. One of these reasons is to help make good employment decisions, such as deciding who to promote within an organization. In order to make effective promotion decisions for mid–level information technology (IT) managers, it is necessary to outline the domain that performance takes place in, which is discussed in the first section. In the next section, criterion measures for relevant performance management systems will be given that can act as predictors in the promotion process of IT managers. In the final section, a summary of the criterion will be explored regarding relevance, sensitivity, and practicality. These evaluations are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Although O*NET (2016) lists 49 technology skills necessary for an information technology (IT) manager, Hysong (2008) suggests that technical skill in a particular field is unnecessary for managerial performance. The lack of actual necessity in technology skills may be true, considering only 9 tools are listed by O*NET (2016) for IT managers; which include relatively low technical skill to operate (e.g. laser printer, smartphone, various computers, USB flash drive). Therefore, technical skills, although helpful, are likely not essential for an IT manager. Furthermore, research suggests the same personality characteristics required for general IT work are not the same personality characteristics that help to make good managers (Hysong, 2008). Therefore, the primary focus of an IT manager's performance domain will rely on managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) reflected in work activities, along with the leadership and personality characteristics needed to provide a favorable behavioral environment. Criterion Measure It is beyond the scope of this paper to go through all KSAs, work activities, and personality characteristics that make up the criterion being considered when making decisions concerning IT manager promotions. However, it is not necessary to evaluate each area ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Essay On Medical Billing Among the most vital things about in the medical billing rates business is coming up with a criterion of what rates to charge for your services. The rate that you decide to settle upon is what you charge the ensuing provider's office for billing on their behalf. As such, it implies that the 'billing rate' is the amount of money your doctor pays you for doing the billing for them. With that backdrop, bear in mind that the biggest decision ( arguably ) that you'll ever have to make in your line of business is settling on the rates to charge. And that's because your rates affect the bottom line in more ways than one. For starters, a very low rate will mean that you'll be struggling with a load of work and getting peanuts in exchange. On the hand, charging ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 1. Percentage Pricing Percentage pricing sits atop the pedestal of the most competitive criteria for determining medical billing rates. Under this umbrella we have, a.) As a percentage/portion of collections In this case, the biller ( you ) bases their rates/fee on the net amount of money collected or revenue associated with their collections. In such a situation, the biller is responsible for making sure that full payments are made to the responsible party. b. As a percentage/portion of gross claims Using a such a criterion to base your fee means that you will be charging the healthcare provide an agreed upon percentage of the claims associated with your billing services. Which, of course, implies that the more claims you make and send to his clients, the more money flows into your business. Unlike payment as a percentage of the collections ( where you're only paid after the collections are successful ), in this charging method – charging by gross claims – you're paid for merely sending the doctors claims to his clients. It works best with large organizations that handle hundreds of clients every ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Test Validity What is Test Validity? Validity can be defined as a measure of how well a test measures what it claims to measure. In other words, validity is the overall accuracy and credibility (or believability) of a test. It's important to understand that validity is a broad concept that encompasses many aspects of assessment (Test Validity Research). The main thing that people want to know is whether a test is valid or not, but it's not as simple as it may sound. Validity is determined by a body of research that demonstrates the relationship between the test and the behavior its intended to measure. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted, especially in the context of psychological tests. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Here is an example from the University of California, Davis...Is hand strength a valid measure of intelligence? Certainly the answer is "No, it is not a valid measure of intelligence." Is a score on the ACT a valid predictor of one's GPA during the first year of college? The answer depends on the amount of research and support for such a relationship. There are many different types of validity that exist, each type is designed to ensure that specific aspects of measurements tools are accurately measuring what they are intended to measure and that the results can be applied to real–world settings (Introduction: Validity and Reliability). We will discuss the three main types of validity in the following paragraphs: Content Validity, Criterion–Related Validity, and Construct ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Aasb 15 Analysis The introduction of the AASB 15 alters the existing accounting framework in regards to revenue recognition in contractual transactions. The new accounting standards require revenue to be recognised at the value that best represents the value that an entity would be entitled to, after it satisfying its contractual obligations. A 5–step model has been introduced to streamline the revenue reporting process. Accounting procedures for contracts under the AASB 15 requires the contract to be identified first. The contract can be done through written or verbal means, but the contract must have commercial substance and the approval of both entity and the customer. Both party's commitment towards their respective obligations is also a necessary notation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The allocated transaction prices are allocated on the basis of a single stand–alone selling price, a price that reflects the price of the good or service when sold by the provider. If such price is not available, the stand–alone selling price is estimated thought observable evidence (e.g. market approach). Variable amounts, such as discounts, that stem from transaction costs are also included and allocated to performance obligations under the new accounting standard. Unless overt evidence is used to satisfied a criterion within the AASB 15, Variable amounts such as the discount is applied proportionately amongst all the performance obligations within the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. A Study to Evaluate the Changes in Salivary ph, after... Materials & Method The present study was a clinical study carried out to evaluate the changes in salivary ph, after consumption of different snacks and beverages and to estimate their oral clearance time. SAMPLING: 60 randomly selected undergraduate students from hostel inmates of K.D. Dental College and Hospital, Mathura were examined. Out of these, 5 subjects were selected on the basis of following inclusion and exclusion criterion: Inclusion Criterion: Subjects who were caries free i.e. DMFT score =0 Exclusion Criterion: Subjects who did not give consent for the study. Subjects who were using alcohol or tobacco in any of the form. Subjects who were using any medication at the time of study or in period of last 15 days prior to the study. Subjects who were suffering from any systemic