PBS with PPR


Published on

The Effectiveness of a Positive Behavior Support System
with Positive Peer Reporting on the Problem Behaviors
of Secondary Students with Disabilities

by:Melissa Ciepiela, Lindsay Degan, Kathrine Meister and Matthew Raines

Master’s Thesis Project Submitted for the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education Exceptional Education Program

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

PBS with PPR

  1. 1. The Effects of Positive PeerReporting on the DisruptiveBehaviors of Middle SchoolStudentsMelissa Ciepiela, Lindsay Degan,Kathrine Meister, Matthew Raines
  2. 2. The Problem• Students with mild disabilities often struggle with appropriatebehaviors in the school environment.• These behaviors negatively impact all students because of thedistractions they may cause.• Other inappropriate outbursts displayed by a student withdisabilities can disrupt the learning environment.• The time it takes to discipline a student removes them from thelearning environment and forces the teacher to take time out ofthe lesson to address the problem behavior.• The emphasis of the negative behavior does not solve theproblem. Therefore, a behavioral program is needed to fix thebehavior of the student.
  3. 3. The Purpose• The purpose of this study is to show that there is a functionalrelationship between the implementation of a class widePositive Peer Reporting program and increased appropriatebehavior of students.• time spent in seat, time quiet when working in the classroom, use oftechnology devices for only educational purposes, assignments turnedin, and school appropriate language• Discovering if appropriate student behavior will ultimately allowstudents to learn, teachers to teach, and administrators to lead.• The secondary purpose of this study is to show that the use of aPPR increases on task behavior of students.
  4. 4. Significance• The results of a study by Morrison and Jones(2007), students who gave praise to peersreduced the number of improper socialbehaviors in the classroom.• Positive peer reporting turns some of theresponsibility of monitoring and reinforcementof positive behaviors on peers.
  5. 5. The Solution• The implementation of a PPR program will ultimately lead toa friendly environment that will foster education.• A uniform Positive Peer Reporting program will allowstudents to realize that they need to be held accountable fortheir actions.• A PPR program will ultimately guide the students in the rightdirection, as the program will help the students reduce thenumber of discipline occurrences by increasing appropriatebehaviors.• By focusing on positive rather than negative behaviors, aPPR program will help to increase desired behaviors andacademic achievement.
  6. 6. Research Questions• 1. Is there a functional relationship between PPR and adecrease in problem behaviors for middle school students withdisabilities?• 2. Can middle school classroom teachers implement PPR planswith fidelity?• 3. Do middle school teachers find PPR plans sociallyacceptable forms of classroom management?• 4. Do middle school students find PPR plans sociallyacceptable in helping them decrease or increase behaviors?
  7. 7. Method
  8. 8. Participant• One sixth through eighth grade student who receives specialeducation services, for a mild to moderate learning disability,will be recruited for this study.• Recruitment will occur by contacting local area teachersserving students grades 6-8 with learning disabilities.• After obtaining approval from parents for the participation in thisstudy a meeting with teachers and parents will be conducted todetermine potential participants.• The student must exude problem behaviors that may includeverbal outbursts, tapping hands, foot stomping, desk lifting, andany behavior that causes a teacher redirect.
  9. 9. Target Student• Eugene is classified with a moderate learning disability in aneighth grade self-contained 1:12:1 classroom.• Eugene is with his self contained peers for five periods a dayand attends separate satellite classes for the remaining threeperiods of the school day.• Eugene exhibits problem behaviors throughout the school dayand often disrupts his classmates’ learning.• He is often observed tapping, stomping, or playing withclassroom materials inappropriately.• Eugene also talks out of turn during class discussions.• Both Eugene’s parent and his classroom teacher have giveninformed consent for participation in this study.
  10. 10. Behavioral Measures
  11. 11. Dependent Variables• The dependent variable in this study areproblem (or disruptive) behaviors. Disruptivebehaviors defined by any of the following: verbal outbursts tapping hands foot stomping desk lifting inappropriate use of classroom materials any behavior that causes a teacher redirect
  12. 12. Dependent Measures• These behaviors will be measured using a frequencychart to track individual behavior.• The behaviors will be measured across four settings for30 minutes of the 40 minute class period.• Every time a behavior is observed it will be marked onthe frequency chart.• If a behavior ends because of a teacher redirect, theredirect will also be marked in the frequency chart.• If the behavior begins again immediately after it stops oris redirected by the teacher, it will be marked as a newbehavior in the chart.• Teacher redirects prior to a behavior occurring will not bemarked in the frequency chart.
