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Male Genital Mutilation Essay
Male Genital Mutilation Female genital mutilation in foreign countries is a hot topic that many
people stand up against. It is frowned upon by western civilization and there are entire organizations
coming to the rescue of female genital mutilation victims, yet very few stand up against male
circumcision. If female genital mutilation is illegal, why isn't male genital mutilation? Circumcision
is a procedure done primarily on infant males, in which the foreskin is surgically separated from the
glans and cut off. It started out as a religious procedure but was eventually adopted by medical
personnel and preformed regularly on male infants in the US. The removing of the foreskin is
painful, can cause severe damage, bleeding, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
With this logic, as the years go on male genital mutilation would eventually be performed on nearly
all babies in the US. I was given no additional information as to why it should be done, no pros and
cons, and no medical proof to back up her reasoning for why I should have my infant circumcised.
My experience with this nurse spiked my curiosity; I was appalled that doctors and nurses just
assumed I would blindly let them permanently take off a part of my child's genitals, acting as if it
was routine like the cutting of a baby's umbilical
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Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is the summarized name given to multiple procedures that
involve partial or total removal of the female genitalia, or other injuries to the female genitals for
non–medical reasons. The act of FGM is carried out for traditional purposes only. Women and
young girls are both subjected to this act of brutality. This paper will take a more in depth look at
FGM and the psychological repercussions, the cultural differences, and the violation of human rights
that are all associated with it. As stated in the introduction, FGM is the summarized name given to
procedures that deal with the surgical mutilation of the female genitals. There are 4 different types
of FGM procedures. Type 1 is commonly referred to as a clitoridectomy; the partial or ... Show more
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The psychological problems that FGM can cause include, but not limited to: depression, anxiety,
low self–esteem, or post–traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Now, FGM is mostly done on young
girls, who's age can range anywhere from infancy to 15 years old. Even though death is listed as a
possible immediate complication of FGM, it can also be placed as a long–term possibility as well,
especially if mental health problems like depression, PTSD, or low self–esteem are involved. A
young teenage girl who is depressed and may feel like a social outcast, even though FGM is
common practice in 29 different African countries and most females in those countries have
tragically gone through the same procedures, could easily kill herself because of how she feels and
what she's been through. But, there are some victims who have accepted what has happened to them
and decided to live and fight FGM. Like Jawahir Cumar, a victim of FGM, who founded the "Stop
Mutilation" organization in 1996 that helps "prevent other girls and women from having similar
experiences"
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
Female Genital Mutilation, shortened to FGM in most medical texts, is "collective name given to
several different traditional practices that involve the cutting of female genitals." FGM is a common
cultural practice in many parts of the world, especially Africa and Asia that was established
hundreds of years ago. There are many different types of FGM, ranging from clitoridectomy, to
cutting and infibulations (Skaine 7). Even though these procedures are accepted in the areas they are
practiced, FGM has become a human rights discussion resurfacing in recent years because the
procedures serve no purpose. Female Genital Mutilation is an unethical practice that should be
outlawed throughout the entire world. FGM, specifically infibulation, is ... Show more content on
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The WHO concluded that "female genital mutilation can adversely affect birth outcomes" and that
"an additional one to two babies die per 100 deliveries as a result of the practice" in Africa
(Australian National University). However, future problems aren't necessarily the biggest issue.
Female Genital Mutilation procedures are unnecessary medical procedures that put women in a state
of discomfort and they are very dangerous. There are many consequences to FGM including, but not
limited to, "scarring, infertility, painful sexual intercourse, rupture of the vaginal walls, chronic
uterine and vaginal infections, bladder incontinence, dysmenorrheal and obstruction of the flow of
menstrual blood" (Skaine 23). In places where FGM is illegal, such as Segal, the procedures have
not ceased to exist. Therefore, women and girls are often undergoing Female Circumcisions from
unlicensed doctors and sometimes with unsterile equipment. Even if nothing goes wrong physically,
there is a risk of psychological and social trauma. According to a WHO study in Sudan, FGM may
leave lasting psychological effects. This study concluded that many women feel incomplete and they
are more likely to have anxiety and depression (27). Ultimately, there is no positive effect on the
female anatomy or psyche from FGM. Thomas Donaldson, a business philosopher, came up with 10
basic human rights in his book The Ethics of International Business,
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Female Genitalia Mutilation ( Fgm )
Female Genitalia mutilation (FGM) includes the cutting to female genital organs for non–medical
reasons. The procedure is common in some African and Middle Eastern countries that practice FGM
usually as a cultural custom. Commonly, the procedure is performed on girls as a rite of passage and
a way to keep a woman faithful to her husband. Women are seen as unclean if they have not
undergone the surgery, and therefore it can be difficult for them to find a husband . According to the
World Health Organization, Africa has the greatest number of FGM cases where between around
125 million have undergone the painful surgery (see appendix A) . The surgery is extremely painful
especially when considering the absence of anesthesia . In addition, the procedure is often done with
unsanitary tools and can have horrible health effects on the women including blood loss, infections
and pregnancy problems. FGM violates several rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights including "no one has the right to hurt or torture you", "right to be free from gender
discrimination", and the "right to life and physical integrity" .
Considering the violation of rights occurring in countries practicing FGM, the debate remains to
what extent the United Nations should get involved in a cultural issue that is an integral aspect of
many societies. Therefore, is it possible to agree on a definition of human rights given the diversity
of values by people around the world? Involvement in another
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Theories Of Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation, is a topic which has caused many controversies worldwide. Female
Genital Mutilation is a tradition since antiquity, which occurs in twenty eight countries in Africa,
and among certain communities in the Middle East, and Asia. The latitude of this issue is massive.
The United Nations estimates that this practice has been performed on about 140 million females,
who encounter immediate complications of shock, infections, damage to the urethra, scar formation,
tetanus, bladder infections, HIV, along with long –term complications that lead to death (Lauren V,
2011). It is estimated that 3 million girls are at risk annually! During this paper, I will discuss in
depth the two ethical theories (Deontology and Utilitarianism). These ethical theories will be a
guide, to help understand the moral issues of Female Mutilation, and whether one can view female
mutilation to be right or wrong. Aside from the ethical theories, I ... Show more content on
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), female genital mutilation consist of a non–
medical procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury
to the female genital organs (Lauren V, 2011).Typically girls from two weeks old, through fourteen
years old, are affected by this procedure. The mutilations are conducted under non–sterile
conditions; by using razors, knifes, scissors etc.; and without any anesthesia. Now that we know
little about the mutilation process these females undergoes; let's ask ourselves "Why would someone
ever agree to conduct such procedure on their own will?" If mutilation emphasizes the clear
violation of human rights, why is this procedure being implemented in many different countries?
Well, this issue is due to different ethical, and moral perspective; one may believe that female
mutilation is morally right; while others may think it's a violation of human rights. Let's first explore
the ethical theories on this
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Female Genitalia Mutilation Essays
Female Genitalia Mutilation
Picture this, a young innocent girl, between the age of eight and twelve, running around, playing,
and having a good time. Then she is snatched away to a foul hut, whose floor is nothing but dirt.
Once in the hut, the helpless girl is stripped of all her clothing and pinned to the dirt floor. Her tiny
legs are spread and held wide apart with a tight grasp. Soon afterward, a midwife, with no education
in human anatomy or medicine, enters the hut and says a prayer. While the young girl is held down
in this most vulnerable position the midwife takes a handful of sand and rubs it all over the girl's
genitals (Walker 106). With no anesthetics and a jagged rock, that merely has a sharpened edge, the
midwife ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This form of FGM is called female circumcision or Sunna circumcision. Another form of female
genitalia mutilation is called excision or clitoridectomy. Removing the entire clitoris and either part
or all of the labia minora is performed in this type of mutilation. Intermediate circumcision, another
form of FGM, is very similar to a clitoridectomy. The difference is that in addition to the removal of
the clitoris and part or all of the labia minora, that part or all of the labia majora is also removed.
The last and most severe form of FGM is called infibulation or pharaonic circumcision. This
includes the removal of both the clitoris and the labia minora, as well as much of the labia majora.
Then the remaining sides are sewn together (Walker 367).
This ritual begins with the facilitator praying and singing praises. Then, as a woman identified as
P.K. retells her dreadful experience, she was instructed to lie down on a mat. P.K. says that no
sooner had her frail, young, legs hit the mat they were tightly grasped by heavy hands and spread
wide apart. Her legs and arms were both immobilized. Next, she tells that a foreign substance was
rubbed all over her genital organs and that it caused a very unpleasant sensation. She later
discovered that the foreign substance was sand and that it was used in order to assist in the
operation. P.K. goes on to tell that
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation is believed to have started in Egypt 2,000 years ago and spread from
there. Only a few years ago, FGM was considered a cultural tradition, but now the United Nations
has labeled it as a violation of human rights. Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United
States has declared Female Genital Mutilation grounds for seeking asylum and is a punishable
offense (1).
Many of us never heard of Female Genital Mutilation until the story of Kauziya Kasinga, a woman
from West Africa. Her father did not believe in polygamy, forced marriage, or "female
circumcision". He died when she was 17 and the father's sister inherited the home, banished the
mother, ended Fauziya's schooling, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It is sometimes opened to allow childbirth, but is sewn up again. In some cultures, the husband will
cut her open to have sex with her. In males, you would have to remove the entire penis and testicles
(castration) to compare this with infibualtion (3). This was done in the Catholic Church to get men
to sing soprano. It is no longer permitted and has been outlawed by the Pope. It was also done to
men who worked in harems so that they would not have sex with the girls.
Female genial mutilation is mainly practiced in the African culture. It is also practiced in Christian,
Judaism, Aboriginal, and Islamic cultures. FGM is not religious, but is a social custom (4). In some
countries it is almost universal. There are over 30 million women currently living in Nigeria that
have been circumcised and 24 million in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Some groups say that 114 to 130
million women worldwide have had the operation. FGM has spread worldwide with immigrants
coming from Africa and other nations that accept this practice. It is outlawed in the United States,
but the practice is still done. Specialists in Denver, CO reported in 1998 that at least 6,000
immigrants have settled in the area from African countries, which widely practices FGM. Dr. Terry
Dunn, director of a women's clinic in that city commented: "I know of one patient where it was clear
it was performed in this country." About 4 mutilation cases are seen each year at the clinic (5).
Female Genital
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##usationing And Forms Of Self-Mutilation
Female offenders often have psychological and emotional problems that they do not know how to
cope with, as a result of this they turn to self–harm also referred to as self–mutilation (Roe–
Sepowitz, 2007). Self–mutilation is said to occur when the individual intentionally physically harms
themselves or intentionally causes an injury to their body (Roe–Sepowitz, 2007). This paper will
explore the causation, reasoning and forms of self–mutilation done by female inmates. As well as
misconceptions, protocols and programs implemented by correctional facilities that can arguably be
deemed as unproductive in helping these women cope with their emotional and psychological
issues. Forms of Self–Mutilation Self– mutilation can come in many forms and variations,
unfortunately there are few studies and preventative measures on how to stop, acknowledge and
treat self–inflicted harm done by female correctional clients (Roe– Sepowitz, 2007). Female
correctional clients often self–mutilate by "cutting, burning, inserting objects, head banging,
drinking poisons, or hitting themselves" (Roe– Sepowitz, 2007). History and Characteristics of Self
Mutilators Female correctional clients who had traumatic childhood experiences, life struggles and
difficulties have a direct association in the development of self–mutilation as a form of a coping
mechanism. (Roe– Shepowitz, 2007). Female correctional clients whose childhood experiences
classify as traumatic, experienced psychological, emotional,
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Female Circumcision Research Paper
Female circumcision is a ritualized form of child abuse and violence against women, it is a violation
of human rights. Firstly, demonstrated is a map of where female genital mutilation is happening in
the parts of Africa. The map introduces that Somalia is the most well–known spot there is 98% of
prevalence of female genital mutilation. This leads to what female circumcision actually is. Female
circumcision or genital mutilation, is an aggregate removing of the outside female genitalia for
nonmedical reasons. It has been practiced for a considerable length of time in parts of Africa
particularly in Somalia, as an element of a rite of passage preparing young girls for womanhood and
marriage. Female genital mutilation can cause extreme bleeding, ... Show more content on
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This solution is suggested by a United Nations public health arm called World Health Organisation
also most commonly referred to as 'WHO'. Building evidence does in fact help people to examine
their own beliefs and values related to the practice in a way which does not seem threatening or
harsh. Educational sessions will empower women to exchange the traumatic experiences they have
been through and help them reveal and share their feeling and examine the different attitudes
reflected towards female genital mutilation in the community. Increasing access to education is
another key strategy because educated women are less likely to allow their daughters to be cut. This
is certainly a wonderful idea as women can relate to other women about their experiences however, i
don't think this is the best conceivable thought out there because teaching the girls out there in
Somalia would not help as much because they do not have a word to say when it comes to these
matters. This is because it is the girls' parents who initiate the entire procedure and ensure that
females experience genital mutilation to keep up their family notoriety and to set her up for
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Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC) and female
circumcision, is the removal of part or the entire external female genitalia or any injury to the female
genital organ with no medical reasoning. The practice of circumcision is entrenched in gender
inequality and efforts to control women's sexuality. It is believed to bring about honor, purity, and
cleanliness; however, FGM/FGC is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of
girls and women. It reflects deep–rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme
form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of
rights of children. The practice also violates a woman's right to ... Show more content on
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The Committee on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Committee
on the Rights of the Child and the Human Rights Committee are active in condemning the practice
and are continuously making recommendations on how to combat it, including criminalization of the
practice. The Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women issued
its General Recommendation on Female Circumcision (General Recommendation No 14) that
requires states to take appreciate action and implement effective measures in eradicating the
practice. It also requests for them to provide information about measures being taken to eliminate
the FGM/FGC within those communities that are still actively practicing it
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Effects Of Female Genital Mutilation
How does Female Genital Mutilation effect young girls and women?