disease. All the study subjects were similar with respect to their age, dietary habits, oral hygiene measures and other lifestyle factors which could have significant effect on the study results ETHICAL CLEARANCE: Before carrying out the present study the ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical clearance committee. Before the start of the study, the purpose and methodology of the study was explained to each of the subject and informed consent was obtained. STUDY DESIGN: Unstimulated salivary sample was collected for each study subject in the Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry at least one hour after their breakfast. After the collection of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Finally The Characteristics Of The Tissue At And Surrounding Finally the characteristics of the tissue at and surrounding the impact site has been shown to influence the resulting response [19]. These characteristics are referred to as collectively as contact phenomena. Contact phenomenon includes local variables such as skull shape, size, geometry, density and mass of neural tissue, thickness of scalp and skull, hair style, ratio of brain–head weight and strength of the head–neck junction[19]. These local variables seem to greatly different between the two sexes, with females typically showing greater responses to a specific impact then males [27]. These variables contribute greatly to determine the response that occurs due to impact [19]. Additionally, any accessories or protective equipment of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Typically, football is the primary sport studied. This is largely due to the convenience in the ability to place sensors and other technologies inside a helmet which do not increase the risk of injuries for the athletes, and the large number of athletes in the sport. For instance, six degree of freedom measurement devices have been placed inside of football helmets so that the head acceleration measures me be obtained. Instrumented helmets can then be used to directly measure the linear and rotation accelerations, as well as the location of impacts without interfering with normal sporting play [28]. Human surrogates Human surrogates include dummies and computational models. Surrogates allow for investigation of impacts that could not be performed on human or animal models, while additionally standardizing the contact phenomena. This allows for the differences in response to impact to be said to be due to the treatment conditions or impact characteristics, rather than the variations between the subject being impacted. Dummies can be made of a variety of materials. What the dummy is made from helps determine its reliability and accuracy of the measurements obtain from its use. Metal head forms produce more reliable data, while biofidelic heads produce more realistic data [15]. The most accurate biofidelic dummies are based on the tissue ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Management Of Workforce Performance : School District Essay Management of Workforce Performance Napavine School District uses the Washington State Teacher Principal Evaluation Project (TPEP) model to manage teacher (instructional) and principal (leadership) performances. The state allows districts to choose one of three frameworks adopted by the state September 2012: CEL's 5D+, Danielson, and Marzano. Napavine uses the Marzano framework. There are two tiers of evaluation: Comprehensive and Focused. Any core subject teacher must be evaluated on a comprehensive model if they are on a provisional or probationary contract, or once every four years, or if they did not receive a proficient or distinguished score the prior year, or if they or the evaluator elects to complete a comprehensive evaluation model. Core academic teachers must be evaluated on a focused model in years they are not evaluated on the comprehensive model. Factors that Impact Workforce Engagement Napavine's small size has its benefits and drawbacks. It can lead to isolation in the classroom, yet it allows for a more personal relationship among staff members. Paradoxically, while the staff gets to know each other very well and develop intimate bonds, we also lack the ability to form sizable groups for collaboration. For example, every two weeks, we have collaboration time from 3 – 3:45 p.m. This is a time for teachers to collaborate within their departments. The problem is that there are only one or two teachers in each department. If one of the teachers in a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. The Statements And Actions Of Prophet INTRO The statements and actions of Prophet are recorded in a set of literary texts that modern Muslim call the Hadith. The original term for the customs of the Prophet was "Sunnat Al– Nabi", which is an exact translation of "customs of the Prophet" in the native tongue of the Prophet's time, which was Arabic (textbook). While the entire genre of Islamic literature that surrounds the Prophet Muhammad is called Sunnat Al–Nabi, the individual reports that outline the personal and private life of the Prophet are called Hadith. The Hadith is an official collection of the sayings and actions of the last and final Prophet of Islam throughout the 22 years of his prophetic ministry (Dustin). The Hadith is arguably one of the most important practical text for modern Muslims, as the many books on Hadith outline the life of the man that Muslims around the world have been told to emulate. Muslims have been instructed to practice the behaviour of the Prophet as his behaviour is considered a guideline on the perfect way for a Muslim to live. The Hadith outlines all relationships between a Muslim and God, as well as discussing how relationships between humans should be conducted. The Hadith outlines every affair possible, and how the Prophet acted in this affair, and Muslims should aspire to model this way of life (Encyclopedia J). Therefore, the Hadith can be considered one of the most important literary texts on the planet, because it guides a religion of nearly 1.6 billion people. The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Bilingualism And Bilingualism Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a pervasive problem in the United States, and is likely to become even more problematic as the population of older Americans grows in the coming years. In addition to the many genetic factors that contribute to AD, it has been suggested that cognitive reserve (CR) plays a role. CR is thought to mediate the relationship between language experience (LE) and later onset of AD in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. However, the literature on the proposed protective qualities of bilingualism is not conclusive. To help address questions about the relationship between bilingualism and later onset and/or lower incidence of AD, I proposed a large, prospective, longitudinal study of Americans. The collection of data on predictive variables, LE, and AD (if and when onset occurs) will be facilitated through collaboration among many US research institutions. These data will lend themselves to multiple–regression analyses. The results of this study will have important implications for Americans' quality of life, as well as for the economy. Is Bilingualism Associated with Lower Incidence and/or Later Onset of Alzheimer's Disease? