The technologies that would be ideal for this presentation are schools, science or news. A classroom, blog or email would be a good setting. Children and adults of any age or from any background who are interested in Homing Pigeons or scientific results would be a good audience. The visual aids are the technologies this presentation would be ideal for.
The hen pictured here, had never been flown an east course. She has only flown a south course. She was released with 125 other pigeons that were entered in the race. The release point was just west of Knoxville, TN. Distance to her loft was 772 miles to Ponca City, OK. The Weather on this race- Winds were varible, heat indices of 109 and 105 were noted on the 1st and 2nd day respectfully. 3 hours into the course 2 large hail storms blew up in western Tennessee, packing 80 mph winds and large hail. Three pigeons clocked on the 2nd day, 10 the 3rd and 28 total made it home by the end of the week.
The graph is to show the effects on the accuracy of pigeon homing and the results of magnetic anomalies during training sessions in tested flying experiments. Results from this test were inconclusive and could only suggest: The role of cues in providing unique labels or signatures of familiar sites, home and non-home cues may be difficult to distinguish from that of cues used to initially establish the spatial position of that site. I have noted myself, when training my pigeons, they do not fly a straight path but rather in a zigzag pattern.
The visuals in this slide show how a pigeon may see the earths magnetic field molecule “cryptochrome” in the active state in the birds retinal neurons. The birds inhale protons, the photoreceptors pick up magnetic activity and the magnetic energy is then sent to the retinal neurons. As stated by Daven (16 July 2010) “The biological magnate and ability to perceive magnetic fields with their eyes are thought to combine to form a very accurate mapping and directional system in the birds” (bullet, 24).
The pigeons in this test were deprived of potential sources of compass information (magnetic, olfactory, visual, kinesthetic) during displacement to the testing site to rule out the use of path integration or ("route reversal") to determine the home direction. They were enclosed in a box with various filters to mask their senses. The control group was kept in the loft while the experimental group was flown as early as 8 weeks. It was noted the hippocampus had grown significantly in the pigeons that had been flown. The hippocampus of the non-flown pigeons had not increased in size. This indicates the need for pigeons to be flown and orientated at an early age. When they released the non-flown pigeons, very few homed back to the loft. The visual in this slide is to show where the hippocampus is located in the pigeon brain.
This in one of the slides of the test to show deviation mean bearing at the receptor sites within their brain where it showed activity. The pigeons in this test were placed in box’s with different air filter systems so they were not exposed to ionized air. As observed by Wiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1981) “Olfactory deprivation either during displacement to a release site and/or during the homeward journey has been shown to cause increased scatter in initial homing orientation and/or decreased homing success in a large number of experiments” (p, 135-141).
The visual aid in this slide was to show the test that was involved to test memory and cognitive behavior. Pigeons performed a working memory task in which cues instructed them whether stimuli should be remembered or forgotten. The pigeons were exposed to 3 circles with different drawings. The pigeon had to learn which circle they to peck for feed. Once they pecked the right circle and were rewarded with a piece of corn they were removed until the next session. Out of 90 tests, the pigeons remembered 78 times.
The visuals in this slide were to give the audience cues of the areas of sensory information that pigeons use to navigate and a visual of earths magnetism. When deprived of sensory information in moving the pigeons to locations for releases, it was noted the pigeons took longer to orientate or took off in opposing directions. Taking them longer to find the direction home. The emerging picture from studies of the pigeon navigation systems is dependent on local environment, range of movement, and individual age or experience. Map information involving multiple sensory may be involved, including both olfactory and magnetic cues, as well as both map-based and route-based mechanisms for deriving spatial position at unfamiliar locations. Furthermore, both map and route-based sources of related information are likely to be replaced by large scale place or bearing maps as increased familiarity produces qualitative changes in the processing and neural representation of related information.