Every year, Millions of young girls in third world countries fall victim to Female Circumcision also
known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Recognized internationally as a violation of the human
rights of girls and women. It reflects deep–rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes as an
extreme form of discrimination against women. This procedure does not only tarnish the female
persona and natural attributes, but effects the victims in various ways such as: Physically, Mentally,
and Emotionally.
According to the Who, more than 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 29
countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM is concentrated. The procedure ... Show more
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Women and girls who have undergone the procedure have also been known to experience memory
loss, and blackouts as a result of post–traumatic stress. Not only that, but if a girl has undergone
Type 3 cutting, otherwise known as infibulation, she will eventually have to re–live the procedure
when she is cut open and re–sewn for sexual intercourse, and later child birth if she becomes
pregnant. Sexual experience can be both painful and traumatic. For those women who have
undergone Type 3, otherwise known as infibulation, the pain is even worse, as a hard plug of scar
tissue is formed over where there was once the soft opening of the vagina. de–infibulation is the
process in which women are physically cut open in order to allow penetration. Even if the woman is
not cut open medically, the hole will be too small to be opened without force. According to
Daughters of Eve, for many women, it is not only the first instance of sexual intercourse that causes
pain. The scar tissue around the vagina will continue to cause pain and discomfort during sex
throughout a woman's lifetime, and often this not only affects her, but also her partner who may
experience discomfort and stress at
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Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper
Female genital mutilation is a very disturbing act that we must eliminate; even if will have to pull
this bull by its horns. According to Sarah Boseley, health editor at The Guardian explains, female
genital mutilation is a procedure that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia,
or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons. Sadly, this act is recognized as
a violation of the human rights of girls and women. In addition, as per World Health Organization,
this practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who commonly play other central
roles in communities like attending childbirths (Mutilation). However, this is a traditional practice
which has been practiced by several generations in many communities and cultures. Moreover, the
operation is usually performed at a very youthful age. Female genital mutilation is classified into
four major types: clitoridectomy known as type one, excision as type two, infibulation as type three,
and the forth type includes type two and three combined.
Type one: Frequently referred to as clitoridectomy; this is the partial or total removal of the clitoris.
Clitoris is a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals. In very scarce cases, this type of
circumcision also involves the removal of the prepuce ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Coupled with this analysis, 100 to 140 million women and girls are thought to be living with the
consequences of female genital mutilation (Boseley). This act makes me sick. Moreover, Boseley
argues that female circumcision violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity,
the right to be free from torture and cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life
when the procedure results in
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The Effects Of Female Genital Mutilation
The phrase "female genital mutilation," the practice of removing portions of Females' it was in fact,
the repetition of a "social ritual" which occurs on a yearly basis to millions of women, girls, and
infants. The history of FGM is not well known, but the practice dated back at least 2000 years. It is
not known when or where the tradition of Female Genital Mutilation originated from. It was
believed that it was practiced in ancient Egypt as a sign of distinction amongst the aristocracy.What
common patterns/effects arise from the impact of the practice of female Genital Mutilation?
Common effects/patterns that arise from the practice of FGM is the effects of physical, and
emotional health, and its impact on the women who have been through ... Show more content on
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According to the article THE IMPACT OF FGM it states ¨According to the WHO, women who have
experienced the most extreme form of FGC (infibulation) are 70% more likely to experience post–
partum hemorrhage, and 30% more likely to require a caesarean section.".The women who have
been through FGM experienced an increased risk of childbirth complications. Also, according to the
article THE IMPACT OF FGM it states that "The knock–on effects of leaving school at a young age
are well–documented and include earning less, and having less control and agency over life choices
including marriage, pregnancy, and family planning.". The woman who has been through FGM had
to leave school at an early age and as they miss the opportunity of education they have less control
over their lives because women with no education cannot make living so they will have to marry at a
young age. To summarize FGM impacted a lot of women (girls) lives and I believe that because of
FGM there are women whose lives have been ruined because they had to undergo it at a young age
or were forced to
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The Practice Of Genital Mutilation
Final Paper The practice of genital mutilation is a cultural tradition performed across central Africa,
in the southern Sahara, and in parts of the Middle East. Most women who have experienced FGC
live in one of the 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGC is practiced. Almost one–
half of women who have experienced FGC live in Egypt or Ethiopia. To a lesser degree, FGC is
practiced in Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, and India. Some immigrants practice various forms of
FGC in other parts of the world, including Australia, Cana–da, New Zealand, the United States, and
in European nations. Circumcision is a religious or cultural ritual for many Jewish and Islamic
families, as well as certain aboriginal tribes in Africa and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Female circumcision in Africa is completed in order to prove that the female is going to be able to
endure life's hardships, and that she will be able to handle responsibility when older. Muslims
believe females must get circumcised in order to curb the female's sexual desire. After the
procedure, the women are expected to get married and start their own families. This procedure is
usually done on young girls between infancy and the age of 15, most likely before puberty starts.
The procedure is traditionally carried out by a woman with no medical training. Anesthetics and
antiseptic treatments are not normally used, and the practice is usually carried out using knives,
scissors, and scalpels, pieces of glass or razor blades. Girls are sometimes put down in restraints.
There are some immediate and long–term effects to this procedure including, severe pain, shock,
bleeding, HIV and hepatitis, abnormal periods, complication in pregnancy and pain in sex. It can
also sometimes lead to death. Surgery can be performed to open up the lower vagina called the
"reversal", although it cannot restore sensitive tissue that has been removed. Surgery may be
necessary for women who are unable to have intercourse, as the vagina is too narrow. In addition,
some pregnant women who have had FGM will need to have their lower vagina opened up before
labor, to allow a safer birth. FGM increases the risk of the vagina tearing during delivery, which
causes damage and can lead to
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Genital Mutilation Definition
Maintaing a relativist perspective in the study of human rights means that one must analyze aspects
of culture and contrast them to theories of morality without coming to an absolute truth of what is
believed to be right or wrong. Cultural relativists acknowledge that while all human beings who
inhabit the earth should have their human rights valued and respected, cultures vary greatly, and
what may not be acceptable in one region might be the norm in another. Especially considering the
fact that the concept of human rights is a western ideal that is theoretically accepted by some, but
not necessarily adopted in the culture as a whole. In analyzing the human rights topic of female
genital mutilation (FGM), cultural relativists Steiner and Alston ... Show more content on
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Under this proposal for change, three main rights were established which include women's rights,
the rights of children, and the right to good
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Female Genital Mutilation Analysis
The article, Female Genital Mutilation Is a Canadian Issue Too, explores how the act of Female
Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a social justice issues beyond the foreign nations it is associated with.
While FGM is associated with countries in Africa and the Middle East where it is seen as the norm,
we see cases in our modern and progressive nation. The article first defines FGM as girls being
forced to have some or all of their external genitalia cut off and, in some cases, having their vaginal
opening sown closed. This may be performed on girls anytime from infancy to puberty and can
result in multiple life threatening health complications. The article goes on to explain how the act is
deeply rooted in different cultures but is also experienced ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Yes, the article speaks to how FGM is enacted across the world but it does not speak to efforts made
internationally to end this widespread issue. Briefly, the role of the United Nations is mentioned as
"In December the UN unanimously passed a resolution banning the practice" (Kielburger). Beyond
this one line, there is no mention of international development of the attempted ending of FGM. I
understand this article was written by two Canadians on the Canada specific section of the
publication but I would have appreciated a little more global awareness. How are other developed
nations such as the United States or United Nations dealing with this issue? What are more specific
plans made by international organizations like the UN doing to follow their general statements? I
also understand that this article was written in 2013 and we now have more context and information
on this issue but I still wanted more depth from the article. Perhaps, a follow–up style article would
be appropriate to see how the matter has
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
Females as a general population have been faced with discrimination across the ages. In recent
history, women have begun to assert their freedom and independence from the male oriented
traditions that have spanned generations. In industrialized countries the discrimination of women
has diminished, but a serious form of violation of human rights occurs sometimes in parts of the
world, such as Africa, the Middle East, and even sometimes the United States and other
industrialized countries in North America and Europe. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an
umbrella term for three subtypes of crimes committed against women as a part of various coming of
age rituals for young girls in certain patriarchal communities in Africa, spreading through ... Show
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These international agencies work together, along with other missionary workers to eliminate female
circumcision, as it is also called, from its entirety from the world due to its view as an extreme form
of discrimination against women. No woman should be subjected to the cruel practice, where young
girls are held down by their elders, violated in such a way to remove an organ in their sacred area
and later subjected to the pain that sexual intercourse and childbirth become by a generational
practice.
The past has shown that women were the leaders of the society. Childbirth was mysterious situation,
but highly desired by all thus women were goddesses. Sometime in the last five thousand years, men
discovered the rule they could have. Here began the trials a woman faces through the newly
discovered patriarchal way. Female mutilation began as a way to reduce the power women could
hold, a discrimination that lead to the pain and suffering of thousands, millions of women across the
ages. Today, some where between one hundred to one hundred forty women have been subjected to
this awful treatment created by men as a way to hold power over the women who gave them life.
During the Enlightenment period, John Locke, an English philosopher, said, "All mankind... being
all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions."
No should be harmed because of
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Female Genital Mutilation And Women
Chapter one: Introduction
1.1 Background:
Female Genital Mutilation refers to several manners of conducting operations of women and girls,
involving the partial or total removal of external genitalia. This practice is considered a traditional
practice amongst many people and communities throughout the world. While the practice has been
ongoing for centuries it has been deemed a human rights violation on the grounds that it inflicts
harm on females, including damaging them in a physChapter one: Introduction
1.1 Background:
Female Genital Mutilation refers to several manners of conducting operations of women and girls,
involving the partial or total removal of external genitalia. This practice is considered a traditional
practice amongst many people and communities throughout the world. While the practice has been
ongoing for centuries it has been deemed a human rights violation on the grounds that it inflicts
harm on females, including damaging them in a physical, sexual, and psychological manner. These
rights violations fall under The Convention of the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and Protocol to the African Charter on
Human and People's Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa.
1.2 Statement of the problem:
Female Genital Mutilation has been executed over generations due to the social dynamics which
have made it difficult for girls, and their families to abandon the practice. The practice has no health
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What´s Genital Mutilation?
Genital mutilation, predominantly female gender mutilation has become a serious perplexing matter
and dilemma that a majority of young women around the world are facing. Although both genders
are disturbed by genital mutilation, it primarily affects infants up until women that are twenty–five
years of age. Genital mutilation is frequently performed in about twenty–five African countries.
Genital mutilation is communal and expressed in Somalia, Mali, Egypt, Sudan, etc. Genital
mutilation is predominant and widespread in a majority of rural areas as well as villages throughout
Africa. Astonishingly, genital mutilation is likewise dominant in the United States, Canada and
England. This is owed to the fact that many immigrants from contributing ... Show more content on
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Genital mutilation encompasses the partial or complete removal of external genitalia for non–
medical purposes. Genital mutilation is an ample defilement of an individual's sexuality. Not only is
genital mutilation an invasion of a females sexuality, it also attacks and raids her rights, wellbeing,
condition and veracity. The key determination of genital mutilation is carried out in order to control
a woman's sexual cravings. Numerous countries supposes that the complex act of genital mutilation
acts to confirm that a women upholds and preserves her virginity before she is married and it is also
believed to intensify a males sexual pleasures. Genital mutilation is used and seen as a "right of
passage". When it comes to females and it is seen as an act of womanhood. In some countries, it is
seen in a hygienic aspect, believed to keep and provide females with a sense of purity. Various
Middle Eastern countries believed that gender mutilation stipulates a smoother exterior as well as a
façade. It is believed to make females "clean" in a sense. Additionally, gender mutilation is
completed in anticipations to sustain females from abstaining from
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Essay about self mutilation
Self Mutilation
It is estimated that one out of every 50 teens between the ages of 13 and 19 regularly practice self–
abusive behavior with a reported 2 million cases in the US alone in 2004.