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a leading cause of death among older American adults, and the population of adults ages 65 or older with AD is projected to increase to over 13 million by 2050 (Alzheimer's Disease, 2017). The prevalence of AD constitutes a major public ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Reliability and Validity Reliability and Validity Dede Kendrick BSHS/382 January 16, 2012 Angela Heads Reliability and Validity Evaluating human services is a task that can be very complex. People can have different interpretations of the same event. Another concern is that people are not always honest. Therefore, human services will gain from effective, high quality evaluations of data collection methods. This requires that the data collection methods supply accurate and dependable information. This paper will define and describe 2 concepts of measurement known as reliability and validity,–provide examples and supporting facts as to how these concepts apply to data collection in human services, and evaluate the importance of the validity and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When multiple people are given assessments of some kind or are the subjects of some test, then similar people under the same circumstances should lead to scores that are similar or duplicates ("Types Of Reliability", 2011). This is the idea of inter–rater reliability. Another mode of reliability is the administration of the same test among different participants and expecting the same or similar results ("Types Of Reliability", 2011). This is known as Test–retest reliability. This method of measurement might be used to make determinations about the effectiveness of a school exam or personality test ("Types Of Reliability", 2011). Surveys and other methods of research present the appropriate avenues for data collection. Data collection and measurement methods are used in human services to help organizations achieve leadership capacity and to achieve high performance outcomes. Agencies that track the effectiveness of their services through field studies and surveys will have a record of techniques that have worked best to fulfill mission goals. The evidence of such reported facts will come in handy in terms of funding, policy efforts, and keeping professionals educated. From psychological and behavioral aspects, interviews, test groups, and random assignment are just a few ways to collect data in controlled and uncontrolled environments. Human services use these methods to apply theory to real life situations. Human services depends on the effective analysis ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Observation and Measurement in Human Services Research Observation and measurement in human services research Types of reliability The theory of reliability states that it is impossible to calculate the reliability of a study in an exact way. Instead, reliability is estimated and this creates an imperfection in research. There are four major types of reliability. The first is inter–rater or inter–observer reliability. This means the reliability that is used to assess the degree to which the different people who are observing or rating the items being studied give estimates that are consistent regarding the same phenomenon. A good example is the popular example of a glass half empty and one that is half full. This is to mean that people who are in essence similar in every nature may have different ideas or views of the same phenomenon. This kind of reliability is estimated by using a pilot study which is used to establish the expected reliability in the main study(Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2012). The second form of reliability is the test– retest reliability. This kind of reliability is used to assess the consistency of a measure from one period of time to another. This reliability is estimated when the same test is administered to the same sample group but at two different periods in time. This approach makes an assumption that there is no substantial change in the construct that is being measures in the two different occasions(Rosnow & Rosenthal, 2012). The third form of reliability is the parallel–forms reliability. This form ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Taking a Look at Correlational Studies A correlational study is a quantitative research method, which there are two or more variables in which the researchers goal is to determine a relationship using statistical data. The significance of this approach is that is does not analyze or try to prove cause and effect type patterns or relationships. Using this type of research study can determine behaviors in human actions or any other variables that can be evaluated for a relationship. Using a correlational approach can be a stepping–stone for further experimental studies and is an important approach used in educational research. Correlational Research Correlational research is a type of study in which two non–manipulated variables are measured to determine if there is a relationship. This type of research observes the connection between the two variables. Correlational research is often called Association research and has two basic purposes. In the remainder of this text, the purposes, steps, threats and a comparison of correlational research will be discussed. There are two basic purposes of correlational research. The first purpose would be to help explain human behaviors, such as behaviors in an Explanatory design. In this type of design "the extents to which two or more variables co–vary, that is, where changes in one variable are reflected in changes in the other" (Creswell, 2008, p. 358). When conducting an explanatory correlational study, researchers usually gather data at one time, as their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. An Analysis Of Assess And Balance Financials Strategic Position: Asses and Balance Financials is a small firm that works with the government on the county level and helps departments in the county with their financial needs. This firm analyzes, creates, and finalizes budgets for these departments and ensures that each is equipped with the necessaries for their role in the county. Assess and Balance Financials is in search of filling a position for a budget analyst. Currently, there are two interns in the firm, a staff accountant, a purchasing coordinator, and the finance director. This firm works closely with the county manager as well. The firm is struggling to function with the employees that are currently working, but they can provide the minimum required information, so the firm ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Recruitment: In order to recruit to fill this budget analyst position, we will be seeking individuals who have a four–year, bachelor's degree, in accounting or finance. At Assess and Balance Financials, needs qualified individuals who understand basic accounting and financial rules and equations learned through course material and experience. This is best for Assess and Balance Financials because the material covered affects many firms and creates a domino effect down to the taxpayers if the numbers are not handled with precision and accuracy, so it is imperative that this individual understand and have experience working with budgets and have knowledge in accounting. This audience is best for Assess and Balance Financials because these individuals will have the four–year degree and internships and if older, some additional job experience. In order to fill this position, Assess and Balance Financials will look internally, at the interns, and seek to post positions online to Indeed. Assess and Balance Financials will benefit from this recruitment, because it will already be aware of the work ethic and performance from the interns. Additionally, Assess and Balance Financials will know that the interns fit into the organization culture and understand expectations. Interns will also be familiar with the departments and will require less training as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Documented Congitive Biases For one there is a serious problem with the general reliability of the method, and of course the raters are under the influence of the several different, well documented cognitive biases (Murphy, 2008). Oddly this subjective method is often used even in situations where there are more objective criterions, like sales or turnover, available (Vinchur et al., 1998). Its weaknesses aside, supervisory ratings of individuals can indeed be meaningful under certain conditions, and there are situations where no other