  13. 13. Independent Variables• Positive peer reporting (PPR) is a type of reporting that turnssome of the responsibility of monitoring and reinforcement ofpositive behaviors on peers.• Students use praise cards to report pro-social behavior of peersseen throughout the educational setting each day.• In addition to the PPR, a token system will be used to furtherreinforce the desired behaviors. The token economy will beused alongside the PPR as students are rewarded based uponthe number of cards they receive per week. The token isconsidered the behavior card and if a student obtains at least 3cards per week they are rewarded with a prize.• AWESOME Cards (Always Working Enthusiastically So OthersMaintain Excellence) will be used as our PPR.
  14. 14. Fidelity
  15. 15. Fidelity of Implementation• A checklist will be completed by the researcher to make surethe teacher is following the plan with fidelity.• Inter-observer reliability will be taken at least once a week ineach setting to be sure the observer is correctly markingbehaviors.• The researchers will observe and make sure the teacherreviewed the plan before the plan is implemented and that theobserver is trained in the frequency chart.• The observer will also sign off on a list definitions of thebehaviors that they will be monitoring throughout the classperiod.
  16. 16. Fidelity Checklists
  17. 17. Inter-Observer Reliability• Data will be collected using a frequency chart in each of the 4settings.• Data collectors will be trained to properly utilize the frequencychart and identify problem behaviors.• Data will be collected during 30 minutes of the 40 minute classperiod.• Data collectors will record problem behaviors as well as teacherredirects after the occurrence of a problem behavior.• A researcher will sit in on one of the four settings one to twotimes a week to collect inter-observer data.• The data will be compared for fidelity purposes.• The PPR will not be implemented in a new setting until 3 daysof decreased inappropriate behavior is seen in the settingwhere the plan is currently being implemented.
  18. 18. Social Validity• A questionnaire will be used to assess the instructionalassistant’s satisfaction with the implementation of the plan. Questions will focus on effectiveness, fidelity and social validity ofthe PBS plan with PPR.• Two questionnaires will be completed at mid-study and again atthe end of the study.• A questionnaire will be used to assess satisfaction of theclassroom teacher who implemented the plan.• At the end of the study, the students will be polled to see if theybelieved the plan to be a success in improving their classroombehavior.
  19. 19. Design and Procedures
  20. 20. Study Design• Single subject design across multiple settings Baseline Intervention
  21. 21. Pre-Intervention Assessment• Data will be taken in all four settings toestablish a baseline.• During baseline data collection, researchers willdecide which setting to implement PPR in first.• The plan will be implemented in additionalsettings once 3 days of decreasedinappropriate behavior and teacher redirectsare seen in the current setting.
  22. 22. Baseline• Data will be taken in all four settings toestablish a baseline over a five day time period.• Students will be observed on their typicalbehaviors at this point in time using thefrequency checklist.• During baseline data collection, researchers willdecide which setting to implement PPR in first.• This will be decided based on the greatestnumber of inappropriate behaviors.
  23. 23. Implementation• Teacher introduces PPR with AWESOME cards to the class bydemonstrating how they work.• Teacher lists proper behavior that is appropriate to submit onthe AWESOME cards.• Teacher models proper filling out of AWESOME card.• Students practice filling out cards and reading aloud responsesso teacher can check for understanding.• Students are reminded at the beginning of each class period toexhibit AWESOME behavior for their classmates.• Students will have to turn in cards at the end of each classperiod.• Teacher will collect and tally cards at the end of each week.• Cards that were given that the teacher deems inappropriatemay be thrown out and not counted for points.• During implementation secondary observer will continue to takedata using the frequency checklist.
  24. 24. Implementation• The PPR will eventually be implemented in all foursettings.• Once 3-5 days of decreased inappropriate behavior andteacher redirects are seen in the previous chosen setting.• While certain settings are undergoing implementation, theothers will remain in baseline data collection.• In addition to the PPR, a token system will be used tofurther reinforce the desired behaviors. The tokeneconomy will be used alongside the PPR as students arerewarded based upon the number of cards they receiveper week. The token is considered the behavior card andif a student obtains at least 3 cards per week they arerewarded with a prize.
  25. 25. A.W.E.S.O.M.E. Cards as PPR• Classroom goal is to be Always WorkingEnthusiastically So Others Maintain Excellence• AWESOME cards given to the students to fillout daily about a peer• They must fill out the cards honestly and mayonly fill out a card for a particular peer once aweek• The teacher has the ability to throw out anAWESOME report card if they feel they studentwas not behaving appropriately
  26. 26. Example of an A.W.E.S.O.M.E.Positive Peer Reporting cardExample of aclassroom visualfor students
  27. 27. Frequency Checklist
  28. 28. Analysis
  29. 29. Data Analysis• Data will be visually analyzed using a multiple baseline graph.• Data will be analyzed across four settings for one individualstudent.• We will be looking for the frequency of the negative behaviors todecrease over time throughout the intervention.
  30. 30. Results
  31. 31. Expected Results• We expect the AWESOME cards to decreaseproblem behaviors in the classroom.• Decreasing the negative behaviors andfocusing on positive behaviors will provide apositive learning environment for the students
  32. 32. Thank you for viewing!Please feel free to leave anycomments or questions!