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Humor In French Literature At The Turn Of The 20Th Century

Katie Gulley
Katie Gulley
Katie GulleyHow to write an essay? Order on the website - HelpWriting.Net ✅

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Humor in French Literature at the Turn of the 20th Century
Behind humor in the French literature at the turn of the 20th century The French literature is one of
the most interesting compilations of cultural expression on the European continent. Unlike other
types of literature, the French one enables the reader to experience not only a literary expression of
feelings and emotions but, at the same time, it creates a sense of introduction in the world of the
authors and in the environment in which these authors create. The French literature, with sufficient
examples to provide, has to a certain extent, increased the reading experience through a different
sense of intimacy that exists between the writer and its audience, regardless of the writer's appetite
for traditional literature of application of standard techniques. There are numerous examples to
provide in this sense. However, from the 20th century literature there are several that stand out
through the way in which stories are told and the use of language and character construction. These
include "Ubu the Kind" by Alfred Jarry (1896), "My Father's Glory" by Marcel Pagnol, (1957), and
"The other woman" by Colette (1924). They are all different in the sense that they tend to deal with
aspects that of particular interest for the time in which they were written, but, to a certain extend,
they share in common the deep consideration for the human soul and, through different means of
expression, provide different perspectives of the human soul. All these three examples have in
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Humor In French Literature At The Turn Of The 20Th Century
Humor In French Literature At The Turn Of The 20Th Century
Humor In French Literature At The Turn Of The 20Th Century
21st Century Spin On Literature
21st Century Spin on Literature
In today's 21st century of life, there are millions and millions of books, short stories, and poems.
Authors have been scripting out different tales since before the 1st century. Therefore giving one
plenty of options when it comes to not only reading, but analyzing, evaluating, and even interpreting
the literature standpoint that you receive from picking up a good book. The three themes from the
book How to Read Literature Like a Professor, written by Thomas C. Foster, can be applied to
pieces of literature such as Frank Stockton's "The Lady or the Tiger?", Shirley Jackson's "The
Lottery", and "The Minister's Black Veil" by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Several themes in How to Read
Literature Like a Professor like "Nice to Eat You: Acts of Vampires," "Now Where Have I Seen Her
Before?," and "Is That a Symbol?" play into the famous short stories mentioned above. "The Acts of
Vampires" is a theme that deals with "The Lady, or the Tiger?" and how the corrupt older male strips
away the females virtues and youth. "Now Where Have I Seen Her Before?" deals with the short
story "The Lottery" and how every story comes from another story, and nothing is original because
it is always a spin off of another book. Lastly, "Is That a Symbol?" deals with "The Minister's Black
Veil" and how symbolic the minister's black veil really is. When one hears the word vampire, one
automatically thinks of the evil monster that sucks the blood and life out of people.
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Humor In French Literature At The Turn Of The 20Th Century
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Humor In French Literature At The Turn Of The 20Th Century

  • 1. Humor in French Literature at the Turn of the 20th Century Behind humor in the French literature at the turn of the 20th century The French literature is one of the most interesting compilations of cultural expression on the European continent. Unlike other types of literature, the French one enables the reader to experience not only a literary expression of feelings and emotions but, at the same time, it creates a sense of introduction in the world of the authors and in the environment in which these authors create. The French literature, with sufficient examples to provide, has to a certain extent, increased the reading experience through a different sense of intimacy that exists between the writer and its audience, regardless of the writer's appetite for traditional literature of application of standard techniques. There are numerous examples to provide in this sense. However, from the 20th century literature there are several that stand out through the way in which stories are told and the use of language and character construction. These include "Ubu the Kind" by Alfred Jarry (1896), "My Father's Glory" by Marcel Pagnol, (1957), and "The other woman" by Colette (1924). They are all different in the sense that they tend to deal with aspects that of particular interest for the time in which they were written, but, to a certain extend, they share in common the deep consideration for the human soul and, through different means of expression, provide different perspectives of the human soul. All these three examples have in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. 21st Century Spin On Literature 21st Century Spin on Literature In today's 21st century of life, there are millions and millions of books, short stories, and poems. Authors have been scripting out different tales since before the 1st century. Therefore giving one plenty of options when it comes to not only reading, but analyzing, evaluating, and even interpreting the literature standpoint that you receive from picking up a good book. The three themes from the book How to Read Literature Like a Professor, written by Thomas C. Foster, can be applied to pieces of literature such as Frank Stockton's "The Lady or the Tiger?", Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery", and "The Minister's Black Veil" by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Several themes in How to Read Literature Like a Professor like "Nice to Eat You: Acts of Vampires," "Now Where Have I Seen Her Before?," and "Is That a Symbol?" play into the famous short stories mentioned above. "The Acts of Vampires" is a theme that deals with "The Lady, or the Tiger?" and how the corrupt older male strips away the females virtues and youth. "Now Where Have I Seen Her Before?" deals with the short story "The Lottery" and how every story comes from another story, and nothing is original because it is always a spin off of another book. Lastly, "Is That a Symbol?" deals with "The Minister's Black Veil" and how symbolic the minister's black veil really is. When one hears the word vampire, one automatically thinks of the evil monster that sucks the blood and life out of people. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Summary Of The Magician, The Witch, And The Law The Magician, the Witch, and the Law was a timeline of the people, events, and documents that significantly influenced the development of magic and witchcraft persecution. Edward Peters formed his timeline beginning with early Christianity and ending with the sixteenth century. The study argued that these people, events, and documents led to the persecution and burning of witches in the seventeenth century. The timeline began with the explanation of harsh Greek and Roman laws against magos. The laws were harsh because magic was a disruption of society and the cause of political instability (9). Magos were practitioners of magic or those who used the power of divine or demonic sources. Christians were primarily concerned with first proving that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Peters lays out three theories about why Philip IV persecuted the Templars. First, for their money. Second, Philip wanted to be King of Jerusalem and give France to his son. Third, Boniface VIII humiliated Philip when he accused Philip of crimes against God. Philip did not believe that the Church who accused him was the real Church. The false Church had false followers who practiced idolatry, the false followers including the Templars. Philip wanted to eradicate this fake Church. The Templar's trial was significant because magic and sorcery was viewed as idolatry; sorcery and magic was an attack on Christianity. The idea of a vulnerable Church continued into later centuries, which ultimately strengthened the Church by offsetting the vulnerability. This showed that the courts were not beyond attacking the Pope or other people in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Oppression of Women in 19th Century Literature Oppression of Women in 19th Century Literature In the stories "The Jewelry" by Guy de Maupassant, "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin, and "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, the female characters are unequal and less important than the men in society. The duties of women during this time period did not consist of much more than seeing to her husband's needs and caring for the home and children. The authors show the lack of independence women were allowed in the 1800s, especially in marriage. The stories express women's cry for equality and their feelings of entrapment in their marriage. Each story elaborates on the importance of social class in the 19th century, how women were presented in society, and how society ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the midst of her grieving, Mrs. Mallard pictures the time that is to come, when she will be able to make all of her own decisions and will be given the freedom to live her life as she pleases. Suddenly, she