measures are available. Researchers has suggested that the method can be improved by using a carefully conducted job–analysis as a foundation for the construction of the rating scales, and training for the observers conducting the ratings (Borman & Smith, 2012). Objective measures, such as turnover, sales, absences or production rates are often considered as better measures of job performance. Sadly these criterions also have their weaknesses, at least to some extent. A recurrent problem with these measures is that of criterion contamination. Simply put, even if the criterion in question is of central importance to the employer such as sales, there can be several different reasons for the individuals specific value in the criterion, for example leadership and environmental issues which effects the compared employees differently. There are possible efforts to be made trying to limit these factors influence's on the results, with varying efficiency (Hammer & Landau, 1981; ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Self Evaluation Motivates Performance Essay Self Evaluation Motivates Performance To demonstrate that the potential for self–evaluation can motivate performance, the potential for evaluation by external sources must be eliminated. As Bandura (1986) writes, "When environmental constraints are reduced, the influence of self–evaluative motivators becomes most self–evident" (p. 479). Thus, to determine whether the self–evaluative concerns suggested by social comparison theory motivate performance, one must ensure that people feel that they cannot be individually evaluated by an externalsource. Such control of external evaluation is made possible through the use of the social loafing paradigm (e.g., Latane, Williams, & Harkins, 1979). Social loafing refers to the finding that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Szy@ manski and Harkins (1987) did exactly this in an experiment in which they asked participants to generate as many uses as they could (i.e., do–your–best instructions) for a common object, regardless of the creativity of those uses. Pilot work with this task showed that participants felt that they knew how many uses they had generated (their output). Therefore, to manipulate the potential for self–evaluation, Szymanski and Harkins either provided an evaluative criterion by telling participants that at the end of the session they would be told the average number of uses generated by participants in a previous version of the experiment, or Szymanksi and Harkins withheld the criterion by telling participants that to preserve confidentiality they would not be given this information. When the participants were provided with the evaluative criterion, they had an opportunity for selfevaluation by social comparison. This manipulation of the potential for self– evaluation was crossed with a manipulation of the potential for experimenter evaluation. Half of the participants were told that at the end of the session, the experimenter would come in and count the number of uses that they had generated (experimenter evaluation), whereas the other half of the participants were told that the experimenter was interested in average performance so their individual outputs would be pooled with those of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Evaluation Of The Portfolio Management System Guinn_ENVM625_M2_GradedAssign Payback Model As part of the portfolio management system, a selection criterion is used to determine which projects are most in accord with the organizations mission. Selection criteria is usually either financial or non–financial. In the example provided we are considering which project will meet the needs of high annual cash flow for the small startup company. Using the financial criteria for selection we will employ the payback model, which allows for the direct assessment of future cash flows. This model measures the time it will take for the recovery of the project investment (Larson & Gray, 2011). The limitations of this model are the assumed cash flow during only the investment period, the exclusion of profitability, and the effect of the time value of money (Murphy, 2016). Results: Project 1: 5.7 years; Project 2: 7.5 years; and Project 3: 5 years. Based on the results, Project 3 would satisfy the high annual cash flow requirement with a shorter payback period of 5 years. Net present value (NPV) Net present value uses managements minimum desired rate–of–return to calculate the value of all net cash inflow (Larson & Grey, 2011). A positive value is desired, and is the indication of the project eligible for consideration. The greater the values the higher the rank in consideration. A negative value would indicate the project is not financially viable. Results: Using the Investopedia NPV calculator, it was determined ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Telco Stakeholders Role: Accounting advisor who will advise David Johnston and his company Telco. Corporation. Users & Objectives: David Johnston– Owner: This report is being prepared on your request so, consequently, your objectives will be the main priorities. Working within the constraints, the goal will be to help find the bet way to finance your expansion and ensure that appropriate accounting guidelines are being followed. As an owner who is eager to expand and generate cash, you will want to have a strong net income, so you are able to attract investors or convince the bank of your profitability. Potential Investors: These are the users who will buy shares and help you raise $2 million. They will want to ensure your company is truthful, profitable and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the first scenario, the revenue is still unearned, as the business has not provided any services so it not a suitable point to recognize revenue. In the second scenario, the service has been performed and the performance criterion is met. The costs and revenue pertaining to this service have also become known and can be measured. Similar to issue 1, collection remains to be the only problem. Again, just because corporations have up to 18 months to pay, does not mean that your company should defer the revenue until, the third alternative, collection. These larger accounts are most likely dependable and therefore collection should be probable. This should enable your business to recognize the revenue when the service is completed. The problems with the CRA discussed in issue 1, might be prevalent if revenue continues to be recognized at collection. Moreover, recognizing revenue earlier will increase your current net income by recognizing revenue for services you have completed in this period but have not yet collected. This will make your company appear to be more profitable, thus attracting investors. Finally, the fourth alternative, which better matches the expenses and revenues, may be useful for services that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. Validity And Reliability Paper Validity and Reliability A key component of using evidence–based practices is to review the best available data from multiple sources to ensure that a quality decisions. (Barends, Rousseau, & Briner, 2014). To identify the best available data, one can begin by questioning the validity and reliability of a study. Validity and reliability in evidence–based research is essential to the success of a research paper. Validity is concerned with the extent to which the research measures what it designed or intended to measure. (McLeod, 2013). The validity of research relates to how valuable the research findings are to the question at hand (Leung, 2015). Validity in research is the work done that is credible and believable because those sources find ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Researchers prove these three types of validity by having a set of measures that is valid. Content validity measures how well the collected data represents the research question (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 