Self–mutilation is defined as the direct and deliberate destructive alteration of one's own body
tissue, without conscious suicidal intent. It is considered a clinical disorder. Self mutilation is not a
suicide attempt. It is an attempt for one to gain control over their life and cope with stress, pain, fear,
and anxiety. Self mutilatory behaviors are cries for help. Self–abusive teens tend to internalize any
conflicts with friends, school or parents as they do not want to "cause trouble" for anyone. Typical
self mutilators are middle to upper class, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Burning is the practice of placing cigarettes, hot metal, lighters, or lit matches to the skin and
causing a burn. The practice of wound interference is done by creating a wound, whether it is a cut,
burn, bruise, or bump, and preventing it from healing by tearing, picking or pushing on the wound.
Picking is done when a self–mutilator literally "picks" at their skin until a wound is created and
bleeds.
Characteristics of self mutilators include low self esteem, hypersensitivity, and chronic self anger.
Many self mutilators are prone to have borderline personality disorder, mood swings, and
inconsistent relationships. They often don't come home, cry a lot, and withdraw themselves socially.
They will also give verbal clues such as talking about their lack of a future. Explosive anger,
feelings of emptiness, perfectionism, and isolation are also symptoms or self injurious behavior.
Many self injurers will wear long sleeve shirts and pants constantly even in warm weather and have
unexplained or unexplainable wounds. The presence of a knife, lighter, or matches in a purse or
book bag with no logical explanation for its being there, making excuses for injuries, wanted to do
own laundry, and blood or burn stains on the inside of clothing are also signs to look for that are
common amongst self mutilators.
Movie
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Genital Mutilation And Its Effects On Women
genital mutilation is linked to proper sexual behavior, so by reducing the libido you reduce the
chance for sexual promiscuity. Globally war 's that have taken place in the 20th and 21st centuries
have caused an increase in violence and harm done to women and children, "as approximately 1 in 3
women in the world is beaten, coerced into sex, and otherwise abused" (Shaw 506). In fact rape is a
common weapon in a warring nation. The United Nations Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and
security was adopted in 2000. "It focuses on measures to protect women and girls for gender based
violence, particularly rape and other forms of sexual abuse, in situations of armed conflict. Still,
some countries condone or legalize such crimes, and others accept such violence against women as
necessary consequences of war and/or civil unrest, and ethnic cleansing" (Shaw 506). Unfortunately,
other countries are not the only ones that have high rape rates. In the United States it is estimated
that "Over 22 million women in the United States have been raped in their lifetime (Feminist). "At
least 10% of all [rape and sexual assault] victims are male" (Rccmsc). "The FBI estimates that only
46% of rapes and sexual assaults are reported to the police. Factoring in unreported rapes, about 6%
of rapists will ever spend a day in jail. 15 out of 16 will walk free" (Feminist). There is a shocking
statistic of underage sexual assaults, abuse and rapes. "In 2006, 78,000 children were sexually
abused.
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Is Female Genital Mutilation?
A gender related issue that Americans are facing is Female Genital Mutilation, or FGM. It is a
procedure that removes all or part of external female genitalia and injuries other female genital
organs for nonmedical purposes. FGM is usually performed for cultural reasons and to make girls
more suitable for marriage. It is based on a deep–rooted inequality between males and females, and
it is a violation of human rights. This affects family life because it can permanently scar and harm
the girl and there are no medical health benefits from FGM. In cultures where this is practiced, girls
are taught that this has to be done to make them suitable for a man and for marriage and adulthood.
It can also cause tension in the family if it happens to a girl at a young age when she is not old
enough to understand why this was done to her and if she learns at an older age that it was not
necessary. This is a complex issue because is considered a human rights violation and it is illegal in
the US, however it is still happening because some cultures feel that it is necessary to perform this
on their daughters. Also, because it is illegal, it can be more dangerous to the girl and there are more
health risks because it is most likely being done in secret or "under the table." There are no pros to
FGM and only cons because it will scar and harm the girls for life. It teaches them that they need to
alter their bodies in order to be good enough for a man and there are extreme health risks
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Female Genital Mutilation
Consent, in its various forms and states in certain contexts, forms a crucial part of legality and
illegality, in that its existence strongly categorises the nature of an act (Tuckness 2012). If consent
were established, it would be easy for the layman to conclude that an act should not be intervened
with by the state. Per contra, the complexities surrounding an act go beyond these simple
distinctions. The issue of intervention can to some degree be seen as problematic in its fundamental
aim to represent and advocate for a particular 'victim', in spite of the circumstances of the situation,
which tend to run parallel with a different narrative (Alcoff, 1992; Seth, 2001). This essay will
examine the relationship between the state and female ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Mill defines harm as any action or inaction by one individual that is injurious to the interests of
others. He states that: "[when] a person's conduct affects the interest of no person besides himself...
there should be perfect freedom, legal and social, to do the action and stand the consequences"
(Mill,
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Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper
Absolutely crazy. It is totally alarming and confounds me this is up still proceeding on the planet
today.Even in countries where it has been made illegal: "Female genital mutilation was made
unlawful in Egypt in 2008 however is still by and large breed. A couple of examinations suggest
more than 75% of women, Muslim Christian, still have had the strategy in a couple of domains of
the country." This is from the BBC where I saw a fasten which makes me consider how it is
functioning for people to be so genuinely befuddled in such amazing numbers. Unmistakably,
circumcision controls women's sex sound judgment. Female Genital Mutilation is shocking, odd,
fierce, and purposeless. This practice should be banned for the security and protection of ... Show
more content on Helpwriting.net ...
We nor any more live in such out of date. This practice is relentless, for unequaled scarring,
embarrassing, and outright bizarre. There is no restorative reason behind this practice, and were any
on the expert side were to watch it happen, they would in all likelihood change their conclusions
when they see how brutal, it truly is.I trust that female genital mutilation should be banned in light
of the fact that it is an inhumane, merciless and obsolete practice that has no spot in 2012. Kids
should never be subjected to such a horrifying foundation, to the point that is certain to panic them a
route into their adulthood. The people who play out this practice should be arraigned to the full level
of the law.Female genital mutilation should be scratched off in light of the way that it causes
physical and mental harm to the female later and it is our moral commitment to help one
another.Someone on the negating side said it's not our business so who let our females experience
physical and mental harm.Seriously it should be repealed. I don't perceive how these people can be
called "individuals" considering their non appearance of emotional wellness and their nonattendance
of affections for each
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Female Genital Mutilation: Womanhood To Parallelism
Research in the Disciplines
Science, Medicine, and Society
355:201:M3 – Mr. Abrams
Research Paper
Submitted by Adiam Ghebre
Female Genital Mutilation: Womanhood to Parallelism
Abstract
This paper will be discussing the justification for supporting the practice, female genital mutilation.
Female genital mutilation is a heavily embedded cultural practice that is predominantly practiced in
Africa and the Middle East. As many Western civilizations oppose the practice, they fail to
understand and acknowledge the cultural significance within these region's societies. In fact, they
are unable to recognize the parallelism that is present within their own societies. Using cultural
relativism, this paper will depict the striking similarities ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Women, who practice FGM have argued that the international laws against female genital mutilation
portrays them as abusers (Khaja 690). They dispute that these laws insults not only themselves, but
along with their mothers, communities, country and ancestry (Khaja 690). These attitudes
demonstrated from the West are interpreted from these people as racist and demeaning. In fact, often
times, Western civilizations believe that by intervening into other cultures, they believe that they
have the intentions of making the indigenous people, which are 'less advanced and inferior' are then
surprised was faced resistance or resentment from the people (Abusharaf 216). A problematic
situation occurred in an Eastern African nation, where the people revolted when the British
attempted to eradicated this long practiced and heavily embedded custom (Abusharaf 221). The
British ruled Sudan as one of its colonies and in the 1940s, the British passed a law called 'Pharaonic
circumcision", which prohibited infibulation (meaning surgical mutilation or modification of sex
genitals) (Abusharaf 209). The British viewed this custom as savage and barbaric and did not
understand the emotional and group identity attachment to this practice (Abusharaf 213). The British
believed that the Western values would lead the Sudanese people to the path of civilization and
progress.
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
Female Genital Mutilation Introduction Pain, shame, lack of ability to reproduce. Marie, who suffers
from each of these symptoms, is one of the many women from Africa who have suffered from
female genital mutilation. When Marie was only two years old, she had her clitoris and labia cut off.
Since then, she has moved to New York yet is still suffering from the many consequences you get
from female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation, also known as FGM, is a very common
procedure primarily done in Africa for cultural beliefs. There are no known beneficial medical
reasons as to why people would get the procedure done. FGM became a thing several decades ago
by African tribes and is only now being brought up into the light as ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
With that, FGM is a major violation of the human rights of women and girls (Female Genital
Mutilation). Younger girls do not have a say in the matter and they cannot tell their parents whether
or not they really want the procedure done on them or not. Some older women, who do decide to go
through with this, are doing it because of the outside pressure from their community that humiliates
them if they do not undergo FGM. 98% of Africans do push their children to have this done on them
and if they are part of that 2% then they are excluded from others and are considered outsiders
because they have not undergone a very important cultural procedure (Where is FGM practiced?).
Some physical complications that come along with FGM are urinary infections, cysts, not being able
to produce kids, childbirth problems, and repairing surgery for the widening or narrowing of the
vaginal opening. The women are awake for the entire duration of the procedure and are in
tremendous pain because they bleed everywhere. Sometimes when a women who is not trained to
circumcise, she will use the excess skin to clean up the puddle of blood flowing out of the vaginal
area (CITATION). FGM has a lot of possible negative outcomes that cannot be avoided no matter
how good or bad the operator is. Even with the best care and
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Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female circumcision, is a traumatic
procedure performed on women and young girls, primarily in Eastern parts of the world. Among
these parts, it is most common in North–Eastern, Eastern, and Western Africa, parts of the Middle
East, and South East Asia. By destroying the external female genitalia, a woman cannot produce
sexual desires. This approach assures that a girl will remain abstinent and a virgin until marriage.
Although is has been kept a private issue, organizations such as Tostan are trying to reach out to
communities and teach about the harmful effects of these cuttings. FGM survivors are trying to
spread awareness as well. Depending on the severity of mutilation, short and long term ramifications
can result. This can make the women affected physically and psychologically scarred. It is not only
important to spread awareness, but to enforce harsher laws and put an end to social ostracism. The
assurance of acceptance and the preservation of tradition are the two main causes of FGM. Many
women fear that if they do not allow this procedure to happen, they will be disowned by not only
their family, but whole community. The World Health Organization defines FGM as "all procedures
involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female
genital organs for non–medical reasons." Most of the time, the mutilation is executed on girls that
have not yet reached the age of
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Self Mutilation Research Paper
In the past, studies have suggested that self–mutilators harm themselves as they have no other
coping strategies. In this study the purpose was to further investigate the types of coping strategies
for people who self–harm and find out if their methods of coping differ from those who do not have
a history of self–mutilation. The hypothesis of the study was that there would be differences,
perhaps small ones, but differences nonetheless, between individuals who have a history of self
harm and those who don. They hypothesized that self mutilators would use more maladaptive
strategies and less adaptive strategies than individuals who do not self mutilate. In order to achieve
this, participants were pulled from a larger study being performed on self–mutilation. The first phase
of participant selection was to identify whether or not the participant would act as the control or as
the experimental group. The second phase interviewed these individuals and finalized their group
status. In order to measure the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
I also believe that the author is trying to draw attention to the problem of self harm. If we are able to
find out why people are so prone to do it, than perhaps we can figure out a way to prevent it by
offering a different solution, one that does not involve self–harm. This relates to what we have
learned in the past as it studies the biology of behavior. It poses the question of how much is it an
nurture verses nature issue to respond to psychological distress with self–mutilation. And knowing
that with the amygdala there is this fight or flight drive, yet this study includes people with anxiety
and not just depression, so what part of the brain makes a person think that it would be better to hurt
themselves than to face a problem. The study shows that
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
Today alone 6000 girls around the world are being held down screaming, crying, and blacking out
from the pain pleading for their elders to stop. Their voices fall on deaf ears as their right to sexual
pleasure is sliced, chopped, pricked, scraped and burnt away. Female genital mutilation also known
as female circumcision is the focus of my speech today. By the time I finish speaking, you will agree
that this has got to stop! Today I will explain what FGM is; what are the effects of the procedure and
why it is still being performed today. So going back.... What is female Genital Mutilation? FGM is a
procedure of partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female
genital organs. There are four
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
1. What is Female Genital Mutilation to you? a. FGM is a procedure where part of or the entire
removal of the outer female private parts or other injury to the female sexual organs for cultural or
non–medical reasons. 2. Where is Female Genital Mutilation mainly practiced? a. The practice can
be found in communities around the world. In Africa, FGM is practiced among firm communities in
29 countries. Ethnic groups in Asian countries, in the Middle East, in certain communities in South
America, and many countries practice FGM. Also, many western countries FGM is practiced among
diaspora populations and even unknown places in the United States. 3. Why is Female Genital
Mutilation practiced? a. Female Genital Mutilation is practiced for many ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
When does the procedure for Female Genital Mutilation happen? Why? a. It varies. In some areas,
FGM is performed as an infant –it can be done as soon as a few days old. In other places, it may
take place during childhood, at the time of marriage, during a woman's first pregnancy or after the
birth of her first child. Most places today practice between 0–15 years old. There is no specific
reason as to why it is practiced so young but a main 5. Does FGM become more of a human rights
issue than a woman's rights issue, due to its body mutilation? a. It is not more of one than the other.