feels relieved more than she is upset. "She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death...but she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely (Booth 307). Her desire for freedom overcame the despair of her husband's death. Chopin includes that Mrs. Mallard tried to fight off these ideas with her will (Booth 307). Her embraced feelings of independence could have been viewed as forbidden. Although she is excited by these thoughts, she tries to resist the pleasure she truly feels when she realizes the freedom that she has gained. The words "free, free, free!" escaped from her mouth (Booth307). She attempted to hold back the overwhelming desires for her own life. Perhaps she is hesitant to welcome these feelings because of the public view on women's rights, and the potential consequences for those who opposed such views. Despite the faithfulness and love Mrs. Mallard showed for her husband, the extreme relief she felt in no longer having a marital obligation overpowered her feelings of sadness and loss. At the end of the story, Mrs. Mallard's husband walked through her front door in the flesh, but Mrs. Mallard's heart could not handle the excitement. The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. The Impact Of The 20th Century On German Literature One of the few things that impacted literary movements in German literature in the 20th century was Expressionism and what the Germans refer to as "Neue Sachlichkeit", which means new objectivity (Scherer, Conybeare & Müller, 1906). However, historical events such as the first world war led to the division of the nation into west and east Germany. Therefore, the historical impact on literature differs in both sections. While the east reckoned with the teaching of Hungary philosopher Georg Lukacs, declaring themselves as the "communist resistance of Nazism", which led to the birth of Socialist Realism (Bahr, Ryan, & Jaeger, 2015), the political situation in the west paved the way for writers such as Bertolt Brecht, who through their work felt the need to fill the cultural vacuum created by the defeat of Nazism. The following essay will therefore discuss the impact of the 20th century on German–speaking literature, after which it will analyse the responses of Bertolt Brecht and Günter Eich to the historical and political events. Bertolt Brecht in response to the first world war, which he experienced as a teenager wrote an essay to the phrase "Dulce et decorum est pro patria morin", a poet by the Roman Horace, which almost ruined his pursuit for education at the time (Bertolt Brecht, 2017). In his essay, he described the recruitment of young soldiers under the disguise of dying for their country as a "cheap propaganda for a specific purpose", arguing that only senseless ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. English Literature : Reflected Attitudes In 19th Century... Reflected Attitudes In 19th Century Literature Pankaj Mishra, an Indian essayist and novelist, once said, "As the 19th century progressed, Europe's innovations, norms and categories came to achieve a truly universal hegemony." Ranging from the the topic that begins history books to the site of major tourists attractions, Europe, appears as number one on the list each time. Whether in 600 A.D. or the 21st century, Europe, to this day, leads the leaders of all. To elaborate, the entity of Europe, most prominently England, could and still can rule and surpass all others in the race of life. Through these strengths, they possess the ability to enlighten others with their workings and ways of life, in other words, their customs, traditions, and attitudes. Their cultivation of the masses worldwide can be viewed through the functioning of society present day and even in the past. In essence, the finest accomplishments of Europe get reflected in its artwork, namely literature. Through literature Europe, mostly England, expressed its ideals for the rest of the masses to accept. For instance, Oscar Wilde's "The Importance of Being Earnest" and John Galsworthy's "A Man of Property" comprise of two major examples that characterized the ideals expressed in British society during the 19th century. While Galsworthy's work manifests controversial commentary on certain attitudes through depicting the specificities of one family, the Forsytes, Wilde, as clearly seen, prefers a more satirical ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. 19th and 20th Century Gender Expectations in Literature 19th and 20th Century Gender Expectations in Literature Johnny Shelton ENG125 Professor Heather AltfeldFisher 11 March 2012 19Th and 20th Century Gender Expectations in Literature The late 19th century produced a myriad of successful authors, poets and play–writes that often incorporated the local customs, traditions and expectations of the time (and perhaps their own experiences) into their work. A fact of the times, even into early 20th century, is that women were not equal to men and the expectations of women were not equal as well. This point will be illustrated by comparative analysis of two separate forms of literature: Tristan Bernard's humorous play I'm Going! A Comedy in One Act, and Kate Chopin's short story "The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... And have you looking daggers at me all the time! Whenever I do go with you, you're always making disagreeable remarks." Henri responds with "Because you are in a bad humor – you'll never give me your arm." (Jeanne called him on his bluff, because he really doesn't want to take a walk either), (cited in Clugston, 2010a, 1.1.26–29). She has no real intention of going for a walk with him as she did not intend to go to the races, but does not want to see him go alone to the races and enjoy himself alone, either. This is another example of manipulation; her manipulating him and vice versa, and starts the back and forth farce of both supposedly wanting to spend the day together when they really do not (Clugston, 2010a). When Jeanne decides Henri can go to the races alone because she intends to go see a friend, Henri decides he will stay at home and not go to the races (Clugston, 2010a). This is an obvious representation of the husband not trusting the wife, and even though she has given sanction to him to proceed, he abandons all intentions to leave because of his suspicion of her meeting with her friend and also perhaps meeting another man. The deception between both characters is obvious at this point in the play but not obviously clear as to why. Though we know by this point that Henri's intention has always been to go to the races alone, it is not yet clear why Jeanne reacts the way she does. Is it that she is abused, or expected to stay ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 29. The Awakening: Sexuality in Nineteenth Century Literature... Pleasure's a sin, and sometimes sin's a pleasure. George Gordon Noel Byron (The Daily Muse) Everyday the North American media sends millions of sexually provocative images through the airwaves and onto television screens. According to a recent study, an overwhelming 56% of all television programs contain sexual content (Vieth, 2). Our society has become so immune to the representation of sex that, for the most part, it goes unnoticed. Although concerns regarding sexuality still remain, society's tolerance level has changed dramatically over time. The history of attitudes toward sex and sexuality is a cultural process that can be seen through the literature of an era. The Awakening was the first piece of American fiction to blatantly ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, she shows no trace of remorse for her sinful actions. Adele Ratignolle, the virtuous woman, is still alive at the end, thus seeming to triumph over Edna. However, Adele is last seen giving birth and the narrator describes her as being in torture. Edna, on the other hand, wades out to her end peacefully as the narrator describes the beautiful scenery around her. Although Chopin rewards Adele with continued life and punishes Edna by ending hers, Adele's reward is not necessarily good and Edna's punishment is not necessarily bad. Chopin rewards Adele with a life of painful childrearing and punishes Edna with a blissful death. As a result, Chopin blurs the line between reward and punishment. This unconventional twist caused immense controversy at the end of the nineteenth century. Chopin's reputation as a writer, in the eyes of most critics, had been destroyed with the publication of such a `racy' novel. In 1899, a critic for the Chicago Times–Herald claimed that "it was not necessary for a writer of so great refinement and poetic grace to enter the ... field of sex fiction." Edna and Chopin's exploration of sexuality raised issues on which everyone had strong opinions. At the time, sexuality was regarded as disgraceful and a truly virtuous woman was believed to have no desires. If a woman did posses certain desires, they were dignified, fulfilled by the husband and never ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33. Essay on The Early Renaissance The Early Renaissance Today, what is considered to be the modern times began with the Early Renaissance at the start of the 15th century. As time has progressed, things have modified within societies to mold with the new ways of thinking for that time. Between the years of the 1400's and the 1800's this world has undergone many changes. Focusing on Europe, the major forces of change were in politics, economics, and religion. In modern European history political effort were supplied by the state. Early in the 15th century political warfare was the theme of everyday life. It was not until the Peace of Lodi in 1454 that a balance of power was established and ended the hundred years war. Early in the 16th