To his supporters this symbolized the loss of the revolutionary foundation of Communist China
Millions of people mourning the death of Mao Zedong in 1976.
“ Not sure if you remember, but syd talked about gang of four last day , they are blah blah blah”
Now under xiaoping
By Sydney and Katie block 3
Death of Mao Born December 26, 1893 Died September 9, 1976 the nation descended into grief and mourning people weeping in the streets and public institutions closing for over a week
Arrest of Gang Of Four Gangs radical ideas also clashed with influential elders and a large segment of party reformers With army backing and the support of Marshal Ye Jianying, in October 1976 Hua had all members of the Gang of Four arrested in a bloodless coup. media campaign was then launched against them blaming them for all the excesses of the Cultural Revolution.
Hua Guofeng Born February 16, 1921 Jiaocheng, Shanxi province Died August 20, 2008 Beijing Premier of the People’s Republic of China from 1976 to 1980 Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party from 1976 to 1981
Hua Guofeng Mao’s death, the purge of the Gang of Four and Deng Xiaoping 1976 Became the chairman of the CCP – official leader of china tried to consolidate his position by stressing his ties to Mao and to honor Mao’s basic ideas continued to invoke Maos name to justify Mao-era policies Hua spearheaded what became known as the Two Whatevers “ “Whatever policy originated from Chairman Mao, we must continue to support,” and “Whatever directions were given to us from Chairman Mao, we must continue to follow.” wanted to reverse the damage of the Cultural Revolution intended to move the Chinese economic and political system towards Soviet-style planning of the early 1950 became clear to Hua that, without Deng Xiaoping, it was difficult to continue daily affairs of state.
Deng Xiaoping Born August 22 1904 Xiexing, Sichuan Province, China Died February 19 1997 Beijing, China Purged by the in April 1976 returns and by 1978 to become the real power of the Party
Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping wrote a letter to Hua asking to be transferred back to state and party affairs; party elders also called for Dengs return Hua named Deng Vice-Premier in July 1977, and later promoted him to various other positions - lead Deng to Chinas second-most powerful figure. In August, the Partys Eleventh Congress was held in Beijing, officially naming Hua Guofeng, Ye Jiang ying, Deng Xiaoping, Li Xiannian, and Wang Dongxing as new members of the Politburo Standing Committee On December 18, 1978, Third Plenum of the Eleventh CCP Congress was held The Plenum officially marked the beginning of the economic reform At the Fifth Plenum in 1980, Peng Zhen, He Long and other leaders who had been purged during the Cultural Revolution were politically rehabilitated Hu Yaobang head of the party as its General-Secretary In September, Hua Guofeng resigned, and Zhao Ziyang, another Deng ally, was named Premier Deng remained the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, but formal power was transferred to a new generation of pragmatic reformers, who reversed Cultural Revolution policies almost in their entirety.
Improved Relations with West 1968 Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau created negotiations with the Peoples Republic of China that led to the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Canada on October 13, 1970 joined the United Nations in 1971, replacing the international legitimacy which used to be held by the Kuomintang Government of the Republic of China in Taiwan On February 22, 1973, the United States and the PRC agreed to establish liaison offices Deng traveled abroad and had a series of meetings with western leaders traveling to the United States in 1979 to meet President Jimmy Carter at the White House -Carter finally recognized the Peoples Republic, which had replaced the Taiwan- based Republic of China as the sole Chinese government recognized by the UN Security Council in 1971 agreement signed by the United Kingdom and the PRC on December 19, 1984; -Hong Kong was to be transferred to the PRC in 1997 -Deng agreed that the PRC would not interfere with Hong Kongs capitalist system and would allow the locals a high degree of autonomy for at least 50 years -”one country, two systems" approach by the PRC government as a potential framework within which Taiwan could be reunited with the mainland.