Female Genital Mutilation is acknowledged worldwide as a defilement of the human rights of girls
and women. It reveals established inequality between sexes, and institutes an extreme method of
discrimination against women and girls. 6. Why do people support FGM still today? a. People that
support FGM are mainly the elders in a family and they believe in "good tradition". They also
believe that that is the only way to ensure purity and virginity in a woman. There are also arguments
that men are circumcised also to help reduce the spread of AIDS. Also, when the woman who is cut
gets undone it marks her passage of being a woman not a girl
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Essay on self mutilation
Main Entry: self–mutilation
Pronunciation: –"myüt–&–'lA–sh&n
Function: noun
: injury or disfigurement of oneself
Psychological characteristics of self–injurers
Hate themselves, feel inadequate
Tend to suppress rage
Are usually angry , most of the time at themselves
Are very sensitive to rejection
Have aggressive feelings which usually get turned inward
Are anxious and irritable
Tend to be depressed suicidal and self destructive
Are bad at controlling impulses, and do things for how ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Cutting is a very touchy subject, people don't like to talk about it and because of that people tend to
feel that they are the only one in the world who does it. Now because of the internet and such people
can become more aware of others all around that world who do it too. They can become more aware
about why they feel the need to cut and by identifying the problem help to find a way to stop. I have
conducted two personal interviews of females between the ages of 13–18 who wish to remain
anonymous. They went as follows...
Why cut? "Many reasons, depression mental unstableness, boredom."
Is it addictive? "Yes Very. Actually I started by accident, found a knife and wanted to see it was
sharp, turns out its was, lol... It actually felt really good and I just started doing it more and more."
Is it dangerous? "Well sure it is a bit. But I guess that's kind of what draws people to it. But it's not
really bad if you use the proper precautions and such. You don't just go out to the shed and grab a
rusty blade and start going at it, unless you're suicidal and want to get tetanus. Lol"
So you're not suicidal? "Hell No! I don't want to die! You know that expression whatever doesn't kill
you, only makes you stronger? It's kind of like that, because with me, it's like when something goes
wrong it's my fault and I'm not good enough, and cutting makes me a better, stronger."
Nature or
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Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper
Female Genital Mutilation is a very large issue in many countries around the world. Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM) "refers to all procedures including partial or total removal of the external female
genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons" (WHO, 1). There are
four types of FGM, but type I and II are the most common for women and children to partake in.
There are about 100–140 million girls and women who are subjected to this harmful practice around
the world" (WHO, 1). This practice has been a part of the cultural norms of many societies since the
pre–colonial time and is still a major issue for the countries that participate in this harmful practice.
Genital Mutilation is most prevalent on the continent ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
FGM is a global issue with slow decline of the prevalence, but as these organizations work together,
they can great an even greater awareness to the issue. The strengths that the NCTPE had was all of
the outreach activities that they proved to create awareness and education to women and men about
this global issue. Another strength is their philosophies for FGM. They want to help the women and
children who suffer from FGM and help them have a healthy lifestyle and body. Not only is their
philosophy very positive and influential, but so is there logo. The logo symbolizes a piece of the
process for FGM, a piece of the effects of FGM and the what should be done to help prevent these
women and children from genital mutilation. One downfall to the NCTPE and many other
organizations is the fact that no matter how well developed their philosophies are there will continue
to be a very slow decline in the prevalence and the complete elimination of FGM will take a very
long time to achieve. I think that this can be related back to the book in a way that gender equality,
no matter the topic has taken a very long time to achieve. Whether this be in equal pay, voting rights
or sexual violence and assault, this issues have and will continue to slowly get better. All of these
issues are global and can really have an impact on women, organizations and governmental policies
will only slowly begin to change. All of these organizations that are based for the equal rights of
women work hard every day so that women can soon have the same rights as men. I think that
NCTPE is working to allow these women and young children to have control over their body and
not feel culturally obligated to do something that harms their
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Female Genital Mutilation
Imagine this! Being either a young girl or a woman forcefully bound against your will while elders
perform a procedure called Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). The young girls and women who are
forced to have this procedure done not only loses their rights to sexual pleasure but their rights are
sliced, chopped, punctured, and finally burnt away. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) otherwise
known as Female Genital Circumcision (FGC) is also a controversial topic in Western societies.
This paper will examine the history of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), hegemonic perspective on
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), health consequences of having this procedure done, how Female
Genital Mutilation (FGM) affects women's sexual function, and women who ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
242–251). Since Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is such a dangerous procedure, why do
individuals continually perform this procedure on young girls? In certain societies and culture,
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a rite of passage and the young girls are aware of the procedure
(Nawal, 2008, pp. 135–139). Furthermore, the societies and cultures who partake in this procedure
as a rite of passage, religious reasons, so the girls will not be promiscuous before they get married,
so the men's penis does not fall off, and men in certain societies would prefer their wife to be
circumcised (Mascia–Lees 2010, pp. 159). Even though certain societies and cultures have their
reasoning for performing Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), FGM can cause medical,
psychological, and pyscho–sexual consequences (Reyners, 2004, pp. 242–251). According to
Reyners (2004) most of the girls and women who had Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) type three
conducted, they tend to experience heavily affected reproductive and urological functioning.
Furthermore, according to Reyners (2004) also recommended if any woman is pregnant and has had
any form of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) done, they should be monitored for their safety as
well as the infants. Throughout various societies, cultures, and different situations, people have their
own opinions and ideas on what is normal and abnormal sexual behavior. It
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Essay on Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision, is a destructive and invasive
procedure involving the removal or alteration of female genital. The procedure is carried out at a
variety of ages, ranging from shortly after birth to some time during the first pregnancy, but most
commonly occurs between the ages of four and eight. There are three main types of FGC that are
practiced: Type I (Sunna circumcision), Type II (Excision), and Type III (Infibulation). These three
operation range in intensity, from the "mildness" of Type I, to the extreme Type III.
The practice occurs in Africa, the Middle East, parts of Asia, and in immigrant communities in
Europe and North America. An estimated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This procedure is often used by countries that are prohibited from using the more extreme
procedures. Clitoridectomy was invented by Sudanese midwives as a compromise when British
legislation forbade the more extreme operations in 1946. (2)
Infibulation (a.k.a. Pharaonic circumcision) is the third and most dramatic procedure of FGM's; it
has been banned in some countries but still exists in others. This most extreme form consists of the
removal of the clitoris, the adjacent labia minora, labia majora, and the urethral and vaginal
openings are cut away. The vagina is then stitched or held together with thorns, leaving a small
opening for menstruation and urination. To engage in intercourse the woman is then cut open by her
husband on their wedding night. The woman's vagina is often restitched if her husband leaves on a
long trip to secure fidelity. Female Genital Mutilations are mostly done without anesthesia and in
unsanitary conditions where instruments such as unsterilized razor blades, tin lids, scissors, kitchen
knives, and broken glass are used. (3)These instruments are frequently used on several girls in
succession and are rarely cleaned.
In various cultures there exist different "justifications" for Female Genital Mutilation including
preserving cultural and gender identity, controlling women sexuality, and other
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Female Genital Mutilation Essay
Today alone 6000 girls around the world are being held down screaming, crying, and blacking out
from the pain pleading for their elders to stop. Their voices fall on deaf ears as their right to sexual
pleasure is sliced, chopped, pricked, scraped and burnt away. Female genital mutilation also known
as female circumcision is the focus of my speech today. By the time I finish speaking, you will agree
that this has got to stop! Today I will explain what FGM is; what are the effects of the procedure and
why it is still being performed today. So going back.... What is female Genital Mutilation? FGM is a
procedure of partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female
genital organs. There are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Nomad girls in Somalia are taken into the desert. Plonked under a little bit of shade, with their legs
bound from thigh to ankle for 7–14 days. The girls fading in and out of consciousness from the
intense heat and the loss of blood. The pain to urinate through the open wound is unbearable and
many girls try to go days without passing fluids, this creates the urinary infections. Traditional herbs
are rubbed into the wound, and if the vulva doesn't heal or the opening is still too big they are often
re–operated on. But why would someone be able to do something so cruel to a little girl? Some
believe that it is a religious practise. In all the information that i found, this statement was clearly
incorrect. In the bible and the Qur'an there is NO instruction or writing which requires the removal
of female parts. FGM is expected to have been preformed for the last 1400 years. The Muslims
believe it started during what they call 'al–gahiliyyah' (era of ignorance). Parts of Somalia believe
you have to have it done to be allegeable for a husband. The men are the ones
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Mutilation In The Lottery
Mutilation is to injure, disfigure, or make imperfect by removing or irreparably damaging parts. This
includes female genital mutilation, flagellation, wheeling but also, circumcision, piercing and
tattooing. With that being mind, this essay will look at how mutilation correlates with the short story
of "The Lottery" Many of the gruemsoly heinous mutilations like the lttery, the lovers say it is
tradition to countiune practicing it. Many mutliations like the lottery are only done only to stasfy the
mind of a belef, enterantment and other reasons not pertaining to actually physically benefting or a
necessity to life. Mutliation has always been pratcide by humans throughtout history and has
alwayas been a big part of human culture. Mutilation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
For example, in Judaism, it is the initiation into the Jewish community and represents the covenant
between God and Abraham and between God and the Jews. The command is compulsory for Jews
but it is not required for Reform Jewish. This is a belief as there is no evidence of a God but is a
strong belief among Jews therefore they practice it. Like the Jewish belief of the circumcison, The
Lottery pratcing the ritual of killing ahuman being to stasify the "need" in their mind because "it is
tradition so it must happen," but the ritual serves no factual benefit.
Mutiliations has always has been an intergral part of human history. For example, In China, from the
Tang dynasty (AD 618–907) until the 20th century, many Chinese girls during early childhood had
their feets binded together very tightly, which deformed the feet to a very small size compared to a
"normal" feet to convey aesthetic ideal. Like the foot binding tradition of China, "the lottery" has
been an integral part of many communities in the USA for
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Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper
Female genital mutilation is a very disturbing act that we must eliminate; even if will have to pull
this bull by its horns. According to Sarah Boseley, health editor at World Health Organization
explains, female genital mutilation is a procedure that involve partial or total removal of the external
female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons. Sadly, this act
is recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. In addition, as per World Health
Organization, this practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other
central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths (Mutilation). However, this is a
traditional practice which has been practiced by several ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Muthuso is a process of cutting the vaginal flesh of the mother by a traditional healer. The flesh is
mixed with black powder and oil and applied on the child's head to prevent goni. Goni has been
described as a swelling on the back of a child's head. The Venda people believe that goni can only be
cured using the vaginal flesh of the child's mother" (Kitui). Kitui writes that those women who have
experienced female genital mutilation bleed excessively after the ceremony. Again, she insists that,
they lack postnatal care in Venda community. Consequently, from substandard treatment some
women easily succumb to death because they still use traditional
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Female Genital Mutilation
Outline of the problem
FGM is a practice which is rooted into the Masaai traditions and culture for decades. It is a
procedure that involves partial removal of the female genital organs. It is now recognized on an
international basis as a violation of the human rights of girls and women and more importantly
highlights an extreme form of discrimination against women. This practice which is performed at a
young age violates the individual's security and health rights. The treatment is inhumane and often
leads to torturous consequences with some often resulting in death. The WHO (2013) statistics have
revealed that an estimated 100 to 140 million women, girls and children around the world have
under–gone this painful procedure with disabling consequences and long term risks and another 3
million girls are at risk of mutilation each year. FGM is seen as an annual ceremony for the
community who perceive it as a celebration of adolescence. Within the Maasai community 99% of
women have under–gone this procedure most of which are between the age of 12– 14. The
procedure is carried out with a sharp instrument known as 'ormurunya' after which paste and milk
fat is applied to stop bleeding. Women cannot voice their opinion and those who refuse to undergo
the procedure are commonly seen as having shunned their culture and therefore face a high risk of
being unaccepted by the family and being isolated from the community. There are various reasons to
why this procedure is practiced most
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Female Geniital Mutilation
Female genital mutilation is considered intentionally alter or cause injuring the female genital
organs. When females get their genitals remove they lack the professional help of a doctor or
hospital. When females go through this procedure they normally bleed a lot and sometimes get
infections. When females get this procedure done they can also lead to infertility issues which can
cause women to have complication when given child birth and have a high rate in newborn death.