century there is a rise ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Banking was over run by the Germans. Trade in the East came to an end with the fall of Constantinople. By the end of the 16th century, economics had shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic with the Spanish discovery of the New World. With this trade shift the worldwide economy was in the makings. In the 17th century mercantilism is very prominent. Things such as state–granted monopolies, regulated exports and imports, tariffs, custom duties, quotas, slavery, colonial taxes, and plantation system were in full effect. By the 18th century, a supply and demand economy had produced. Through mercantilism, state regulations lowered the living standards of workers. The every day lives that were led in modern Europe where primarily surrounded by religious ideas. In the times of the 15th century, religion in Europe revolved around the religious beliefs of the Papal Court. Though there were many religious battles over the Church, few doubted the Church, following its every demand. By the 16th century, many began to challenge that of the Papal State. People felt that the beliefs and efforts of the Church had traveled way off track, and was in need of some repair. Martin Luther began the radical attempt to fix what had gone wrong within the Papal State by posting his Ninety–five Theses upon the door of the Wittenberg University. The outcome of Luther's efforts supplied Europe with beginnings ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37. Literature for Children in the 19th Century Literature for children in the 19th century Since the view of childhood changes in the nineteenth century, the potential of children's literature becomes evident. With the reference to the sources of children's literature, they can be traced back to alterations in translation and in the literature for adults, where a child or childhood are essential concepts; moreover folk literature is concerned to be a wide source for this literary genre. According to Peter Hunt Children before the seventeenth century shared narrative, whether oral or through chapbooks, with adults. The first widely distributed texts for children were by puritan writers; in the mid–eighteenth century books began to be produced commercially, usually with an ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Also, a famous author of Pippi the same can talk to both girls and boys. Both girls and boys, are just kids. Reading books of this type should learn various behaviors so as to cope with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41. The Exposure of Feminist Critique in 19th Century... Resistance is the action of fighting back against an unwanted force that may be deemed oppressive in ones life. It is created for different causes and comes in many forms; it may be made verbal, explicit, implicit, physical, and even made humorous or satirical. Charlotte Brontë, a 19th century Victorian feminist wrote her novel Jane Eyre as a means of exposing the confining environments, shameful lack of education, and pitiful dependence upon male relatives for survival (Brackett, 2000). Charlotte Brontë used literature as a means of feminist cultural resistance by identifying the underlying factors of how the Victorian ideologies, gender and social construction of that time was limiting, and brings to light barriers that faced women in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Jane is taught at a young age to look down on people not of her caste, and to oppress them the same way that she herself is oppressed as a female orphan. Though Jane is not influenced directly by social status at all times, it is still a constant factor which Brontë makes evident. In Victorian England, a female must either be born or married into her social class, and this is what defines her. The character of Jane served to undercut the popular female stereotypes of fiction: the angel of the house, the invalid, or the whore (Brackett, 2000). Brontë creates Jane as her own force, in which she is neither the angel, invalid or whore, but a young lady who is intelligent and has pride and dignity. In this Victorian society, her unsubmissiveness and independence is her social fault, which Brontë pokes fun at (Brackett, 2000). Male Victorian writers cast women during this time as social, finagling creatures whose goals are to obtain as many friends as possible and throw the most elaborate parties. Brontë opposes this by creating Jane as an opposite of these "defining" characteristics, by making Jane a female who could are less about how many people adore her, a female who would actually enjoy a life with few companions. As mentioned before, Jane's sense of dignity is evident. As Jane became Rochester's governess, she is faced with the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45. The Characteristics Of Conformity And Passivity In 20th... Zachary Aldieri Professor Illuzzi DWC 202 11/24/2017 Conformity and Passivity in 20th Century Literature Through the 20th century, war, technology, and the capitalism had lasting effects on the overall conformity and passivity of society. Within the novel Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf and the play "Waiting for Godot" by Samuel Beckett, the general stagnation, inauthenticity, and cultural malaise are made evident in the main characters' actions. Nonetheless, we are not given an answer regarding whether or not we can reform these flaws. The two works cause us to reflect on our own human tendency to conform and be passive. Virginia Woolf's Clarissa Dalloway, for example, is an upper–class house wife that spends her days buying flowers and throwing parties. Beckett's Vladimir and Estragon literally wait for Godot throughout the play without ever moving from the road on which they sit. Although Woolf's setting is much more detailed than Beckett's, they both signify the circular life that the main characters in both texts cannot break free from, leaving humanity trapped by passivity and conformity. While answers to these cultural iterations of conformity and passivity cannot directly be found in either Beckett's or Woolf's text, we can turn toward 20th century philosophy for a start to this answer, specifically the work of Martin Heidegger. Through their literary themes, Becket and Woolf implicitly give us a glimpse of Heidegger's ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49. History of Science & Technology in Indian Subcontinent History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent * Outline of South Asian history * History of Indian subcontinent | Stone age (7000–3000 BC)[show] * Mehrgarh Culture (7000–3300 BC) | Bronze age (3000–1300 BC)[show] * Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1700 BC) * – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC) * – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC) * – Late Harappan Culture (1700–1300 BC) * Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (from 2000 BC) * Swat culture (1600–500 BC) | Iron age (1200–26 BC)[show] * Vedic period (2000–500 BC) * – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC) * – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC) * – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC) * – Maha Janapadas (700–300 BC) * – ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The British colonial rule introduced some elements of western education in India. Following independence science and technology in the Republic of India has included automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as space, polar, and nuclear sciences. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53. Abolitionist Literature in the Eighteenth Century Abolitionist literature was particularly influential during the eighteenth century because readers were provided with a more complex understanding of the concept of slavery and of the damaging effects that it had on individuals. The fact that individuals who actually experienced life as a slave from a first–person perspective were actively involved in producing abolitionist literature further contributed to the intense feelings that people underwent as they were reading passages in these books. Individuals like Frederick Douglass and Harriet Beecher Stowe were among the most renowned abolitionist writers and their works played an essential role in emphasizing the wrongness of slavery. Frederick Douglass was among the people who were unfortunate enough to experience life as a slave. However, in comparison to other individuals who were mentally and physically rendered unable to fight for themselves and for their kind, he found the power to get actively involved in criticizing the institution of slavery. The fact that he had a limited understanding of the abolitionist movement at the time when he joined it did not stop him from producing one of the most thrilling accounts regarding life as a slave. Douglass was a very good orator and this was one of the most important reasons why he managed to induce strong feelings in individuals who he spoke in front of. Moreover, his ability to read and write also assisted him greatly in a society where these powers were rarely found in a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57. The Development Of Mathematical Psychology Psychology established into a mathematical discipline through a series of events during history. This establishment led to the development of mathematical psychology; a field encompassing empirical methodology (Benjafield, 2015). Furthermore, through the implementation of math in psychology, findings from previous and current studies of psychology influenced the plethora of knowledge available today–directly impacting society's understanding and application of psychological phenomena. This is articulated