281). Criterion–related validity determines how well a set of data can estimate either reality in the present or future (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 281–282). The best suggested way to measure this is to "administer the instrument to a group that is known to exhibit the trait" (Key, 1997). Construct validity determines the success in the measurement tool of validating a theory (Cooper & Schindler, 2011, 282–283). There is another less common validity factor called face validity, which determines if "managers or others accept it as a valid indicator" (Parker, 2003). In addition to the three categories of validity explained above, there are two types of validity to consider internal and external. Flaws within the study, such as design flaws or data collection problems, affect internal validity. Other factors that can affect internal validity including the size of population, task sensitivity, and time given for data collection. External validity is the extent to which you can generalize your findings to another group or other contexts (Henrichsen, Smith, & Baker, 1997). An example of this is having a study done over only male football players. This study might not have the external validity for female gymnasts due to the specific domain of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. The Application Of A Project Part 1 1.0 PROJECT DRIVERS 1.1 The User Business or Background of the Project Effort 1.2 Goals of the project 1.3 Client, Customer and other Stakeholders 1.4 Users of the Product 2.0 PROJECT CONSTRAINTS 2.1 Mandated Constraints 2.2 Implementation environment of the current system 2.3 Partner Applications 2.4 Anticipated workplace environment 3.0 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 3.1 The Scope of the Work 3.2 The Scope of the Product 3.3 Functional and Data Requirements 4.0 NON–FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS 5.0 O' BRIEN APPROACH 6.0 USE CASE ANALYSIS Part 2 1.0 FEASIBILITY STUDY 1.1 Outcome: Feasibility Report 2.0 REQUIREMENT ELICITATION AND ANALYSIS 2.1 Joint Application Development Workshops 2.2 Interviews 3.0 REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION 4.0 REQUIREMENTS ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 2.0 PROJECT CONSTRAINTS 2.1 Mandated Constraints Description: The Vehicles shall use GPS Tracking to confirm their locations. Rationale: The client will be able to view the vehicles location. Fit criterion: The location of the vehicle shall be tracked by the client and viewed in a map format. Description: The Autonomous Vehicle shall be a van Rationale: The vehicle will have sufficient space to store packages Fit criterion: The Vehicle shall have a payload of between 1200–1500kg at any one time Description: The Vehicles shall use customised hardware to sort and order packages Rationale: The customer will receive the correct parcel Fit criterion: The hardware within the vehicle shall select the correct package for each customer Description: The Vehicles shall use custom–built ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Decision Tree Induction & Clustering Techniques in Sas... International Journal of Management & Information Systems – Third Quarter 2010 Volume 14, Number 3 Decision Tree Induction & Clustering Techniques In SAS Enterprise Miner, SPSS Clementine, And IBM Intelligent Miner – A Comparative Analysis Abdullah M. Al Ghoson, Virginia Commonwealth University, USA ABSTRACT Decision tree induction and Clustering are two of the most prevalent data mining techniques used separately or together in many business applications. Most commercial data mining software tools provide these two techniques but few of them satisfy business needs. There are many criteria and factors to choose the most appropriate software for a particular organization. This paper aims to provide a comparative analysis for three ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In this way, decision trees provide accuracy and explanatory models where the decision tree model is able to explain the reason of certain decisions using these decision rules. Decision trees could be used in classification applications that target discrete value outcomes by classifying unclassified data based on a pre–classified dataset, for example, classifying credit card applicants into three classes of risk, which are low, medium or high. Also, decision trees could be used in estimation applications that have continuous outcomes by estimating value based on pre–classified datasets, and in this case the tree is called a regression tree, for example, estimating household income. Moreover, decision trees could be used in prediction applications that have discrete or continuous outcomes by predicting future value same as classification or estimation, for example, predicting credit card loan as good or bad. 2.1 Decision Tree Models Decision tree models are explanatory models, which are English rules so they are easy to evaluate and understand by people. The decision tree model is considered as a chain of rules that classify records in different bins or classes called nodes [1]. Based on the model 's algorithm, every node may have two or more children or have no child, which is called in this case leaf node [1]. Building decision tree models requires partitioning the pre–classified dataset into three parts, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Self Change Program (Behaviour modification) Essay Behaviour Modification A Self–Control Program for Smoking Cessation Christine Chambers Trent University Introduction The behaviour modified for this self–directed behaviour change project is smoking. Smoking was selected as the behaviour I wish to change because it is known that tobacco use is the leading cause of premature, preventable death and disease (Edwards, Bondy, Callaghan, & Mann, 2014). Smoking is a behaviour that has been recently initiated; I started smoking occasionally in August 2013 (one cigarette a few times a week) and intended to buy only the one pack. However over a period of several months, my smoking has increased. The rationale for this choosing this target behaviour is that it is still a relatively ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Self–Directed Intervention Method The initial phase of the self–directed intervention consisted of baseline measurement of smoking behaviour. Baseline data was collected for a period of 7 weeks and a functional assessment was completed during this time. Upon starting the intervention phase, the final target behaviour of smoking cessation was broken down into smaller, short–term objectives lasting 2 weeks each. Functional assessment revealed that smoking behaviour was often preceded by a busy or stressful environment (antecedent) and that mood and/or anxiety levels functioned as establishing operations for smoking behaviour (smoking was often preceded by higher anxiety rating or lower mood rating). As well, the functional assessment revealed that smoking behaviour was maintained by positive sensory stimulation (the experience of a slight "buzz" when smoking) and by temporary escape/distraction from a demanding environment. Based on assessment results, the intervention phase consisted of a reinforcement schedule that provided rewards for changing criterion levels for smoking behaviour. The initial criterion was determined by calculating the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day during the baseline period. Each criterion level (or short term objective) lasted for a two week period before changing the criterion level again. The timeline for baseline, intervention, maintenance phases are outlined in table 1. The initial intervention selected was a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Designing A Graphic Organizer That May Provide An Overview... In researching and finding information to develop a graphic organizer that could provide an overview of various types of assessments was insightful. Reading assessments are often