There are over 20 countries in Africa and eastern where female genital mutilation is happening.
There are more than 125 million girls who are affected in these children. Females who experience
this are between the age of infancy and 15 years of age. Female genital mutilation ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
Since most of these case are not from the United States it make it harder for family or children to
obtain from this practice because it's a cultural ritual. If the family is present in the United States, I
will let them know that this cannot be done due to the fact that it's a violation of a person rights. I
will have to tell the parents that if they chose to have this done they can face charge for child abuse
and neglect since they had this done without the proper consent of a doctor. Women needs to know
that they have rights to voices their opinion an say NO if they don't want to have this done. I will
make it my best to remove children from this environment if the home situation is not fit for them to
live
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Male Genital Mutilation Essay

  • 1. Male Genital Mutilation Essay Male Genital Mutilation Female genital mutilation in foreign countries is a hot topic that many people stand up against. It is frowned upon by western civilization and there are entire organizations coming to the rescue of female genital mutilation victims, yet very few stand up against male circumcision. If female genital mutilation is illegal, why isn't male genital mutilation? Circumcision is a procedure done primarily on infant males, in which the foreskin is surgically separated from the glans and cut off. It started out as a religious procedure but was eventually adopted by medical personnel and preformed regularly on male infants in the US. The removing of the foreskin is painful, can cause severe damage, bleeding, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With this logic, as the years go on male genital mutilation would eventually be performed on nearly all babies in the US. I was given no additional information as to why it should be done, no pros and cons, and no medical proof to back up her reasoning for why I should have my infant circumcised. My experience with this nurse spiked my curiosity; I was appalled that doctors and nurses just assumed I would blindly let them permanently take off a part of my child's genitals, acting as if it was routine like the cutting of a baby's umbilical ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is the summarized name given to multiple procedures that involve partial or total removal of the female genitalia, or other injuries to the female genitals for non–medical reasons. The act of FGM is carried out for traditional purposes only. Women and young girls are both subjected to this act of brutality. This paper will take a more in depth look at FGM and the psychological repercussions, the cultural differences, and the violation of human rights that are all associated with it. As stated in the introduction, FGM is the summarized name given to procedures that deal with the surgical mutilation of the female genitals. There are 4 different types of FGM procedures. Type 1 is commonly referred to as a clitoridectomy; the partial or ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The psychological problems that FGM can cause include, but not limited to: depression, anxiety, low self–esteem, or post–traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Now, FGM is mostly done on young girls, who's age can range anywhere from infancy to 15 years old. Even though death is listed as a possible immediate complication of FGM, it can also be placed as a long–term possibility as well, especially if mental health problems like depression, PTSD, or low self–esteem are involved. A young teenage girl who is depressed and may feel like a social outcast, even though FGM is common practice in 29 different African countries and most females in those countries have tragically gone through the same procedures, could easily kill herself because of how she feels and what she's been through. But, there are some victims who have accepted what has happened to them and decided to live and fight FGM. Like Jawahir Cumar, a victim of FGM, who founded the "Stop Mutilation" organization in 1996 that helps "prevent other girls and women from having similar experiences" ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Female Genital Mutilation Essay Female Genital Mutilation, shortened to FGM in most medical texts, is "collective name given to several different traditional practices that involve the cutting of female genitals." FGM is a common cultural practice in many parts of the world, especially Africa and Asia that was established hundreds of years ago. There are many different types of FGM, ranging from clitoridectomy, to cutting and infibulations (Skaine 7). Even though these procedures are accepted in the areas they are practiced, FGM has become a human rights discussion resurfacing in recent years because the procedures serve no purpose. Female Genital Mutilation is an unethical practice that should be outlawed throughout the entire world. FGM, specifically infibulation, is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The WHO concluded that "female genital mutilation can adversely affect birth outcomes" and that "an additional one to two babies die per 100 deliveries as a result of the practice" in Africa (Australian National University). However, future problems aren't necessarily the biggest issue. Female Genital Mutilation procedures are unnecessary medical procedures that put women in a state of discomfort and they are very dangerous. There are many consequences to FGM including, but not limited to, "scarring, infertility, painful sexual intercourse, rupture of the vaginal walls, chronic uterine and vaginal infections, bladder incontinence, dysmenorrheal and obstruction of the flow of menstrual blood" (Skaine 23). In places where FGM is illegal, such as Segal, the procedures have not ceased to exist. Therefore, women and girls are often undergoing Female Circumcisions from unlicensed doctors and sometimes with unsterile equipment. Even if nothing goes wrong physically, there is a risk of psychological and social trauma. According to a WHO study in Sudan, FGM may leave lasting psychological effects. This study concluded that many women feel incomplete and they are more likely to have anxiety and depression (27). Ultimately, there is no positive effect on the female anatomy or psyche from FGM. Thomas Donaldson, a business philosopher, came up with 10 basic human rights in his book The Ethics of International Business, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Female Genitalia Mutilation ( Fgm ) Female Genitalia mutilation (FGM) includes the cutting to female genital organs for non–medical reasons. The procedure is common in some African and Middle Eastern countries that practice FGM usually as a cultural custom. Commonly, the procedure is performed on girls as a rite of passage and a way to keep a woman faithful to her husband. Women are seen as unclean if they have not undergone the surgery, and therefore it can be difficult for them to find a husband . According to the World Health Organization, Africa has the greatest number of FGM cases where between around 125 million have undergone the painful surgery (see appendix A) . The surgery is extremely painful especially when considering the absence of anesthesia . In addition, the procedure is often done with unsanitary tools and can have horrible health effects on the women including blood loss, infections and pregnancy problems. FGM violates several rights listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights including "no one has the right to hurt or torture you", "right to be free from gender discrimination", and the "right to life and physical integrity" . Considering the violation of rights occurring in countries practicing FGM, the debate remains to what extent the United Nations should get involved in a cultural issue that is an integral aspect of many societies. Therefore, is it possible to agree on a definition of human rights given the diversity of values by people around the world? Involvement in another ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Theories Of Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation, is a topic which has caused many controversies worldwide. Female Genital Mutilation is a tradition since antiquity, which occurs in twenty eight countries in Africa, and among certain communities in the Middle East, and Asia. The latitude of this issue is massive. The United Nations estimates that this practice has been performed on about 140 million females, who encounter immediate complications of shock, infections, damage to the urethra, scar formation, tetanus, bladder infections, HIV, along with long –term complications that lead to death (Lauren V, 2011). It is estimated that 3 million girls are at risk annually! During this paper, I will discuss in depth the two ethical theories (Deontology and Utilitarianism). These ethical theories will be a guide, to help understand the moral issues of Female Mutilation, and whether one can view female mutilation to be right or wrong. Aside from the ethical theories, I ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... According to the World Health Organization (WHO), female genital mutilation consist of a non– medical procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs (Lauren V, 2011).Typically girls from two weeks old, through fourteen years old, are affected by this procedure. The mutilations are conducted under non–sterile conditions; by using razors, knifes, scissors etc.; and without any anesthesia. Now that we know little about the mutilation process these females undergoes; let's ask ourselves "Why would someone ever agree to conduct such procedure on their own will?" If mutilation emphasizes the clear violation of human rights, why is this procedure being implemented in many different countries? Well, this issue is due to different ethical, and moral perspective; one may believe that female mutilation is morally right; while others may think it's a violation of human rights. Let's first explore the ethical theories on this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Female Genitalia Mutilation Essays Female Genitalia Mutilation Picture this, a young innocent girl, between the age of eight and twelve, running around, playing, and having a good time. Then she is snatched away to a foul hut, whose floor is nothing but dirt. Once in the hut, the helpless girl is stripped of all her clothing and pinned to the dirt floor. Her tiny legs are spread and held wide apart with a tight grasp. Soon afterward, a midwife, with no education in human anatomy or medicine, enters the hut and says a prayer. While the young girl is held down in this most vulnerable position the midwife takes a handful of sand and rubs it all over the girl's genitals (Walker 106). With no anesthetics and a jagged rock, that merely has a sharpened edge, the midwife ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This form of FGM is called female circumcision or Sunna circumcision. Another form of female genitalia mutilation is called excision or clitoridectomy. Removing the entire clitoris and either part or all of the labia minora is performed in this type of mutilation. Intermediate circumcision, another form of FGM, is very similar to a clitoridectomy. The difference is that in addition to the removal of the clitoris and part or all of the labia minora, that part or all of the labia majora is also removed. The last and most severe form of FGM is called infibulation or pharaonic circumcision. This includes the removal of both the clitoris and the labia minora, as well as much of the labia majora. Then the remaining sides are sewn together (Walker 367). This ritual begins with the facilitator praying and singing praises. Then, as a woman identified as P.K. retells her dreadful experience, she was instructed to lie down on a mat. P.K. says that no sooner had her frail, young, legs hit the mat they were tightly grasped by heavy hands and spread wide apart. Her legs and arms were both immobilized. Next, she tells that a foreign substance was rubbed all over her genital organs and that it caused a very unpleasant sensation. She later discovered that the foreign substance was sand and that it was used in order to assist in the operation. P.K. goes on to tell that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Female Genital Mutilation Essay Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation is believed to have started in Egypt 2,000 years ago and spread from there. Only a few years ago, FGM was considered a cultural tradition, but now the United Nations has labeled it as a violation of human rights. Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States has declared Female Genital Mutilation grounds for seeking asylum and is a punishable offense (1). Many of us never heard of Female Genital Mutilation until the story of Kauziya Kasinga, a woman from West Africa. Her father did not believe in polygamy, forced marriage, or "female circumcision". He died when she was 17 and the father's sister inherited the home, banished the mother, ended Fauziya's schooling, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is sometimes opened to allow childbirth, but is sewn up again. In some cultures, the husband will cut her open to have sex with her. In males, you would have to remove the entire penis and testicles (castration) to compare this with infibualtion (3). This was done in the Catholic Church to get men to sing soprano. It is no longer permitted and has been outlawed by the Pope. It was also done to men who worked in harems so that they would not have sex with the girls. Female genial mutilation is mainly practiced in the African culture. It is also practiced in Christian, Judaism, Aboriginal, and Islamic cultures. FGM is not religious, but is a social custom (4). In some countries it is almost universal. There are over 30 million women currently living in Nigeria that have been circumcised and 24 million in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Some groups say that 114 to 130 million women worldwide have had the operation. FGM has spread worldwide with immigrants coming from Africa and other nations that accept this practice. It is outlawed in the United States, but the practice is still done. Specialists in Denver, CO reported in 1998 that at least 6,000 immigrants have settled in the area from African countries, which widely practices FGM. Dr. Terry Dunn, director of a women's clinic in that city commented: "I know of one patient where it was clear it was performed in this country." About 4 mutilation cases are seen each year at the clinic (5). Female Genital ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. ##usationing And Forms Of Self-Mutilation Female offenders often have psychological and emotional problems that they do not know how to cope with, as a result of this they turn to self–harm also referred to as self–mutilation (Roe– Sepowitz, 2007). Self–mutilation is said to occur when the individual intentionally physically harms themselves or intentionally causes an injury to their body (Roe–Sepowitz, 2007). This paper will explore the causation, reasoning and forms of self–mutilation done by female inmates. As well as misconceptions, protocols and programs implemented by correctional facilities that can arguably be deemed as unproductive in helping these women cope with their emotional and psychological issues. Forms of Self–Mutilation Self– mutilation can come in many forms and variations, unfortunately there are few studies and preventative measures on how to stop, acknowledge and treat self–inflicted harm done by female correctional clients (Roe– Sepowitz, 2007). Female correctional clients often self–mutilate by "cutting, burning, inserting objects, head banging, drinking poisons, or hitting themselves" (Roe– Sepowitz, 2007). History and Characteristics of Self Mutilators Female correctional clients who had traumatic childhood experiences, life struggles and difficulties have a direct association in the development of self–mutilation as a form of a coping mechanism. (Roe– Shepowitz, 2007). Female correctional clients whose childhood experiences classify as traumatic, experienced psychological, emotional, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Female Circumcision Research Paper Female circumcision is a ritualized form of child abuse and violence against women, it is a violation of human rights. Firstly, demonstrated is a map of where female genital mutilation is happening in the parts of Africa. The map introduces that Somalia is the most well–known spot there is 98% of prevalence of female genital mutilation. This leads to what female circumcision actually is. Female circumcision or genital mutilation, is an aggregate removing of the outside female genitalia for nonmedical reasons. It has been practiced for a considerable length of time in parts of Africa particularly in Somalia, as an element of a rite of passage preparing young girls for womanhood and marriage. Female genital mutilation can cause extreme bleeding, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This solution is suggested by a United Nations public health arm called World Health Organisation also most commonly referred to as 'WHO'. Building evidence does in fact help people to examine their own beliefs and values related to the practice in a way which does not seem threatening or harsh. Educational sessions will empower women to exchange the traumatic experiences they have been through and help them reveal and share their feeling and examine the different attitudes reflected towards female genital mutilation in the community. Increasing access to education is another key strategy because educated women are less likely to allow their daughters to be cut. This is certainly a wonderful idea as women can relate to other women about their experiences however, i don't think this is the best conceivable thought out there because teaching the girls out there in Somalia would not help as much because they do not have a word