through mathematical ideas originating from the ancient Greeks, which inspired further research in the field – abundantly, throughout the past three centuries (18th to 21st) (Benjafield, 2015). Specifically, ideas from Euclid in ancient Greece inspired Gustav Fechner to develop mathematical concepts in his formation of psychophysics (Zudini, 2011). In the 18th century, arguments regarding the implementation of math in science were becoming a common query. The field of psychometrics began during this period and early psychologists like Ernst Weber began developing relationships between mathematical concepts (Benjafield, 2015). During the 19th century, Gustav Fechner developed his field of psychophysics and inspired several future psychologists to continue his work and develop their own ideas of mathematical psychology (Benjafield, 2015; Robinson, 2010). Developments in this field instigated the notion of using experimental psychology during World War I, and the 1950s–1970s ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61. Pizz A Popular Food Eaten By Many People Pizza, a globally popular food eaten by many people in different countries throughout the world. Usually known for its circular shape, made out of dough, tomato sauce, and the variety of toppings added. Pizza has a rich history behind it and plays a role in today 's cuisine and culture and developed throughout the centuries with mentions of pizza as far back to the 6th century B.C and to 1st century A.D, but not mentioned again until the 16th century. However, pizza was food for peasants in the 16th century and was not widespread, popular, and diverse compared to today in the 21st century. The earliest mention of pizza was in 6th century B.C. where soldiers of Darius the Great (521–486 B.C.) baked a kind of bread flat on their shields and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The change in 1522 was the start point in the growth of pizza and what allowed it to become a global food. However, pizza was not well known because the dish was recently developed and did not had time to gain popularity with the locals in Naples yet. Only until the 17th century did pizza achieved a local popularity among visitors to Naples who would went into the poorer sections to taste the dish made by men called "pizzaioli." Pizza started to gain more popularity, but was not at the level where it was countrywide because no major figures had took notice of the new dish to promote it. Pizza managed to be acknowledge by the people of Naples and pizza was sold in the streets in Naples at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The popularity got to the point where stalls were set up where the customers could custom order their pizza to suit what they wanted. The stalls soon developed into the pizzeria where people can come together to eat, drink, talk, and soon become a common sight in Naples. How pizza managed to gain widespread demand had to do with major figures, the figures were Umberto I (1844–1900), King of Italy, and his wife, Queen Margherita di Savoia (1851–1926). The king and queen on a holiday in Naples "called to their palace the most popular of the pizzaioli (pizza chef), Raffaele Esposito, to taste his ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 65. Literature for Children in the 19th Century Literature for children in the 19th century Since the view of childhood changes in the nineteenth century, the potential of children's literature becomes evident. With the reference to the sources of children's literature, they can be traced back to alterations in translation and in the literature for adults, where a child or childhood are essential concepts; moreover folk literature is concerned to be a wide source for this literary genre. According to Peter Hunt Children before the seventeenth century shared narrative, whether oral or through chapbooks, with adults. The first widely distributed texts for children were by puritan writers; in the mid–eighteenth century books began to be produced commercially, usually ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The portraying of the negative aspects of life results in social tensions and ambigous attitudes towards children's fiction. Books are criticized for being inappropriate for children, and consequently attacked for their improper values. However, "together with the changing attitude to childhood, the legacy of children's literature is established with the works of the following writers: Lewis Carroll and Edith Nesbit, Louisa May Alcott and Mark Twain" (Hunt, 2001:13). Literature for boys and girls in the 19th century Literature aimed at young readers can be divided into two categories, namely, novels classified as 'books for boys' and 'books for girls'. These novels can be contrasted and there are visible differences between them. For instance, literature for boys is characterized by a swift action, amazing adventures, making difference between good and evil. The novels communicate the individuals to choose good. However, the novels'for girls' in many respects may be the opposite of the books 'for boys'. The action usually takes place on the set of relationships. There are many descriptions of characters and everyday situations, and ethical choices are often ambiguous. Books for boys are generally school stories, adventure tales, or imperial fantasy, often about empire or school life, while stories of home and family life are aimed at girls. Lewis C. Roberts explains that "the school story and the adventure tale... , primarily associated with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 69. Hum 111 Hum 111 Abstract Ancient Chinese Contributions. (1) Identify eight to ten of these useful inventions or contributions. (2) Nominate four that you believe are the most ingenious or innovative. (3) Explain why you believe these four inventions or contributions are the most useful inventions or contributions from the ancient Chinese. (4) Identify one invention or contribution that you cannot live without and explain why. The Ancient Chinese Contributions (1) Gunpowder One of the inventions created by Ancient China gunpowder as early first century and was used at that time to make medicine for perpetual rejuvenation. Black gunpowder was not invented till the end of the ninth century and was first used to make fireworks, and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (LAN, 2008) (5) Printing The earliest printing in China was the block printing method in the first Century B.C., where the individual sheets of paper were pressed against wooden blocks that had text and illustrations carved into them. This process could print hundreds and even thousands of copies, this technology played a significant role in promoting the spread of culture. A block carver named Bi Sheng made movable types with clay during the period from1004 to 1048. This method each type was carved with one character and the types could be set independently according to contents of different articles. After printing, the movable types could be reused and this improved technology is called movable–type printing. (LAN, 2008) (6) Row Planting The Chinese also invented the way to grow crops by placing them in rows sometime in the 6th century BC. This allowed the crops to grow faster and stronger. This was not instituted in the western world for another 2200 years. Master Lu wrote in the "Spring and Autumn Annals": 'If the crops are grown in rows they will mature rapidly because they will not interfere with each other's growth. The horizontal rows must be well drawn, the vertical rows made with skill, for if the lines are straight the wind will pass gently through.' This text was compiled around 240 BC. (Stevenh, 2009)
  • 70. (7) The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74. 17th Century Literature Throughout Europe 14th Century Literature in Europe The 14th century consisted of many different events, which then lead to a rise in literary movements and influential writers. The writers and poets of medieval Europe created their own tropes and themes throughout the entire history of the century. 14th century literature is greatly impacted by many factors: historical, religious, aesthetic. The 14th century also contained a mass of literary movements, often times coexisting with the aforementioned factors. Historical Events and Context Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt was an aftermath of the Black Death, which also greatly influenced literature and arts throughout its course. The Peasants' Revolt–year 1381–significantly altered literature during the course of the 14th century. The Peasants' Revolt was unique in its significance because what is considered modern–day England was "the only medieval society to have a peasants' revolt" (Swain). Naturally, such a huge uprising brings influence with it. Besides the Bubonic Plague, another reason for the Peasants' Revolt occurred due an expanding middle class, which then in turn took land away from Nobles. This land crisis caused the Nobility to have an upset, and they enacted a law to stop the Peasant Class from having social mobility. Like most societal uprising, money was a huge factor. This new law included a poll tax, which heavily taxed the lower class. Unfortunately, the Nobles made an error and based the tax on the population before ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 78. Characteristics Of 20th Century Literature Before the 20th Century, literature was pretty straightforward; the narrators were reliable, the timelines were linear, and the perspective was clear, but then somebody got the idea to mix it up. This is how we got books such as The Great Gatsby and one of our class texts, Orlando. For some, this was a startling and uncomfortable transition from what used to be considered the, "normal" format