did not improve relations with Soviet Union continued to go with to the Maoist line of the Sino-Soviet Split era, which stated that the Soviet Union was a superpower equally as "hegemonist" as the United States, yet even more threatening to the PRC because of its closer proximity Deng brought China conflict with Vietnam in 1979, following the Vietnam War, under this subject of border disputes, and fought in the Sino-Vietnamese War. "Red China" was a frequent appellation for the PRC between the Communist ascendancy and the mid-late 1970s with the rapprochement between China and the West
Sino-Vietnamese War : 1979 After Vietnam joined the Soviet-dominated Council for Mutual Economic Cooperation (Comecon) and signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union in 1978, China sawthe treaty a military alliance Incidents along the Sino-Vietnamese border increased in frequency and violence. In December 1978 Vietnam invaded Cambodia, quickly ousted the pro-Mao Pol Pot regime, and overran the country. China did twenty-nine-day incursion into Vietnam in February 1979 response to what China considered to be a collection of provocative actions and policies on Hanois part. These included Vietnamese intimacy with the Soviet Union, mistreatment of ethnic Chinese living in Vietnam, hegemonistic "imperial dreams" in Southeast Asia, and spurning of Beijings attempt to repatriate Chinese residents of Vietnam to China. In February 1979 China attacked along basically the entire Sino-Vietnamese border in a brief, limited campaign that involved ground forces only The Chinese attack came at dawn on the morning of 17 February 1979, and employed infantry, armor, and artillery. Within a day, the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) had advanced some eight kilometers into Vietnam along a broad front. slowed and because of heavy Vietnamese resistance and difficulties within the Chinese supply system. On February 21, the advance resumed against Cao Bang in the far north and against the regional hub of Lang Son. Chinese troops entered Cao Bang on February 27, the city was not secured completely until March 2. Lang Son fell two days later. March 5, the Chinese, saying Vietnam had been sufficiently chastised, announced that the campaign was over. Beijing declared its "lesson" finished and the PLA withdrawal was completed on March 16.
Sino-Vietnamese War Also known as the Third Indochina War PRC -"Defensive Counterattack against Vietnam“ Vietnam - “War against Chinese expansionism”
Economic Reform and Openingup Deng emphasized economic development and renounced mass political movements. Third Plenum of the 11th CCP Congress December 1978, the leadership adopted economic reform policies known as the Four Modernizations: -agriculture -industry -science and technology -military designed to help China become a modern, industrial nation, was “socialism with Chinese characteristics” opened a new era in Chinese history known as “Reforms and Opening up” to the Outside World. ten-year plan drafted by Hua Guofeng in 1978 was abandoned five-year plan was made that emphasized light industry and consumer production.
Economic Reform 1978–84 Dengs first reforms began in agriculture, which had been neglected buy CPC by the late 1970s, food supplies and production had become so deficient that government officials were warning that China was about to repeat the "disaster of 1959" - the famines which killed tens of millions during the Great Leap Forward Deng decollectivized agriculture and emphasizing the Household-responsibility system, which divided the land of the Peoples communes into private plots Farmers were able to keep the lands output after paying a share to the state increased agricultural production, living standards of millions of farmers and was good for the rural industry Reforms in urban industry to increase productivity dual price system: state-owned industries were able to sell any production above the plan quota, and commodities were sold at plan and market prices to avoid the shortages of the Maoist era Private businesses able to run for the first time since the Communist takeover - gradually began to make up a greater percentage of industrial output there was now more price flexibility so the service sector expanded opened to foreign investment for the first time since the KMT era Deng created a series of special economic zones for foreign investment that were relatively free of the regulations and interventions that stopped economic growth. These regions became helped with the growth of the national economy
One Child Policy 79 The biggest problem of China has been the huge population of over 1.2 billion, pressing the limits of its resources In 1979 began “The one child” policy to confront the need to control population growth The government has promoted one-child families through financial incentives and bureaucratic regulations and has severely punished to the families which has not complied with the law.
September 1982 the 12th Party Congress convened in Beijing. new constitution was adopted in place of the 1978 document. emphasized foreign assistance in modernizing and developing the country, rejecting the Maoist self-reliance of the 1975 and 1978 constitutions last remaining references to the Cultural Revolution were also removed large group of “stalinists” believing that the communist world was Chinas natural friend In particular, many of the Stalinists thought that Deng Xiaoping was moving too far in dismantling Maos legacy and allowing greater freedom of expression. The largest number of them were in the military, which complained about having its budget cut from
Tianamen Sqaure 89 Commonly known in China as the “June Fourth Incident” country emerged out of the conformity of the Cultural Revolution; the time period between 1982–89 saw freedom of the press like never before Two prominent schools of thought emerged -One school composed of students and intellectuals who urged greater economic and political reforms -the other composed of revolutionary party elders, became increasingly skeptical on the pace and the ultimate goals of the reform program, as it went away from the intended direction of the Communist Party. More strict party members and military stated that "art and literature must serve politics“ writers and artists were still told that their primary job was to "educate the people to believe in socialism". Highly personal poetry and discussions of the subconscious were viewed as representing an "unhealthy" tendency. many young people were skeptical of the partys leadership and increasingly questioning whether it was really possible to achieve socialism or if doing so was desirable. late 1983: short revival of the Cultural Revolution when the "Anti Spiritual Pollution" campaign was launched Pornography and unacceptable writings were confiscated, people with Western hairstyles were forced to cut their hair, and army units were required to sing "Socialism is Good"
The most numerous protests happened in Tiananmen Square in Beijing in April 1989 Students initiated a series of protest against the general corruption, rising inflation, low wages and lack of freedom Almost a million people had joined to the students when the morning of June 4, armored troops killed hundreds of unarmed civilians at the center of Beijing.