to say when it comes to these matters. This is because it is the girls' parents who initiate the entire procedure and ensure that females experience genital mutilation to keep up their family notoriety and to set her up for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC) and female circumcision, is the removal of part or the entire external female genitalia or any injury to the female genital organ with no medical reasoning. The practice of circumcision is entrenched in gender inequality and efforts to control women's sexuality. It is believed to bring about honor, purity, and cleanliness; however, FGM/FGC is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep–rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of rights of children. The practice also violates a woman's right to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Committee on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Committee on the Rights of the Child and the Human Rights Committee are active in condemning the practice and are continuously making recommendations on how to combat it, including criminalization of the practice. The Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women issued its General Recommendation on Female Circumcision (General Recommendation No 14) that requires states to take appreciate action and implement effective measures in eradicating the practice. It also requests for them to provide information about measures being taken to eliminate the FGM/FGC within those communities that are still actively practicing it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Effects Of Female Genital Mutilation How does Female Genital Mutilation effect young girls and women? Every year, Millions of young girls in third world countries fall victim to Female Circumcision also known as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep–rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes as an extreme form of discrimination against women. This procedure does not only tarnish the female persona and natural attributes, but effects the victims in various ways such as: Physically, Mentally, and Emotionally. According to the Who, more than 125 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGM is concentrated. The procedure ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Women and girls who have undergone the procedure have also been known to experience memory loss, and blackouts as a result of post–traumatic stress. Not only that, but if a girl has undergone Type 3 cutting, otherwise known as infibulation, she will eventually have to re–live the procedure when she is cut open and re–sewn for sexual intercourse, and later child birth if she becomes pregnant. Sexual experience can be both painful and traumatic. For those women who have undergone Type 3, otherwise known as infibulation, the pain is even worse, as a hard plug of scar tissue is formed over where there was once the soft opening of the vagina. de–infibulation is the process in which women are physically cut open in order to allow penetration. Even if the woman is not cut open medically, the hole will be too small to be opened without force. According to Daughters of Eve, for many women, it is not only the first instance of sexual intercourse that causes pain. The scar tissue around the vagina will continue to cause pain and discomfort during sex throughout a woman's lifetime, and often this not only affects her, but also her partner who may experience discomfort and stress at ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper Female genital mutilation is a very disturbing act that we must eliminate; even if will have to pull this bull by its horns. According to Sarah Boseley, health editor at The Guardian explains, female genital mutilation is a procedure that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons. Sadly, this act is recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. In addition, as per World Health Organization, this practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who commonly play other central roles in communities like attending childbirths (Mutilation). However, this is a traditional practice which has been practiced by several generations in many communities and cultures. Moreover, the operation is usually performed at a very youthful age. Female genital mutilation is classified into four major types: clitoridectomy known as type one, excision as type two, infibulation as type three, and the forth type includes type two and three combined. Type one: Frequently referred to as clitoridectomy; this is the partial or total removal of the clitoris. Clitoris is a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals. In very scarce cases, this type of circumcision also involves the removal of the prepuce ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Coupled with this analysis, 100 to 140 million women and girls are thought to be living with the consequences of female genital mutilation (Boseley). This act makes me sick. Moreover, Boseley argues that female circumcision violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. The Effects Of Female Genital Mutilation The phrase "female genital mutilation," the practice of removing portions of Females' it was in fact, the repetition of a "social ritual" which occurs on a yearly basis to millions of women, girls, and infants. The history of FGM is not well known, but the practice dated back at least 2000 years. It is not known when or where the tradition of Female Genital Mutilation originated from. It was believed that it was practiced in ancient Egypt as a sign of distinction amongst the aristocracy.What common patterns/effects arise from the impact of the practice of female Genital Mutilation? Common effects/patterns that arise from the practice of FGM is the effects of physical, and emotional health, and its impact on the women who have been through ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... According to the article THE IMPACT OF FGM it states ¨According to the WHO, women who have experienced the most extreme form of FGC (infibulation) are 70% more likely to experience post– partum hemorrhage, and 30% more likely to require a caesarean section.".The women who have been through FGM experienced an increased risk of childbirth complications. Also, according to the article THE IMPACT OF FGM it states that "The knock–on effects of leaving school at a young age are well–documented and include earning less, and having less control and agency over life choices including marriage, pregnancy, and family planning.". The woman who has been through FGM had to leave school at an early age and as they miss the opportunity of education they have less control over their lives because women with no education cannot make living so they will have to marry at a young age. To summarize FGM impacted a lot of women (girls) lives and I believe that because of FGM there are women whose lives have been ruined because they had to undergo it at a young age or were forced to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. The Practice Of Genital Mutilation Final Paper The practice of genital mutilation is a cultural tradition performed across central Africa, in the southern Sahara, and in parts of the Middle East. Most women who have experienced FGC live in one of the 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East where FGC is practiced. Almost one– half of women who have experienced FGC live in Egypt or Ethiopia. To a lesser degree, FGC is practiced in Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, and India. Some immigrants practice various forms of FGC in other parts of the world, including Australia, Cana–da, New Zealand, the United States, and in European nations. Circumcision is a religious or cultural ritual for many Jewish and Islamic families, as well as certain aboriginal tribes in Africa and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Female circumcision in Africa is completed in order to prove that the female is going to be able to endure life's hardships, and that she will be able to handle responsibility when older. Muslims believe females must get circumcised in order to curb the female's sexual desire. After the procedure, the women are expected to get married and start their own families. This procedure is usually done on young girls between infancy and the age of 15, most likely before puberty starts. The procedure is traditionally carried out by a woman with no medical training. Anesthetics and antiseptic treatments are not normally used, and the practice is usually carried out using knives, scissors, and scalpels, pieces of glass or razor blades. Girls are sometimes put down in restraints. There are some immediate and long–term effects to this procedure including, severe pain, shock, bleeding, HIV and hepatitis, abnormal periods, complication in pregnancy and pain in sex. It can also sometimes lead to death. Surgery can be performed to open up the lower vagina called the "reversal", although it cannot restore sensitive tissue that has been removed. Surgery may be necessary for women who are unable to have intercourse, as the vagina is too narrow. In addition, some pregnant women who have had FGM will need to have their lower vagina opened up before labor, to allow a safer birth. FGM increases the risk of the vagina tearing during delivery, which causes damage and can lead to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Genital Mutilation Definition Maintaing a relativist perspective in the study of human rights means that one must analyze aspects of culture and contrast them to theories of morality without coming to an absolute truth of what is believed to be right or wrong. Cultural relativists acknowledge that while all human beings who inhabit the earth should have their human rights valued and respected, cultures vary greatly, and what may not be acceptable in one region might be the norm in another. Especially considering the fact that the concept of human rights is a western ideal that is theoretically accepted by some, but not necessarily adopted in the culture as a whole. In analyzing the human rights topic of female genital mutilation (FGM), cultural relativists Steiner and Alston ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Under this proposal for change, three main rights were established which include women's rights, the rights of children, and the right to good ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Female Genital Mutilation Analysis The article, Female Genital Mutilation Is a Canadian Issue Too, explores how the act of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a social justice issues beyond the foreign nations it is associated with. While FGM is associated with countries in Africa and the Middle East where it is seen as the norm, we see cases in our modern and progressive nation. The article first defines FGM as girls being forced to have some or all of their external genitalia cut off and, in some cases, having their vaginal opening sown closed. This may be performed on girls anytime from infancy to puberty and can result in multiple life threatening health complications. The article goes on to explain how the act is deeply rooted in different cultures but is also experienced ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Yes, the article speaks to how FGM is enacted across the world but it does not speak to efforts made internationally to end this widespread issue. Briefly, the role of the United Nations is mentioned as "In December the UN unanimously passed a resolution banning the practice" (Kielburger). Beyond this one line, there is no mention of international development of the attempted ending of FGM. I understand this article was written by two Canadians on the Canada specific section of the publication but I would have appreciated a little more global awareness. How are other developed nations such as the United States or United Nations dealing with this issue? What are more specific plans made by international organizations like the UN doing to follow their general statements? I also understand that this article was written in 2013 and we now have more context and information on this issue but I still wanted more depth from the article. Perhaps, a follow–up style article would be appropriate to see how the matter has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Female Genital Mutilation Essay Females as a general population have been faced with discrimination across the ages. In recent history, women have begun to assert their freedom and independence from the male oriented traditions that have spanned generations. In industrialized countries the discrimination of women has diminished, but a serious form of violation of human rights occurs sometimes in parts of the world, such as Africa, the Middle East, and even sometimes the United States and other industrialized countries in North America and Europe. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an umbrella term for three subtypes of crimes committed against women as a part of various coming of age rituals for young girls in certain patriarchal communities in Africa, spreading through ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... These international agencies work together, along with other missionary workers to eliminate female circumcision, as it is also called, from its entirety from the world due to its view as an extreme form of discrimination against women. No woman should be subjected to the cruel practice, where young girls are held down by their elders, violated in such a way to remove an organ in their sacred area and later subjected to the pain that sexual intercourse and childbirth become by a generational practice. The past has shown that women were the leaders of the society. Childbirth was mysterious situation, but highly desired by all thus women were goddesses. Sometime in the last five thousand years, men discovered the rule they could have. Here began the trials a woman faces through the newly discovered patriarchal way. Female mutilation began as a way to reduce the power women could hold, a discrimination that lead to the pain and suffering of thousands, millions of women across the ages. Today, some where between one hundred to one hundred forty women have been subjected to this awful treatment created by men as a way to hold power over the women who gave them life. During the Enlightenment period, John Locke, an English philosopher, said, "All mankind... being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions." No should be harmed because of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Female Genital Mutilation And Women Chapter one: Introduction 1.1 Background: Female Genital Mutilation refers to several manners of conducting operations of women and girls, involving the partial or total removal of external genitalia. This practice is considered a traditional practice amongst many people and communities throughout the world. While the practice has been ongoing for centuries it has been deemed a human rights violation on the grounds that it inflicts harm on females, including damaging them in a physChapter one: Introduction 1.1 Background: Female Genital Mutilation refers to several manners of conducting operations of women and girls, involving the partial or total removal of external genitalia. This practice is considered a traditional practice amongst many people and communities throughout the world. While the practice has been ongoing for centuries it has been deemed a human rights violation on the grounds that it inflicts harm on females, including damaging them in a physical, sexual, and psychological manner. These rights violations fall under The Convention of the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa. 1.2 Statement of the problem: Female Genital Mutilation has been executed over generations due to the social dynamics which have made it difficult for girls, and their families to abandon the practice. The practice has no health ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. What´s Genital Mutilation? Genital mutilation, predominantly female gender mutilation has become a serious perplexing matter and dilemma that a majority of young women around the world are facing. Although both genders are disturbed by genital mutilation, it primarily affects infants up until women that are twenty–five years of age. Genital mutilation is frequently performed in about twenty–five African countries. Genital mutilation is communal and expressed in Somalia, Mali, Egypt, Sudan, etc. Genital mutilation is predominant and widespread in a majority of rural areas as well as villages throughout Africa. Astonishingly, genital mutilation is likewise dominant in the United States, Canada and England. This is owed to the fact that many immigrants from contributing ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Genital mutilation encompasses the partial or complete removal of external genitalia for non– medical purposes. Genital mutilation is an ample defilement of an individual's sexuality. Not only is genital mutilation an invasion of a females sexuality, it also attacks and raids her rights, wellbeing, condition and veracity. The key determination of genital mutilation is carried out in order to control a woman's sexual cravings. Numerous countries supposes that the complex act of genital mutilation acts to confirm that a women upholds and preserves her virginity before she is married and it is also believed to intensify a males sexual pleasures. Genital mutilation is used and seen as a "right of passage". When it comes to females and it is seen as an act of womanhood. In some countries, it is seen in a hygienic aspect, believed to keep and provide females with a sense of purity. Various Middle Eastern countries believed that gender mutilation stipulates a smoother exterior as well as a façade. It is believed to make females "clean" in a sense. Additionally, gender mutilation is completed in anticipations to sustain females from abstaining from ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Essay about self mutilation Self Mutilation It is estimated that one out of every 50 teens between the ages of 13 and 19 regularly practice self– abusive behavior with a reported 2 million