which was very up front in terms of structure and voice. Others found it to be more exciting and, while it was still weird and unsettling for those people, it forced people to think more about what the books were trying to communicate, instead of just being handed the message; they had to work for it. This has become one of the leading reasons that societies are encouraged to read; if you read a book that forces you to think, your mind becomes stronger and this promotes an increase in intelligence and creativity. One of the main characteristics of 20th Century Literature is fragmented structure, meaning that the story was not always in chronological order and that the story was sometimes interrupted by the characters thoughts or interactions, therefore cutting off the narrative in favor of a new line of thought. Next there is fragmented perspective, which is much different from fragmented structure in the way that, instead of scrambling the story, the reliability of the information is being skewed. Fragmented perspective can also be labelled as being an unreliable narrator, which at ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 82. Feminist Perspective on Eighteenth Century Literature Essay Feminist Perspective on Eighteenth Century Literature Feminism during the eighteenth century has come to be defined by the literature of the time. Women, who did not have as many outlets as they do today, expressed their political opinions through literature itself. Although feminist texts existed before the end of the century, women writers in the final decade were seen as more threatening to the dominant patriarchal system. Following the overthrow of the government in France, women in Britain believed that "a revolution in sentiments, manners, and moral opinions was possible in their own country" (5). Writers such as Mary Wollstonecraft reacted to the conservative patriarchal society by "[drawing] parallels between the domestic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Unlike men, women who sought political reformer were labeled as "unsexed," meaning that it was "unnatural for women as the frail or gentle sex to harbor brutal thoughts, to want to be the equals of men, or to meddle in politics, all of which make them perverse or unacceptable examples of their kind" (4). During the reactionary decade of the 1790's, "concerns normally thought to be private and domestic – women's education, their choice of husbands, female conduct, sexuality, and manners– became politicized as general topics of interest" (14). The outspoken behavior regarding their position was seen as inappropriate for women. However, not all women addressed these topics with a radical perspective. Some women, who today would be considered a setback to the feminist movement, took a rather conservative approach. Women's literary history, in terms of feminism, can be broken down into three stages of development: the feminine phase, in which women internalize the male culture's assumptions about female nature; the feminist phase, in which women are able to dramatize the ordeals of wronged womanhood; and the female phase, when women turn... to female experience as the source of an autonomous art (14). Authors such as Jane West and Hannah More were considered part of the feminine stage, Jane Austen and Ann Radcliffe were associated with the feminist ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 86. Exploring Treatment of Women in Nineteenth Century through... Exploring Treatment of Women in Nineteenth Century through Literature In the Nineteenth Century, women were treated very differently to the way they are today. Modern day society relies on the basis that there should be equality between men and women in all aspects of life and there have been laws put in place such as the Sex Discrimination Act to help reflect these policies. Authors who lived during the Nineteenth Century wrote about how women were seen and treated in the 19th Century. The stories they wrote gave the impression of society being dominated by males who believed that they were superior to women. This type of society was called a patriarchal society. The story 'Tony Kytes the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Naturally the father would want his son to chose the best girl for his son. He decides that the right girl is "whichever of 'em did not ask to ride" with Tony. Tony's father belived that it was okay for men to be forward but it was not okay for women to be forward. This shows that in the Nineteenth century women were not supposed to expect or ask for things; they should get only what men offer to them. They were supposed to be passive to what men wanted and put their husband's needs before their own. In asking for a lift, the woman was pushing for what she wanted and therefore not being an ideal woman. Women were also expected to comply with what a man wanted her to do, no matter how absurd the request, or they would not be seen as a 'perfect women'. The women in 'Tony Kytes and the Arch–Deceiver' went along with Tony's strange requests of hiding under corn sacks– "I don't mind to oblige you Tony"– because as far as they were concerned, they should please their man to any extent. This story makes the reader believe that women in those times were expected to be passive, submissive and dependent on men. Because the Nineteenth century was a patriarchal society, women were expected to follow these unofficial rules of how to act. In 'Tony Kytes and the Arch–Deceiver' there are three different types of women that are described. Milly is the most naïve girl who falls for everything Tony ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 90. Public Health and Nineteenth-Century Literature Essay Public Health and Nineteenth–Century Literature "To envy nought beneath the ample sky; to mourn no evil deed, no hour misspent and, like a living violet, silently return in sweets to heaven what goodness lent, then bend beneath the chastening shower content." –Elliot The concerns and problems of the people living in nineteenth century England differed dramatically from those that eventually challenged those living in the same place during the 20th century. During the nineteenth century the English were plagued with many epidemics, but lacked the knowledge and capability to successfully treat and eliminate these diseases. London, like other British cities, had appalling sanitary conditions. These conditions were responsible for a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Further, they questioned whether a common strand was responsible for the fever which accompanied all of the diseases. In attempting to answer these questions the physicians of the period examined such factors as: (1) dependence upon certain atmospheric conditions; (2) obedience to similar laws of diffusion; (3) all infesting the same localities; (4) all attacking the same classes of people; and (5)all increased in severity in unsanitary conditions. (Pelling, 64). The General Board of Health of London produced a report on cholera in 1850. The primary purpose of the report was to indicate that the pattern of the epidemic had confirmed the predilations of the metropolitan sanitary commissioners. That is, that cholera could be prevented if closer attention was paid to sanitary conditions. Specifically, if problems such as overcrowded living conditions, filth, dampness, dirty water, drain pipes in poor condition, and improper storage and preparation of food were addressed. (Pelling, 78). In order to understand the epidemics which dominated the nineteenth century one must listen to the voices of the time. These voices speak of factory workers being forced to work incredibly long hours in filthy conditions for very little money, several families living together in one room apartments with no running water. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 94. The Importance Of Childhood In Medieval Art Childhood is an important part of the life of an individual. This is because childhood determines to a greater extent the behavior and personality of an individual in adulthood based on the environment they are brought up. Ideally, every individual has some childhood memories of pictures in stacks of albums in the house. This demonstrates the importance of childhood in the development of an individual. However, ancient artists do not share these sentiments, as they did not portray the importance of childhood in early paintings and pictures. Aries (1996) pointed out "Medieval art did until about the twelfth century did not know childhood or did not attempt to portray it" (p.33, which demonstrates that ancient artists did not view or assumed ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The thirteenth century demonstrated or represented childhood in a concept closer to the current representation. Childhood representation changed in the thirteenth century as art embodied aspects of childhood compared to miniature small–scale representation. Ideally, the evolution towards a realistic and sentimental representation of childhood begins with the childhood of Jesus. The representation of Jesus on His mother's arms led to family representations that demonstrated childhood characteristics. However, a more realistic and sentimental childhood representation revolved around Jesus until the fourteenth century when the Italian art helped to develop and spread an ideal childhood representation. The gothic period produced yet another type of childhood representation. This period saw the representation of a naked child. The previous representation seldom represented a naked child, except in cases of innocence and death. The allegory of death and soul introduced child nudity in the medieval period. Nonetheless, the concept of Holy Childhood continued to develop in both variety and scope from the thirteenth century onwards. The progress of Holy Childhood showed the progress of the idea of childhood that was lacking in the previous centuries. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 98. The Relevance of the Literature of Renaissance In the... The Relevance of the Literature of Renaissance In the Twenty–First Century In many ways the age of Renaissance was similar to the times we live in. It was the beginning of the modern era which saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life: living became prosperous for the average people, a new money–based economy was being built. Geniuses were producing scientific inventions which were improving the quality of life. The printing press created a media revolution. It was the epoch of an immense increase in knowledge of the world, the time of far–reaching voyages of exploration leading to India, the New World, Far East and Egypt – 'to seek new worlds for gold, for praise, for glory', as Sir Walter ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Why does Macbeth decide to murder Duncan and why is he not satisfied with his high social position? Because his problem is that he is too ambitious. He wants to become king and he refers to that yearning as ambition: I have no spur To prick the sides of my intent, but only Vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself And falls on the other. Macbeth is fascinated with the idea of being a king but he is also aware of the disastrous price he will have to pay. He suffers a powerful tension between his desire and his moral sense. But once his imagination shows him the possibility, he is not able to shrug the desire off. It is one of Lady Macbeth's functions to keep this vision alive, when she taunts him to act in response to his desires and urges him to be more of a man. She cannot be blamed for his actions though, as he freely chooses to kill Duncan, and even before committing the crime he knows what consequences this deed will bring. At the same time, he cannot live with what he has done and remain the same person. The killing is continued, bringing even greater suffering on Macbeth as he tries to remove the moral distress. We witness his gradual dehumanization when he continues to murder in order to get peace of mind, but instead he loses everything life has to offer: To–morrow, and to–morrow, and to–morrow, Creeps in this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 102. Eighteenth Century English Literature Chapter III: Eighteenth Century English Literature LITERATURE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT (18th century) The 17th century was one of the most stormy periods of English history. The growing contradictions between the new class, the bourgeoisie, and the old forces of feudalism brought about the English Bourgeois Revolution in the 1640s. As a result of the revolution the king was dethroned and beheaded and England was proclaimed a republic. Though very soon monarchy was restored, the position of the bourgeoisie had changed. The 18th century saw Great Britain rapidly growing into a capitalist country. It was an age of intensive industrial development. New mills and manufactures appeared one after another. Small towns grew into ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Such composition of the novel gave the author a chance to create an all–embracing picture of the 18th century England, to write "a comic epopee" as Fielding himself called the novel. Fielding also worked out the theory of the novel. In the introductory chapters to the eighteen parts of The History of Tom Jones he put forward the main requirements that the novel should meet: to imitate life, to show the variety of human nature, to expose the roots and causes of man's shortcomings and to indicate the ways of overcoming them. 3. Late Enlightenment (Sentimentalism) (1750–1780). The writers of this period, like the Enlighteners of the first two periods, expressed the democratic bourgeois tendencies of their time. They also tried to find a way out of the difficulties of the existing order. However, while their predecessors believed in the force of intellect, they considered feelings (or sentiments) most important. The principal representatives of sentimentalism in the genre of the novel were Oliver Goldsmith (The Vicar of Wakefield) and Lawrence Sterne (Tristram Shandy, The Sentimental Journey) and in drama–Richard Sheridan (School for Scandal and other plays). Questions and tasks 1. What is the meaning of the word enlightenment 2. What was the peculiarity of the Enlightenment in England as compared with that in France" 3. What were the two trends
  • 103. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 107. The Role Of Violence In Early 20th Century Literature Violence seems so intrinsic to history individuals appear desensitized to the implications of subtle, vicious, or aggressive physical violence. Can we challenge emotional reactions or do transcendent principles guide human behavior to justify violence with reason? In early 20th century literature, violent and hostile acts were fundamental to a protagonist's resolution; authors used this theme to illustrate the prevalence of evil and question the effects on society when violence was tolerated. These works profoundly impacted the overall societal view on the implication of violence as evil. Contributed to raising consciousness as well as help change the perpetual discrimination at the time. On January 14, 1893, Vogue Magazine published an illuminating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Madame Valmonde, "My own Desiree come: Come home to Valmonde; back to your mother who loves you. Come with your child" (Chopin 424). Desiree confronts Armand one last time and hands him the letter from her mother and asks him if she should leave, "Yes go" he answers (Chopin 424). Once over Desiree asks, "Do you want me to go?", "Yes I want you to go" Armand answers (Chopin 424). Fueled by anger and hatred Armand disowns Desiree and his child. Armand's own internalized racism and the perpetual discrimination at the time facilitated his ability to renounce his clam to marriage and fatherhood. Desiree having a child of the ethnicity Armand helped keep violently and cruelly enslaved would reveal detrimental to her murder suicide. Furthermore, what is more tragically revealing is the later unveiling of Armand's true ethnicity from a letter written by his mother. Armand had hidden away a remnant letter written from his mother to his father stating, "night and day, I thank the good God for having so arranged our lives that our dear Armand will never know that his mother who adores him, belongs to the race that is cursed with the brand of slavery" (Chopin 425). Armand is aware of his ethnic background, still to avoid any accountability due to the perpetual societal discrimination at the time he cruelly and viciously blames Desiree to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 111. Selfishness And Pride In Twentieth Century Literature British literature in the twentieth century had many dark and twisted themes and stories written by many different kinds of people. Selfishness and pride are natural human emotions and and are shown in literature time and time again. In Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad The Company and Kurtz are the embodiment of selfishness and pride in this story. "The Destructors" by Graham Greene shows this theme when T. takes over the small, young "gang" that formed, which is simply the local young boys playing, and he destroys the house that they play near for his own pleasure. Another important piece of twentieth century literature is a poem "The Soldier" by Rupert Brooke shows the selfishness and pride through how this soldier believes that the place ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This is human's inherent selfishness and, to an extension, human's true nature. In the twentieth century literature pieces that I picked to show selfishness had an underlying tone of pride, whether that be pride in oneself or pride in your country or just the small Wormsley Common Gang. In these stories it's the pride that the soldier in "The Soldier" has for his country and the pride T. has for controlling the group of children and the pride Kurtz has for himself for controlling all the locals that makes humans, in these cases selfish and wanting more for that certain thing that anyone is prideful for. Human beings are inherently more selfish when prideful of the current situation they are a part ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 115. The Spread and Localization of Buddhism and Islam into... The spread of religion first began through contact with neighbouring countries which gradually expand throughout the years. Buddhism and Islam are one of the most widespread religions across Southeast Asian countries like Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Trade merchants and imperial support of the religion were major factors in the facilitation and localization of the spread of Buddhism and Islam within Southeast Asia. However, there were also limitations presented which hindered the development of each religion in within their countries as introduction of newer religions and changes to political and imperial power would have affected the progression to become fully localised pre–1800s. After the death ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This facilitated the increasing practice of Buddhism in Southeast Asia attributable to influences from foreign Buddhist merchants to the nations thus integrating itself into civilization and daily life (Adler and Pouwels 2008, 64). Imperial support played a major part in facilitation and localisation of the spread of Buddhism into Southeast Asia. Asoka, as mentioned, was