mandated by a school district or state to determine where student are academically. In the case of reading test, the data received is supposed to give the assessor and idea of defects and growth of the reader. But is the information received from just one assessment tool giving an accurate and complete picture of reading skills. Assessments may determine if a student is reading with fluency, can comprehend what they have read, are able to decode words, and so on. Because of the variety of assessments it was difficult to narrow the field and select just five. Familiarity with the assessments assisted in my selection. The final five selected were; 1. Collection Portfolio Assessment, 2.Miscue Analysis, 3.Running Record, 4. Criterion–Referenced Tests and 5. Each tool assesses reading in a variety of ways. The data they provide can determine the direction of current and future reading instruction. In researching portfolio I learned that there were various format and purposes. Portfolios can be the process oriented or product oriented. The formats I investigated were collection, display and teacher/student portfolios. I selected Collection Portfolio to compare with the other assessments tools. Again I selected this format because I was familiar with it. Even with that I learned that there was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Relationship Between Teacher 's Assessment And Demographic... CHAPTER 3: Research Methodology Introduction The purpose of this non–experimental quantitative study will be to examine the relationship between teacher's assessment of their school's implementation of EBS, teacher's demographic information, and student referrals. This chapter will discuss the proposed research methods of this study. First, the research design and rationale of the study will be discussed, followed by a restatement of the research questions. Next, data collection and analysis will be discussed. Research Design and Rationale The present study will utilize a non–experimental quantitative predictive design. The non–experimental design is appropriate, as random assignment, control groups, and manipulation of an independent variable will not be employed (Cramer, D., 1998). A quantitative design was chosen over a qualitative design, as this study seeks to make inferences based on quantifiable results rather than assess individuals' experiences (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2001). Because the aim of this study is to use several variables to predict student behavior, the predictive design is most appropriate (Craighead & Nemeroff, 2001). This study will use a multiple linear regression to evaluate the relationship between teacher's assessment of their school's EBS implementation, teacher demographics, and student behavior in an urban middle school. The predictor variables for this analysis will be teacher's assessment of their school's EBS implementation, as well as the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. The Success Of The Database And Data Warehouse The success of the database and data warehouse (DW) project really depends on the quality of data. If data quality is not good enough, the information will logically be unreliable when the business users retrieve it from the database/DW environment. Good quality of data will be useful for the decision maker to make the right decision, gain more trust and make the organization more efficient. In contrast, the bad quality of data will drive the decision maker to make a wrong decision. Debbarma, Nath and Das (2013) stated that "good quality of data will enable DW environment to provide right information in the right place at the right time with the right cost in order to support the right decision". Thus, data quality needs to be maintained ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The most prominent issue that always occurs is duplicated records "the records that represent the same real–world object in numerous ways" (Christie, Timothy, 2005). Such duplicates could cause many significant problems. Therefore, data cleaning strategy is essential to ensure these redundancies. However, duplicate elimination is one of challenge tasks because it is caused by many different types of errors such as typographical errors, null values, abbreviations, word transformation and different representations of the same word. To detect and eliminate data duplication, there are many algorithms that have been proposed by researchers and scholars. Those algorithms include standard duplication elimination algorithm (SDE), adaptive duplication detection algorithm (ADD), sorted neighborhood algorithm (SNA), duplicate elimination sorted neighborhood algorithm (DE–SNA), etc. Most of the algorithms use the following techniques in different ways to achieve a duplicate detection and elimination goal: Character–based similarity measure techniques. Phonetic similarity measure techniques Numeric similarity measure techniques Semantic similarity measure techniques To measure the similarity between characters, numbers and semantic words, the above techniques use standard string similarity functions such as edit distance, generalized edit distance, hamming distant, cosine metric, and Jaccard coefficient function, etc. There are many approaches ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Persuasive Essay On Standardized Testing If standardized testing is going to change, then now is the time. The Every Student Succeeds Act [ESSA] has recently been enacted, and states are feeling the pressure to integrate a balanced assessment system as mandated. As this essay has presented, the current system and models of standardized testing are rife with problems. This proposed solution addresses the core elements of this problem with education in the United States today. Standardized testing is here to stay. Although there is a strong argument for it to be removed from the system of education, it is a tool used by politicians to gage school and student performance. The best solution for the future of education is to develop a standardized testing system that work. Standardized testing is meant to measure student performance and growth. It would be imperative to remove the high stakes accountability component. I agree accountability is important. However, that should be a completely separate entity. The solution I am proposing to fix standardized testing is a multi–level criterion referenced digital portfolio which assess multiple measures through low stakes on–demand adaptive tests, and stealth assessments. This solution is designed from an amalgamation of individual alternatives to standardized testing that have been developed by experts in an article titled 8 Alternatives to High– Stakes Standardized Tests, by Sarah Briggs. On their own they are okay, but mixed and molded, they are the answer. One of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Apple Behavior Analysis There are several different research designs that are used frequently in Applied Behavior Analysis. These different research designs are very helpful to the behavior analyst in several ways. Behavior analysts look at the behavior that is to be changed, but more so, they look at the close relationship between the stimuli and the behavior that is being changed, as well as the individual whose behavior is being changed (Richards, Taylor, Ramassamy, & Richards, 1999). These methods help the behavior analyst determine whether a particular behavior plan is working well for that individual or whether it needs to be modified. Since the analysts wish to encourage "valuable behaviour," the behavior that is being targeted will be one that will continue to be reinforced and maintained even after the experimental conditions of the design are withdrawn (Richards, et al, 1999). One such design is the changing criterion design. This design looks at and evaluates the effects of a treatment on the gradual and systematic increase/decrease of a single target behavior (Richards, et al, 1999). This is