cases in the US alone in 2004. Self–mutilation is defined as the direct and deliberate destructive alteration of one's own body tissue, without conscious suicidal intent. It is considered a clinical disorder. Self mutilation is not a suicide attempt. It is an attempt for one to gain control over their life and cope with stress, pain, fear, and anxiety. Self mutilatory behaviors are cries for help. Self–abusive teens tend to internalize any conflicts with friends, school or parents as they do not want to "cause trouble" for anyone. Typical self mutilators are middle to upper class, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Burning is the practice of placing cigarettes, hot metal, lighters, or lit matches to the skin and causing a burn. The practice of wound interference is done by creating a wound, whether it is a cut, burn, bruise, or bump, and preventing it from healing by tearing, picking or pushing on the wound. Picking is done when a self–mutilator literally "picks" at their skin until a wound is created and bleeds. Characteristics of self mutilators include low self esteem, hypersensitivity, and chronic self anger. Many self mutilators are prone to have borderline personality disorder, mood swings, and inconsistent relationships. They often don't come home, cry a lot, and withdraw themselves socially. They will also give verbal clues such as talking about their lack of a future. Explosive anger, feelings of emptiness, perfectionism, and isolation are also symptoms or self injurious behavior. Many self injurers will wear long sleeve shirts and pants constantly even in warm weather and have unexplained or unexplainable wounds. The presence of a knife, lighter, or matches in a purse or book bag with no logical explanation for its being there, making excuses for injuries, wanted to do own laundry, and blood or burn stains on the inside of clothing are also signs to look for that are common amongst self mutilators. Movie ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Genital Mutilation And Its Effects On Women genital mutilation is linked to proper sexual behavior, so by reducing the libido you reduce the chance for sexual promiscuity. Globally war 's that have taken place in the 20th and 21st centuries have caused an increase in violence and harm done to women and children, "as approximately 1 in 3 women in the world is beaten, coerced into sex, and otherwise abused" (Shaw 506). In fact rape is a common weapon in a warring nation. The United Nations Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security was adopted in 2000. "It focuses on measures to protect women and girls for gender based violence, particularly rape and other forms of sexual abuse, in situations of armed conflict. Still, some countries condone or legalize such crimes, and others accept such violence against women as necessary consequences of war and/or civil unrest, and ethnic cleansing" (Shaw 506). Unfortunately, other countries are not the only ones that have high rape rates. In the United States it is estimated that "Over 22 million women in the United States have been raped in their lifetime (Feminist). "At least 10% of all [rape and sexual assault] victims are male" (Rccmsc). "The FBI estimates that only 46% of rapes and sexual assaults are reported to the police. Factoring in unreported rapes, about 6% of rapists will ever spend a day in jail. 15 out of 16 will walk free" (Feminist). There is a shocking statistic of underage sexual assaults, abuse and rapes. "In 2006, 78,000 children were sexually abused. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. Is Female Genital Mutilation? A gender related issue that Americans are facing is Female Genital Mutilation, or FGM. It is a procedure that removes all or part of external female genitalia and injuries other female genital organs for nonmedical purposes. FGM is usually performed for cultural reasons and to make girls more suitable for marriage. It is based on a deep–rooted inequality between males and females, and it is a violation of human rights. This affects family life because it can permanently scar and harm the girl and there are no medical health benefits from FGM. In cultures where this is practiced, girls are taught that this has to be done to make them suitable for a man and for marriage and adulthood. It can also cause tension in the family if it happens to a girl at a young age when she is not old enough to understand why this was done to her and if she learns at an older age that it was not necessary. This is a complex issue because is considered a human rights violation and it is illegal in the US, however it is still happening because some cultures feel that it is necessary to perform this on their daughters. Also, because it is illegal, it can be more dangerous to the girl and there are more health risks because it is most likely being done in secret or "under the table." There are no pros to FGM and only cons because it will scar and harm the girls for life. It teaches them that they need to alter their bodies in order to be good enough for a man and there are extreme health risks ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Female Genital Mutilation Consent, in its various forms and states in certain contexts, forms a crucial part of legality and illegality, in that its existence strongly categorises the nature of an act (Tuckness 2012). If consent were established, it would be easy for the layman to conclude that an act should not be intervened with by the state. Per contra, the complexities surrounding an act go beyond these simple distinctions. The issue of intervention can to some degree be seen as problematic in its fundamental aim to represent and advocate for a particular 'victim', in spite of the circumstances of the situation, which tend to run parallel with a different narrative (Alcoff, 1992; Seth, 2001). This essay will examine the relationship between the state and female ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Mill defines harm as any action or inaction by one individual that is injurious to the interests of others. He states that: "[when] a person's conduct affects the interest of no person besides himself... there should be perfect freedom, legal and social, to do the action and stand the consequences" (Mill, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper Absolutely crazy. It is totally alarming and confounds me this is up still proceeding on the planet today.Even in countries where it has been made illegal: "Female genital mutilation was made unlawful in Egypt in 2008 however is still by and large breed. A couple of examinations suggest more than 75% of women, Muslim Christian, still have had the strategy in a couple of domains of the country." This is from the BBC where I saw a fasten which makes me consider how it is functioning for people to be so genuinely befuddled in such amazing numbers. Unmistakably, circumcision controls women's sex sound judgment. Female Genital Mutilation is shocking, odd, fierce, and purposeless. This practice should be banned for the security and protection of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We nor any more live in such out of date. This practice is relentless, for unequaled scarring, embarrassing, and outright bizarre. There is no restorative reason behind this practice, and were any on the expert side were to watch it happen, they would in all likelihood change their conclusions when they see how brutal, it truly is.I trust that female genital mutilation should be banned in light of the fact that it is an inhumane, merciless and obsolete practice that has no spot in 2012. Kids should never be subjected to such a horrifying foundation, to the point that is certain to panic them a route into their adulthood. The people who play out this practice should be arraigned to the full level of the law.Female genital mutilation should be scratched off in light of the way that it causes physical and mental harm to the female later and it is our moral commitment to help one another.Someone on the negating side said it's not our business so who let our females experience physical and mental harm.Seriously it should be repealed. I don't perceive how these people can be called "individuals" considering their non appearance of emotional wellness and their nonattendance of affections for each ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Female Genital Mutilation: Womanhood To Parallelism Research in the Disciplines Science, Medicine, and Society 355:201:M3 – Mr. Abrams Research Paper Submitted by Adiam Ghebre Female Genital Mutilation: Womanhood to Parallelism Abstract This paper will be discussing the justification for supporting the practice, female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation is a heavily embedded cultural practice that is predominantly practiced in Africa and the Middle East. As many Western civilizations oppose the practice, they fail to understand and acknowledge the cultural significance within these region's societies. In fact, they are unable to recognize the parallelism that is present within their own societies. Using cultural relativism, this paper will depict the striking similarities ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Women, who practice FGM have argued that the international laws against female genital mutilation portrays them as abusers (Khaja 690). They dispute that these laws insults not only themselves, but along with their mothers, communities, country and ancestry (Khaja 690). These attitudes demonstrated from the West are interpreted from these people as racist and demeaning. In fact, often times, Western civilizations believe that by intervening into other cultures, they believe that they have the intentions of making the indigenous people, which are 'less advanced and inferior' are then surprised was faced resistance or resentment from the people (Abusharaf 216). A problematic situation occurred in an Eastern African nation, where the people revolted when the British attempted to eradicated this long practiced and heavily embedded custom (Abusharaf 221). The British ruled Sudan as one of its colonies and in the 1940s, the British passed a law called 'Pharaonic circumcision", which prohibited infibulation (meaning surgical mutilation or modification of sex genitals) (Abusharaf 209). The British viewed this custom as savage and barbaric and did not understand the emotional and group identity attachment to this practice (Abusharaf 213). The British believed that the Western values would lead the Sudanese people to the path of civilization and progress. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Female Genital Mutilation Essay Female Genital Mutilation Introduction Pain, shame, lack of ability to reproduce. Marie, who suffers from each of these symptoms, is one of the many women from Africa who have suffered from female genital mutilation. When Marie was only two years old, she had her clitoris and labia cut off. Since then, she has moved to New York yet is still suffering from the many consequences you get from female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation, also known as FGM, is a very common procedure primarily done in Africa for cultural beliefs. There are no known beneficial medical reasons as to why people would get the procedure done. FGM became a thing several decades ago by African tribes and is only now being brought up into the light as ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With that, FGM is a major violation of the human rights of women and girls (Female Genital Mutilation). Younger girls do not have a say in the matter and they cannot tell their parents whether or not they really want the procedure done on them or not. Some older women, who do decide to go through with this, are doing it because of the outside pressure from their community that humiliates them if they do not undergo FGM. 98% of Africans do push their children to have this done on them and if they are part of that 2% then they are excluded from others and are considered outsiders because they have not undergone a very important cultural procedure (Where is FGM practiced?). Some physical complications that come along with FGM are urinary infections, cysts, not being able to produce kids, childbirth problems, and repairing surgery for the widening or narrowing of the vaginal opening. The women are awake for the entire duration of the procedure and are in tremendous pain because they bleed everywhere. Sometimes when a women who is not trained to circumcise, she will use the excess skin to clean up the puddle of blood flowing out of the vaginal area (CITATION). FGM has a lot of possible negative outcomes that cannot be avoided no matter how good or bad the operator is. Even with the best care and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female circumcision, is a traumatic procedure performed on women and young girls, primarily in Eastern parts of the world. Among these parts, it is most common in North–Eastern, Eastern, and Western Africa, parts of the Middle East, and South East Asia. By destroying the external female genitalia, a woman cannot produce sexual desires. This approach assures that a girl will remain abstinent and a virgin until marriage. Although is has been kept a private issue, organizations such as Tostan are trying to reach out to communities and teach about the harmful effects of these cuttings. FGM survivors are trying to spread awareness as well. Depending on the severity of mutilation, short and long term ramifications can result. This can make the women affected physically and psychologically scarred. It is not only important to spread awareness, but to enforce harsher laws and put an end to social ostracism. The assurance of acceptance and the preservation of tradition are the two main causes of FGM. Many women fear that if they do not allow this procedure to happen, they will be disowned by not only their family, but whole community. The World Health Organization defines FGM as "all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons." Most of the time, the mutilation is executed on girls that have not yet reached the age of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. Self Mutilation Research Paper In the past, studies have suggested that self–mutilators harm themselves as they have no other coping strategies. In this study the purpose was to further investigate the types of coping strategies for people who self–harm and find out if their methods of coping differ from those who do not have a history of self–mutilation. The hypothesis of the study was that there would be differences, perhaps small ones, but differences nonetheless, between individuals who have a history of self harm and those who don. They hypothesized that self mutilators would use more maladaptive strategies and less adaptive strategies than individuals who do not self mutilate. In order to achieve this, participants were pulled from a larger study being performed on self–mutilation. The first phase of participant selection was to identify whether or not the participant would act as the control or as the experimental group. The second phase interviewed these individuals and finalized their group status. In order to measure the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I also believe that the author is trying to draw attention to the problem of self harm. If we are able to find out why people are so prone to do it, than perhaps we can figure out a way to prevent it by offering a different solution, one that does not involve self–harm. This relates to what we have learned in the past as it studies the biology of behavior. It poses the question of how much is it an nurture verses nature issue to respond to psychological distress with self–mutilation. And knowing that with the amygdala there is this fight or flight drive, yet this study includes people with anxiety and not just depression, so what part of the brain makes a person think that it would be better to hurt themselves than to face a problem. The study shows that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Female Genital Mutilation Essay Today alone 6000 girls around the world are being held down screaming, crying, and blacking out from the pain pleading for their elders to stop. Their voices fall on deaf ears as their right to sexual pleasure is sliced, chopped, pricked, scraped and burnt away. Female genital mutilation also known as female circumcision is the focus of my speech today. By the time I finish speaking, you will agree that this has got to stop! Today I will explain what FGM is; what are the effects of the procedure and why it is still being performed today. So going back.... What is female Genital Mutilation? FGM is a procedure of partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs. There are four ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Female Genital Mutilation Essay 1. What is Female Genital Mutilation to you? a. FGM is a procedure where part of or the entire removal of the outer female private parts or other injury to the female sexual organs for cultural or non–medical reasons. 2. Where is Female Genital Mutilation mainly practiced? a. The practice can be found in communities around the world. In Africa, FGM is practiced among firm communities in 29 countries. Ethnic groups in Asian countries, in the Middle East, in certain communities in South America, and many countries practice FGM. Also, many western countries FGM is practiced among diaspora populations and even unknown places in the United States. 3. Why is Female Genital Mutilation practiced? a. Female Genital Mutilation is practiced for many ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When does the procedure for Female Genital Mutilation happen? Why? a. It varies. In some areas, FGM is performed as an infant –it can be done as soon as a few days old. In other places, it may take place during childhood, at the time of marriage, during a woman's first pregnancy or after the birth of her first child. Most places today practice between 0–15 years old. There is no specific reason as to why it is practiced so young but a main 5. Does FGM become more of a human rights issue than a woman's rights issue, due to its body mutilation? a. It is not more of one than the other. Female Genital Mutilation is acknowledged worldwide as a defilement of the human rights of girls and women. It reveals established inequality between sexes, and institutes an extreme method of discrimination against women and girls. 