a big supporter of Theravada Buddhism and was deemed an exemplar for future Buddhist emperor to establish Buddhism as a part of the country's traditions and lifestyle (Swearer 2010, 71). He believed that true conquest of a country was "by the force of the teachings of religion" (Swearer 1997, 89). Through his persistent method of conquest, he influenced several Theravada Buddhist rulers like King Kyanzittha of Pagan, Burma and King Tilokaraja of Chiang Mai, Thailand during 11th and 15th century respectively to position Buddhism as a part of their reign, conquest and authority (Swearer 2010, 71). This significantly enabled the localization of Buddhism into Southeast Asia especially in countries like Thailand who remains supportive of Buddhism as declared by the Chakri dynasty from the end of 18th century onwards (Bowker 2007, 150). It was through the support of imperial power that led the countries' citizens to gain interest in and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 119. Ancient Chinese Contributions Ancient Chinese Contributions Kenneth Smith Professor Maxine Brown HUM 111–World Cultures I November 29, 2012 The Ancient Chinese culture has contributed in many ways to the way of life today as we know it. Upon completion of this paper, I will have identified eight to ten useful inventions or contributions that are used in the world today. Some of these inventions include the compass, gunpowder, row planting, deep drilling, and toilet paper and so on. Within those eight to ten inventions, I will choose four that I believe are the most innovative. Row Planting (Feudal period – 6th Cent BC) The Chinese started planting crops in rows sometime in the 6th century BC. This allows the crops to grow stronger and faster. It facilitates ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It's assumed the discovery of occurred sometime earlier, since Zeng describes three different gunpowder mixtures and the Chinese used it for signal flares before appropriating it for military use in rudimentary grenades. Over time, we realized that metals added to the mixtures created brilliant colors in gunpowder explosions and modern day fireworks were born! It also makes a handy explosive for projectiles like bullets. (Josh Clark) Paper Once language begins to develop, though, humans wrote on anything that would stand still long enough. Clay tablets, bamboo, papyrus and stone were only a few of the early writing surfaces. Things changed once the Chinese, specifically a man named Cai Lun, invented the prototype for modern paper. Before Cai's breakthrough, the Chinese wrote on thin strips of bamboo and lengths of silk, but in AD 105, he created a mixture of wood fibers and water and pressed it onto a woven cloth. The weave in the cloth allowed the moisture in the pulpy mixture to seep out, resulting in rough paper. (Josh Clark) Toilet Paper (Sui Dynasty: 581–618 AD) As noted above, paper was an early invention of China. One of the first recorded accounts of using hygienic paper was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 123. Women in Pre-Eighteenth Century Literature Essay Throughout history woman have been portrayed in novels, often with varying degrees of sexism and/ or realism. From the representation of Mary Magdalene in The Bible, right through to J.K Rowling's Hermione Granger, story tellers and subsequent authors have seen fit to include such characters in their work. Of course one must remember that a lot of such novels would have been written by male authors, as was considered proper and that many female authors– such as the Bronte sisters, who famously wrote under the masculine pseudonyms of 'Action ,' 'Currer' and 'Ellis Bell'– were not permitted to write at all and had to do so under false names. It is because of this that much work that dates back to pre– eighteenth century, often ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... However, it must be noted further that the whole of the second paragraph makes great use of imagery and descriptive language, going to great detail as to describe the lady's facial features and indeed general appearance. Smollett also goes further though, as he describes her manor, and attitude. However, it must be noted that there is a distinct lack of insight into the lady's actual character, showing perhaps a lack of knowledge in this area. Indeed, the next paragraph goes on to further demean the female sex in general, as it portrays the other ladies as petty and frivolous caring only of looks and reputation among the 'right' type of society. If the reader had know clue as to the age of this text, then they could easily ascertain that it is somewhat ancient from the use of an archaic grammar practice, the use of a double vowel in the phrase '...an universal...' which is often considered unnecessary nowadays. Similarly if we look at passage B the use of archaic language is again prominent, as we see the word 'gay' being used in a context to mean happy and not in the slang form we see today. The use of language overall in this passage is somewhat more adapt for creating the imagery of the scene surrounding the action. In fact this passage includes no dialogue and is purely ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 127. Importance of Identity in Anglo J. M. Synge is one of the most prominent Irish writers of the twentieth century; his writing characterizes a broad, multifaceted range of political, social and religious anxieties shaping Ireland for the duration of its most remarkable period of change, which transformed the place from a relatively peaceful country to a more political and aggressive location. The picture Synge creates shows us that the question of identity relating to Ireland is problematic; however it has produced and provoked some of the greatest literature of the century. As G. J. Watson has asserted: "However painful the question of identity may be for the Irish in real life, it has functioned, deeply embedded as it is in the Irish political and literary ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Ronan McDonald states: "Enter the playboy Christy Mahon. Christy's poetry, like the cultural flowering of the Ascendancy, is based on a dirty deed that is aestheticized as a gallous story. In the course of the action it is exposed and then transcended. Christy comes to the Mayoites carrying a mark of culpability which, in the course of the play, he is privileged to purge. Culture confronts and expiates its violent origins in the controlled laboratory of the stage. The play comically, but unnervingly, explores the process by which violence is glorified and aestheticized. Yet it also, by a theatrical slight of hand, reveals the violence as chimerical, and allows Christy to pass through and survive the implications of his supposed atrocity." Ireland is shown for what it is; Synge offers us a critique which is almost satirical. There is a mystical quality to Ireland which is emphasised by its storytelling and folklore (Shanaitue), in which the Irish are a `nation of heroes'; a notion which is explored through the figure of Christy – who is himself a `Christ–like' figure – as he almost brings his father back from the dead in a sense. There is a sub–textual reference to the New Testament in this father– son relationship; Christy is in conflict with his father – and in a certain respect – he is `sacrificed' when he is burnt because he did not live up to the expectations people had of him. Synge treats the conflict between the relations with irony, and it is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 131. The Main Forces That Transitioned Europe Toward Modernity Ngo Humanities 4314 Midterm: October 12, 2014 Isser Woloch suggests that the key forces that transitioned Europe toward modernity are associated with four different developments which "coincided with and reinforced each other in final decades of the eighteenth century: (1) rising population; (2) increased agricultural productivity; (3) a vast increase in commerce, particularly in the exploitation of their colonies by Britain and France; and (4) the expansion of textile manufacturing and the beginnings of its structural transformation in England" (113). Population Growth Prior to the Europe's sustained growth, Europe struggled as far as keeping growth steady flowing; with that being said, as growth of population would reach its exponential, the population would shortly reach a downfall. The result of contagious diseases, crop failure, and the aftermath of war such as the Thirty Years War had altogether been the cause of a depopulated community. The fluctuation of population may be seen when one looks at the sixteenth century and the seventeenth century; for example, sixteenth century Europe had a rise in population while seventeenth century Europe suffered a significant decline in numbers for population. Europe's population suffered a downfall when the prices of grain and flour had risen following the law of supply and demand; facing the wraths of high prices and short supply, people would soon become undernourished and starving, possibly trying to fend off hunger by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 135. Summary Of Paintings: El Castillo Cave In Spain European cultural and practical ideals Paintings: El Castillo cave in Spain has the oldest known cave painting of 40,800 years ago. These western paintings show a continuous disrupted tradition from antiquity. In the early 19th century, painting was primarily concerned with the classical and representational mode of productions and later in late 19th century conceptual, abstract, and modern forms became popular. Western painting developments are historically parallel to those in Eastern painting. Sculpture: The first European sculpture was of female form and it is estimated to 35000 