done by changing the levels necessary to meet contingencies to increase or decrease a behavior. So, the intervention is shown to be effective when the target behavior changes to the predetermined criterion level. There is a baseline phase where baseline data of the behavior to be changed is collected. Then the intervention/treatment phase is divided into subphases, each with its own criterion ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Evaluating Revenue Systems Perry & Christensen (2015) provide insight on the design and administration of a revenue system, as well as how it is evaluated. A revenue system is a collection of sources that is used by the government that are extracted through the means of tax and charges. Designing a revenue system is not merely created from scratch; it is an older system that has been modified to comply with and be accepted by society. These systems have been trending since the beginning of socioeconomic development and continue to evolve. Revenue systems are evaluated through a set of criteria; economic efficiency, equity, feasibility, and adequacy. It is noted that transparency is also part of the criteria, but it is a separate criterion in itself. Research and evidence examine the set of criteria by focusing on the income tax and how it has been the main source of revenue for the US Federal government. There have been many innovations in the technology of tax collection that have been implemented in the US, and have also been adopted globally by both developed and developing countries. Efforts to improve current systems and policies are examined based on the set used to evaluate the revenue system. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The process of designing of a revenue system, as mentioned by Perry & Christensen (2015), raises the question of how stable can it be, if it will create enough revenue, and if it will be accepted politically. There is no mention by Holzer & Schwester (2015) on the design of a revenue system, but they do discuss in depth the process by which government builds and plans it budget with the revenue that is created through tax systems. Before any revenue system or budget can be implemented, it must be evaluated in order for it to be accepted by taxpayers and how the changes in the economy will affect ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 63. Variable Selection Via Penalized Likelihood Plays An... Variable selection via penalized likelihood plays an important role in statistics and machine learning. In this paper, we first review some classical methods like AIC, BIC, Mallow's Cp, then discuss some regularization methods including Lasso, adaptive Lasso, elastic–net, adaptive elastic–net and group Lasso. We also consider the application of regularization methods in generalized linear model, Cox's model and time series analysis. At the end, we give suggestions for future work. 1 Classical Method The problem of variable selection is always the center of statistical research. Some classical methods like best subset selection, forward selection and backward elimination are proposed to handing massive data set. These methods are basically based on the idea of grid search. For example, the best subset selection searches the optimal model by all possible combination of the predictors. The forward selection find the best model by adding one predictor at each time, while the backward elimination finds the best model by removing one predictor at each time. Although these methods are powerful and accurate, they also cost a lot. For instance, suppose our model has 10 predictors, if we run the best subset selection to get the optimal model, we need to compare 1024 combinations of the predictors. It is unrealistic to perform such method in our real life because it time consuming. As a result, more efficient methods to solve the problem of variable selection are urgently desired. In ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 65. T.S Eliot From His Life to the Page T. S. Eliot's work was greatly influenced by his life. There was a basic pattern in his works that corresponded with the events in his life. This pattern brought about many changes and phases in his poetry. Even Eliot's attitude was reflected in his work. A quote from T. S. Eliot: The Man and His Work states, " Eliot was a man with the highest standards in his poetry, his critisism, and his behavior to others." ( Spender 34). Perhaps much of this can be attributed to his birth toward the end of the Victorian Era. Eliot's background also had a major effect on his writing style. He was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on September 26, 1888. Though Eliot was born in America, he spent much of his life in England. Although ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Eliot published many religious works including Idea of a Christian Society. The plays that Eliot wrote in this period reflected a spiritual content as well as many journeys and tasks. His works also became more political. He spoke of how corrupt and apathetic the new age had become. His new political views were probably sparked from his life as a British citizen. Analyzation of Eliot's life provides great insight on why his writing was divided into these four periods. Eliot's demeanor was also evident in his work. Many said that Eliot often had a very serious look about him. He was very sophisticated in his speech and actions, and when he was humorous, it was in a very strange way. He often would make remarks that made very little sense. Both sides of his personality showed up in his work. Most of his writing was serious in nature, but sometimes it was amusing such as his Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats. Many people know of this work because the very popular musical Cats was based on it. Both of these were filled with nonsense humor. Eliot's influences made a huge impact on his writing. He was completely immersed in the works from Greek and Roman literature, as well as modern and medieval Europe. Eliot also greatly love the Rubiyat of Omar Khayyam. Much of this influence was evident in the work. One of Eliot's greatest influences was Ezra Pound. Eliot met Ezra Pound in 1914, and that meeting proved to be of great significance to Eliot's writing career. Ezra ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 67. Depression Case Study esults Description of the participants In total, 18 patients met the inclusion criteria with all of these patients completing the groups. Data was not available on how many sessions participants may have missed. Pre and post intervention measures were obtained from 18 patients who completed the groups. Course facilitators were reluctant to collect demographic information as it was felt that collecting demographic information could impact on the response rate. Demographic information was therefore not collected. Participant characteristics Depression severity as measured by the PHQ–9 saw 5.56% (n=1) of the participants (N=18) begin the study within the normal range for depression (scores between zero and nine), while the remainder of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Criterion c was selected given normative values were available for the PHQ–9 in both clinical and non–clinical populations. Means, standard deviations and Cronbach's Alpha co–efficient values for the PHQ–9 were obtained from the PHQ–9 manual (Kroenke et al., 2009). See Appendix G for a screenshot of LRCIC input and output. RCI Analysis: PHQ–9 The RCI value calculated using the LRCIC (Agostinis et al., 2008) for the PHQ–9, was 4.61. As such, participants' scores must have changed a minimum of 4.61 points between baseline and end of the group to be considered as showing either reliable improvement or deterioration. Table 2 below shows the frequencies and percentages of participants' change categories according to RCI outcome. Table 2 Frequencies and percentages of participants demonstrating a RC or no change between baseline and end of intervention according to RCI outcome for PHQ–9 PHQ–9 Improved (RC in desired direction) Unchanged (Not significant change) Deteriorated (RC in opposite direction) Week 16 – n 11 7 0 Week 16 – % 61.11% 38.89% 0 Table 2 above shows that the majority of participants (61.11%) had a RC in PHQ–9 depression scores following completion of the group intervention. 38.89% of participants did not have RC in their PHQ–9 scores and notably, zero participants reported a deterioration in their depressive symptoms at the end of the intervention. CSC Analysis: PHQ–9 To find out if any RC could