6. Why do people support FGM still today? a. People that support FGM are mainly the elders in a family and they believe in "good tradition". They also believe that that is the only way to ensure purity and virginity in a woman. There are also arguments that men are circumcised also to help reduce the spread of AIDS. Also, when the woman who is cut gets undone it marks her passage of being a woman not a girl ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Essay on self mutilation Main Entry: self–mutilation Pronunciation: –"myüt–&–'lA–sh&n Function: noun : injury or disfigurement of oneself Psychological characteristics of self–injurers Hate themselves, feel inadequate Tend to suppress rage Are usually angry , most of the time at themselves Are very sensitive to rejection Have aggressive feelings which usually get turned inward Are anxious and irritable Tend to be depressed suicidal and self destructive Are bad at controlling impulses, and do things for how ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Cutting is a very touchy subject, people don't like to talk about it and because of that people tend to feel that they are the only one in the world who does it. Now because of the internet and such people can become more aware of others all around that world who do it too. They can become more aware about why they feel the need to cut and by identifying the problem help to find a way to stop. I have conducted two personal interviews of females between the ages of 13–18 who wish to remain anonymous. They went as follows... Why cut? "Many reasons, depression mental unstableness, boredom." Is it addictive? "Yes Very. Actually I started by accident, found a knife and wanted to see it was sharp, turns out its was, lol... It actually felt really good and I just started doing it more and more." Is it dangerous? "Well sure it is a bit. But I guess that's kind of what draws people to it. But it's not really bad if you use the proper precautions and such. You don't just go out to the shed and grab a rusty blade and start going at it, unless you're suicidal and want to get tetanus. Lol" So you're not suicidal? "Hell No! I don't want to die! You know that expression whatever doesn't kill you, only makes you stronger? It's kind of like that, because with me, it's like when something goes wrong it's my fault and I'm not good enough, and cutting makes me a better, stronger." Nature or ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper Female Genital Mutilation is a very large issue in many countries around the world. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) "refers to all procedures including partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons" (WHO, 1). There are four types of FGM, but type I and II are the most common for women and children to partake in. There are about 100–140 million girls and women who are subjected to this harmful practice around the world" (WHO, 1). This practice has been a part of the cultural norms of many societies since the pre–colonial time and is still a major issue for the countries that participate in this harmful practice. Genital Mutilation is most prevalent on the continent ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... FGM is a global issue with slow decline of the prevalence, but as these organizations work together, they can great an even greater awareness to the issue. The strengths that the NCTPE had was all of the outreach activities that they proved to create awareness and education to women and men about this global issue. Another strength is their philosophies for FGM. They want to help the women and children who suffer from FGM and help them have a healthy lifestyle and body. Not only is their philosophy very positive and influential, but so is there logo. The logo symbolizes a piece of the process for FGM, a piece of the effects of FGM and the what should be done to help prevent these women and children from genital mutilation. One downfall to the NCTPE and many other organizations is the fact that no matter how well developed their philosophies are there will continue to be a very slow decline in the prevalence and the complete elimination of FGM will take a very long time to achieve. I think that this can be related back to the book in a way that gender equality, no matter the topic has taken a very long time to achieve. Whether this be in equal pay, voting rights or sexual violence and assault, this issues have and will continue to slowly get better. All of these issues are global and can really have an impact on women, organizations and governmental policies will only slowly begin to change. All of these organizations that are based for the equal rights of women work hard every day so that women can soon have the same rights as men. I think that NCTPE is working to allow these women and young children to have control over their body and not feel culturally obligated to do something that harms their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Female Genital Mutilation Imagine this! Being either a young girl or a woman forcefully bound against your will while elders perform a procedure called Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). The young girls and women who are forced to have this procedure done not only loses their rights to sexual pleasure but their rights are sliced, chopped, punctured, and finally burnt away. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as Female Genital Circumcision (FGC) is also a controversial topic in Western societies. This paper will examine the history of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), hegemonic perspective on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), health consequences of having this procedure done, how Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) affects women's sexual function, and women who ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... 242–251). Since Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is such a dangerous procedure, why do individuals continually perform this procedure on young girls? In certain societies and culture, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a rite of passage and the young girls are aware of the procedure (Nawal, 2008, pp. 135–139). Furthermore, the societies and cultures who partake in this procedure as a rite of passage, religious reasons, so the girls will not be promiscuous before they get married, so the men's penis does not fall off, and men in certain societies would prefer their wife to be circumcised (Mascia–Lees 2010, pp. 159). Even though certain societies and cultures have their reasoning for performing Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), FGM can cause medical, psychological, and pyscho–sexual consequences (Reyners, 2004, pp. 242–251). According to Reyners (2004) most of the girls and women who had Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) type three conducted, they tend to experience heavily affected reproductive and urological functioning. Furthermore, according to Reyners (2004) also recommended if any woman is pregnant and has had any form of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) done, they should be monitored for their safety as well as the infants. Throughout various societies, cultures, and different situations, people have their own opinions and ideas on what is normal and abnormal sexual behavior. It ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Essay on Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), also known as female circumcision, is a destructive and invasive procedure involving the removal or alteration of female genital. The procedure is carried out at a variety of ages, ranging from shortly after birth to some time during the first pregnancy, but most commonly occurs between the ages of four and eight. There are three main types of FGC that are practiced: Type I (Sunna circumcision), Type II (Excision), and Type III (Infibulation). These three operation range in intensity, from the "mildness" of Type I, to the extreme Type III. The practice occurs in Africa, the Middle East, parts of Asia, and in immigrant communities in Europe and North America. An estimated ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This procedure is often used by countries that are prohibited from using the more extreme procedures. Clitoridectomy was invented by Sudanese midwives as a compromise when British legislation forbade the more extreme operations in 1946. (2) Infibulation (a.k.a. Pharaonic circumcision) is the third and most dramatic procedure of FGM's; it has been banned in some countries but still exists in others. This most extreme form consists of the removal of the clitoris, the adjacent labia minora, labia majora, and the urethral and vaginal openings are cut away. The vagina is then stitched or held together with thorns, leaving a small opening for menstruation and urination. To engage in intercourse the woman is then cut open by her husband on their wedding night. The woman's vagina is often restitched if her husband leaves on a long trip to secure fidelity. Female Genital Mutilations are mostly done without anesthesia and in unsanitary conditions where instruments such as unsterilized razor blades, tin lids, scissors, kitchen knives, and broken glass are used. (3)These instruments are frequently used on several girls in succession and are rarely cleaned. In various cultures there exist different "justifications" for Female Genital Mutilation including preserving cultural and gender identity, controlling women sexuality, and other ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. Female Genital Mutilation Essay Today alone 6000 girls around the world are being held down screaming, crying, and blacking out from the pain pleading for their elders to stop. Their voices fall on deaf ears as their right to sexual pleasure is sliced, chopped, pricked, scraped and burnt away. Female genital mutilation also known as female circumcision is the focus of my speech today. By the time I finish speaking, you will agree that this has got to stop! Today I will explain what FGM is; what are the effects of the procedure and why it is still being performed today. So going back.... What is female Genital Mutilation? FGM is a procedure of partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs. There are ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Nomad girls in Somalia are taken into the desert. Plonked under a little bit of shade, with their legs bound from thigh to ankle for 7–14 days. The girls fading in and out of consciousness from the intense heat and the loss of blood. The pain to urinate through the open wound is unbearable and many girls try to go days without passing fluids, this creates the urinary infections. Traditional herbs are rubbed into the wound, and if the vulva doesn't heal or the opening is still too big they are often re–operated on. But why would someone be able to do something so cruel to a little girl? Some believe that it is a religious practise. In all the information that i found, this statement was clearly incorrect. In the bible and the Qur'an there is NO instruction or writing which requires the removal of female parts. FGM is expected to have been preformed for the last 1400 years. The Muslims believe it started during what they call 'al–gahiliyyah' (era of ignorance). Parts of Somalia believe you have to have it done to be allegeable for a husband. The men are the ones ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Mutilation In The Lottery Mutilation is to injure, disfigure, or make imperfect by removing or irreparably damaging parts. This includes female genital mutilation, flagellation, wheeling but also, circumcision, piercing and tattooing. With that being mind, this essay will look at how mutilation correlates with the short story of "The Lottery" Many of the gruemsoly heinous mutilations like the lttery, the lovers say it is tradition to countiune practicing it. Many mutliations like the lottery are only done only to stasfy the mind of a belef, enterantment and other reasons not pertaining to actually physically benefting or a necessity to life. Mutliation has always been pratcide by humans throughtout history and has alwayas been a big part of human culture. Mutilation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For example, in Judaism, it is the initiation into the Jewish community and represents the covenant between God and Abraham and between God and the Jews. The command is compulsory for Jews but it is not required for Reform Jewish. This is a belief as there is no evidence of a God but is a strong belief among Jews therefore they practice it. Like the Jewish belief of the circumcison, The Lottery pratcing the ritual of killing ahuman being to stasify the "need" in their mind because "it is tradition so it must happen," but the ritual serves no factual benefit. Mutiliations has always has been an intergral part of human history. For example, In China, from the Tang dynasty (AD 618–907) until the 20th century, many Chinese girls during early childhood had their feets binded together very tightly, which deformed the feet to a very small size compared to a "normal" feet to convey aesthetic ideal. Like the foot binding tradition of China, "the lottery" has been an integral part of many communities in the USA for ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Female Genital Mutilation Research Paper Female genital mutilation is a very disturbing act that we must eliminate; even if will have to pull this bull by its horns. According to Sarah Boseley, health editor at World Health Organization explains, female genital mutilation is a procedure that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non–medical reasons. Sadly, this act is recognized as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. In addition, as per World Health Organization, this practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often play other central roles in communities, such as attending childbirths (Mutilation). However, this is a traditional practice which has been practiced by several ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Muthuso is a process of cutting the vaginal flesh of the mother by a traditional healer. The flesh is mixed with black powder and oil and applied on the child's head to prevent goni. Goni has been described as a swelling on the back of a child's head. The Venda people believe that goni can only be cured using the vaginal flesh of the child's mother" (Kitui). Kitui writes that those women who have experienced female genital mutilation bleed excessively after the ceremony. Again, she insists that, they lack postnatal care in Venda community. Consequently, from substandard treatment some women easily succumb to death because they still use traditional ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Female Genital Mutilation Outline of the problem FGM is a practice which is rooted into the Masaai traditions and culture for decades. It is a procedure that involves partial removal of the female genital organs. It is now recognized on an international basis as a violation of the human rights of girls and women and more importantly highlights an extreme form of discrimination against women. This practice which is performed at a young age violates the individual's security and health rights. The treatment is inhumane and often leads to torturous consequences with some often resulting in death. The WHO (2013) statistics have revealed that an estimated 100 to 140 million women, girls and children around the world have under–gone this painful procedure with disabling consequences and long term risks and another 3 million girls are at risk of mutilation each year. FGM is seen as an annual ceremony for the community who perceive it as a celebration of adolescence. Within the Maasai community 99% of women have under–gone this procedure most of which are between the age of 12– 14. The procedure is carried out with a sharp instrument known as 'ormurunya' after which paste and milk fat is applied to stop bleeding. Women cannot voice their opinion and those who refuse to undergo the procedure are commonly seen as having shunned their culture and therefore face a high risk of being unaccepted by the family and being isolated from the community. There are various reasons to why this procedure is practiced most ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Female Geniital Mutilation Female genital mutilation is considered intentionally alter or cause injuring the female genital organs. When females get their genitals remove they lack the professional help of a doctor or hospital. When females go through this procedure they normally bleed a lot and sometimes get infections. When females get this procedure done they can also lead to infertility issues which can cause women to have complication when given child birth and have a high rate in newborn death. There are over 20 countries in Africa and eastern where female genital mutilation is happening. There are more than 125 million girls who are affected in these children. Females who experience this are between the age of infancy and 15 years of age. Female genital mutilation ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Since most of these case are not from the United States it make it harder for family or children to obtain from this practice because it's a cultural ritual. If the family is present in the United States, I will let them know that this cannot be done due to the fact that it's a violation of a person rights. I will have to tell the parents that if they chose to have this done they can face charge for child abuse and neglect since they had this done without the proper consent of a doctor. Women needs to know that they have rights to voices their opinion an say NO if they don't want to have this done. I will make it my best to remove children from this environment if the home situation is not fit for them to live ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...