years of existence. The monumental sculpture was majorly composition of marble and bronze due to high value of cast bronze in the 5th century, many pieces of sculpture ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Facilitation of global circulation of goods was done by royal chartered European monopoly companies that arts of silver for purchasing Asians goods for Atlantic markets. The slave trade The slave trade was done through Sahara desert to the North Africa and it began in the 7th century AD. Slaves were sourced from all parts of Africa and sold to traders in Morocco, Libya, Egypt, and to southern Europe. In the 17th century slave trade had expanded and approximately 10,000 enslaved Africans a year was sold from West Africa. The transatlantic slave trade began in 15th century when the Portuguese started exploring West Africa cost. The arts that existed by then are; Manillas; It was a bracelet–shaped objects made in Bristol and was used as a form of currency. It was used by Britolian traders with other goods to purchase enslaved people. Belts: This was made from cowrie shell, it was mainly used in Congo in West Africa. White cowrie shells were traded across Indian oceans in Africa by European traders. This shell was used as a sign of wealth by decoration, as money, and also used to influence the owner. It might have been used as a medium of exchange for enslaved ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 139. Restrictions Of Women In 19th Century Literature The classic works of Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, and Charlotte Bronte are powerful examples of the restrictions that women of the 19th century endured. These women collectively penned several of the most famous novels ever written, subversively authoring their works either anonymously or under male names, thus allowing their novels to become much more widely read than they would have been. Emma, by Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte, and Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte, are all examples of works that call into question traditional roles of gender and social class and prove themselves to reveal similar themes in structure and style. These novels align themselves similarly from the very first lines by strongly establishing the tone ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While the feeling the reader experiences is quite different than the lighter tone of Emma, the reader does essentially experience a sense of relief, as they are allowed to immediately understand what type of work they are journeying into. Although Jane is glad to be spared of a dreary, cold walk in the winter rain, the first thoughts the reader are exposed to are those of someone who has a mind of her own, "We had been wandering, indeed..." (Bronte 372), but also of someone who is isolated and wounded. The reader can feel that this individual, although young, has a life that is wrought with tragedy, as she is taunted by John Reed, "...You are a dependent, mama says; you have no money; your father left you none; you ought to beg, and not to live here with gentlemen's children like us, and eat the same meals we do, and wear clothes at our mama's expense. Now, I'll teach you..." (Bronte 375). Bronte pulls on the heartstrings of the reader, urging one to find out what will happen to this poor girl, Jane, as we clearly begin to see who she is in the opening ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 143. How Is Literature Useful In The 21st Century How is Literature Useful in the 21st Century? The utility of literature in any century, let alone the 21st Century, is difficult to define. One can certainly make a compelling argument that there are hordes of young people that escape high school and college without actually reading literature. Sure, students are frequently exposed to literature, but do they actually engage critically with it? Do they even know how to read it? Do they understand it? Answers to these questions, as well as others, ultimately impact how one answers the initial question: how is literature useful in the 21st Century? The brief point to be made here is that literature is only useful so far as it's understood and appreciated. Assuming one satisfies both criteria then there is no telling how important literature can be in one's life. The plain fact is, and as Italo Calvino noted, "Every reading of a classic is in fact a rereading" and "A classic is a book that has never finished saying what it has to say." In other words, literature has resonance throughout one's life. Themes in literature are timeless and universal, relevant to any generation in any decade. As a result, literature can inform, instruct, inspire, console, etc. To explicate this idea, to make it less abstract, one should consider how relevant the following literary works are in today's times, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, A&P by John Updike and a Very Old Man with Enormous Wings by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 147. The Purpose Of The Athenian Army Part 3 1) The Athenian Army The purpose of the Athenian army was to was to secure Athenian democratic society. The army fought battles against other Greek states and foreign states most often against oligarchies and aristocracies. The army was managed by a polemarch (senior military title), along with ten generals from the ten tribes of Athens. The largest component of the army was the infantry composed of hoplites (citizens fighting in a full set of armour). They went into battle protected by a helmet, breastplate, and greaves (shin guards), carrying a large round shield and long spear. The state would sometimes issue such equipment to citizens who could not afford a set of their own. The Athenian army was primarily male citizens, who were made to enlist at the beginning of the year following their 18th birthdays. For two years, new "cadets" (known as ephebes) trained full time. After training, they rejoined public life, though they were committed to the army for 40 years. At any time, they could be called to duty to defend Athens.The people elect two athletic trainers and instructors for them, to teach them their drill as heavy–armed soldiers and to use the bow, javelin, and sling. Richer Athenians enrolled in the cavalry, as always, a smaller elite military force made up of those wealthy enough to own and maintain a good mount.The state would call upon an inspection and registration of all of the horses on an annual basis, so that the owner could draw a maintenance ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 151. Edgar Allan Poe Revlutionized Literature in the 19th Century Edgar Allan Poe revolutionized the literary world of the nineteenth century. Poe is a well–known author from the early 1800's, who was part of the dark romanticism movement. While later in life he was a brilliant writer, Edgar Allan Poe faced many problems in his early life. Although Poe experienced death within his family at a young age, the hardships he encountered are thought to have influenced his dark writing style. These death inspired elements within Poe's writing were ahead of their time. However, Edgar Allan Poe's excellent use of descriptive imagery and suspense is what makes his writing unique. These stylistic devices are evident in Poe's famous short stories, including "The Tell–Tale Heart" and "The Cask of Amontillado". Edgar Allan Poe uses imagery to develop a strong mood for readers in his short stories, this is part of what make his writing unique. For instance, in Poe's piece "The Cask of Amontillado", imagery is used to develop his signature dark mood for readers to experience. Poe uses descriptive details of the setting to enhance the mood. This is especially shown when the narrator states "Its walls had been lined with human remains piled to the vault overhead, in the fashion of the great catacombs of Paris... From the fourth the bones had been thrown down, and lay promiscuously upon the earth, forming at one point a mound of some size" (Poe 5). The narrator's description of the setting creates a dark, and frightening feeling for readers. In particular, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 155. Literature And Film From The Late Nineteenth- And Early... In focusing on literature and film from the late nineteenth– and early twentieth centuries, Somerville demonstrates how "emerging models of homo– and heterosexuality at the turn of the twentieth century were embedded within discourses of race and racialization, particularly bifurcated constructions of 'black' and 'white' bodies'" (175). Noting that the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court case, in which the government's right to determine an individual's racial identity was affirmed, emerged at the same time as the discourse of sexology, Somerville explains that "it was not merely a historical coincidence that the classification of bodies as either 'homosexual' or 'heterosexual' emerged at the same time that the United States was aggressively constructing and policing the boundary between 'black' and 'white' bodies" (3). Somerville argues that this new polarization of bodies and focus on desires reflected a similar, simultaneous shift in racial thinking. Over the same time period, the cultural figure of the mulatto gave way to a new vision of the races as natural opposites, and increasing numbers of legal and social mechanisms were put into place to prevent people of different races from having sex with one another. Thus the emergence of new sexual categories mirrored, and was profoundly influenced by, the hardening of the "color line," the stark division of Americans into strictly segregated categories of "black" and "white." One of the many strengths of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...