  • 68. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 70. Recommendations For Evaluation While they claim the data is still useful to the stakeholders, it is evident the amount of data and likely the analysis performed was likely less then what was desired. Recommendations by the Evaluators The evaluator recommends that the programs should be continued based on the results indicating that majority of recreation centers were meeting their performance objectives. Additionally, the evaluators suggest that the PAAS tool should be continued, but a different version should be used. Finally, the evaluators suggest that the evaluation process should be improved through centralizing the data collection process and develop a data cleaning process. Thoughts of the evaluation Interpretation of Conclusions The recommendations for the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Improvements on the Evaluation Scope of Evaluation I would continue to use a mixed method approach in the evaluation of the summer programs. However, I would first address the survey and interview questions, and how the observation process occurred. Before doing anything else I would attempt to make sure that these questions being evaluated were being asked in a manner suited to the age appropriateness of the participants. This may entail that several different versions of the surveys to exist. I would also ensure that the number of questions each survey contained was limited in hopes to increase accuracy and completion due to the limited amount of time needed for completion. In the questions asked, I would make sure to ask how the summer program impacted the participants. Additionally, I would also survey the parents of the participants to get a take on what their perceptions of the summer program were. Criterion Following revamping the scope of the evaluation a criterion in which the data will be compared would be established. The established criterion would be presented in the evaluation in length. The current evaluation seems to arbitrarily make a judgment of the worth of the program, and there were no references to the criterion process used. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 72. Health And Office Operation Graduates: Case Study Dear Cycle 4 Health & Office Operation Graduates, Upon completion of the Health & Office Operation program, we joined an elite group of individuals who have successfully completed the program by positively reflecting the core values taught by Strive Inc. Of equal importance, we set the bar for future participants of the program. It is my hope that we will continue to do so by securing employment and being a consummate professional to ensure our continued success. Following through with those key aspects will put us in a position to give back to Strive, an organization that has made a considerable investment in our career development. With this in mind, I consulted with Mr. Emmanuel Pacheco, Department Coordinator of Supportive Services during ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 74. Multiple Base Line Design: A Case Study According to Rapoff, M., & Stark, L. (2008) the most important reason for using a Multiple baseline design is to show the effects of treatment when the treatment occurs. There are other reasons why a research would select to use a multiple base line design over the other single subject designs. The first reason is that multiple base lines are versatile additionally they are relatively easy to understand (Richards, Taylor, & Ramasamy, 2014). In other words multiple baseline designs can be used on a variety of situations, behaviors, and individuals. The second reason is to target behaviors that are likely to be irreversible (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). In other words multiple base line designs are often used when the intervention promotes learning that alters the target behivors and original state of the behavior can no longer be observed. The third reason to conduct a multiple base line design is when it would be unethical to withdraw the treatment (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). The fourth and final reason for using a multiple baseline approach is when ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In this case the goal is to assess the effects of a treatment based on an increase or decrease in a specified targeted behavior (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007). This design uses repeated intervention phases after a single baseline is collected. The ABA design value is enhanced when the ABA phases are repeated across several sets of stimuli (Beeson, & Robey, 2006). Additionally in a change in criterion design delayed or withdrawal of treatment is not required, as is the case for the multiple–baseline design or withdrawal designs (McDougall, Hawkins, Brady, & Jenkins, 2006). Although Baseline collection is continued throughout the series of the ABAB designs the intention is that the targeted behavior will either be increase of decreased from the original baseline in the direction of the experiment ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 76. Reliability and Validity Paper Reliability and Validity Paper University of Phoenix BSHS 352 The profession of human service uses an enormous quantify of information to conduct test in the process of service delivery. The data assembled goes to a panel of assessment when deciding the option that will best fit the interest of the population, or the experiment idea in question. The content of this paper will define, and describe the different types of reliability, and validity. In addition display examples of data collection method and instrument used in human services, and managerial research (UOPX, 2013). Types of Reliability Reliability is described as the degree to which a survey, test, instrument, observation, or measurement course of action generating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A high–quality test will mainly deal with these issues and provide somewhat minimal difference. In contrast a changeable test is extremely susceptible to these issues and will provide unstable ending. Validity Validity is the degree to which the test measures what it is set out to measure (Reshow & Rosenthal, 2008).The types of validity includes "construct, content, convergent or discriminant, criterion, external, face, internal, and statistical" (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 2008, p. 125). It is important to distinguish the validity of the research outcome because it cannot contain any room for error, nor pending variable without an applicable explanation. Validity is not verified by a statistic; rather by a uniform of examiner that reflects exemplify knowledge, and relationship among the test, and the performance it is projected to measure. Therefore, it is important for a test to be applicable in order for the product to securely, and correctly apply, and translated. Construct validity is the extent to which suggestion can be made from a broad view standpoint lining ideas to observations in the research to the hypothesis on which those ideas are based. Content validity reflect on a personal pattern of measurement because it transmit on people's insight for measuring hypothesis, which is complicated to measure if the test–to retest type was to performed. Convergent is the degree ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...