J smith unit_3_ip_project_navigational abilities of homing pigeons
American Racing Pigeon Union This presentation would be ideal for any technology.American Racing Pigeon Union., (2112). http://pigeon.org/beginnerscorner.htm
FreeDigitalPhotos.net FreeDigitalPhotos.net Photo by Jerrie Smith AU 08 8378 Kay Owned & Flown by Jerrie Smith. 3rd Place Long Distance Challenge Release Point- Knoxville, TN Destination- Ponca City, OK Never Flown an East Course Flew 772 Miles in 30 hours. Weather Conditions During Flight- 2 Large Thunderstorms, Hail, High winds. Heat indices of 105-109 Tests have been conducted scientifically to discover what cues Homing Pigeons use to navigate and how and in what areas of the brain they use that information to navigate.Compass /Sun Photo by: digitalart / FreeDigitalPhotos.net Pigeon Photos by: Jerrie Smith
(Schmidt-Koenig (1970) Permission granted to use material with citations and reference Dashed black line- Loft in Frankfurt, Germany Solid black - homeward component calculated from the pooled vanishing bearings of birds Effects of distance on accuracy of pigeon homing (Schmidt-Koenig, 1970).
Biological magnetite in the beak. Allows sense of direction Affects the light sensitivity of the bird’s retinal neurons The bird can see magnetic fields. Earth’s magnetic field effects how long a certain molecule, cryptochrome, in their photoreceptor cells stays in the active state. (Daven. 16 July 2010. bullet, 24).Compass /Sun Photo by: digitalart / FreeDigitalPhotos.net
The Hippocampus and Sun Placement As stated The full wiki., (n.d.)by, Dornfeldt, K.K., (1991), “We soughtto determine whetherthe initial flighttrajectories of pigeonsreleased at sites around Hippocampusthe anomaly wereassociated with thelocal orientation of theintensity field” (p, 107).
• Effects of exposure to bottled air and nonsense odors during displacement to unfamiliar release sites on the homeward orientation of pigeons. Vanishing bearings from four release sites plotted as deviations from the mean vector bearing of controls at(J.B. Phillips, J. Ganzhorn & K Schmidt-Koenig, unpublished data) each site. bearing (J.B. Phillips, J. Ganzhorn & K Schmidt- Koenig, unpublished data)
(Rose, J., & Colombo, M. 2005. 3(6), 1139-1146)a. Implanted a miniaturemicrodrive next to theprefrontal cortex.b. Neurons showedsustained activationthroughout the memoryperiodc. Delayed activity invisual areas may reflectmore of a code andrepresents the locationthat the subject wasattending to.
As noted by Jacobs & Schenk, (2003) “A pigeons navigational system is one ofvarious senses and is dependent on local environment, range of movementand age or experience” (p, 285-315). Map-Based Information Sight Olfactory Magnetic cues Memory Cognitive behavior The full wiki., (n.d.) The emerging picture from studies of the pigeon navigation systems is dependent on local environment, range of movement, and individual age or experience.
American Racing Pigeon Union., (2112). http://pigeon.org/beginnerscorner.htmDigitalart, (2012). Compass /Sun Photo. http://wwwFreeDigitalPhotos.netDaven., (16 July 2010). Humans Have a Lot More Than Five Senses. Today I found Out, Article. http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2010/07/humans-have-a-lot-more-than-five-senses/Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, Rose, J., & Colombo, M. (2005). Neural Correlates of Executive Control in the Avian Brain. Plos Biology, 3(6), 1139-1146. doi:10.1371/journal.pbi o.0030190. http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030190Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, Rose, J., & Colombo, M. (2005). Neural Correlates of Executive Control in the Avian Brain. Plos Biology, 3(6), 1139-1146. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030190 http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030190Dornfeldt, K. K. (1991). Pigeon homing in relation to geomagnetic, gravitational, topographical, and meteorological conditions. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 28(2), 107-123. http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.cecybrary.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=i3h&AN=8392526&site=eds- live&scope=site
Jacobs, L.F., & Schenk, F. (2003). Unpacking the cognitive map: The parallel map theory of hippocampal function. Psychological Review. (p, 110, 285-315).Phillips, J.B., Ganzhorn, J., & K Schmidt-Koenig. (2006). True Navigation: Sensory Bases of Gradient MapsPhillips, J.B., Adler, K., & Borland, S.C. (1995). True navigation by an Amphibian. Animal Behavior, 50, 855-858.Phillips, J.B., (1996). Magnetic Navigation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, (180, 309-319).The full wiki., (n.d.) Hippcampus Photo. http://a.tribalfusion.com/p.media/aFmOJZdUqQvWaQ9PqZbZaSs QLRFIxStf8UVfW4bemodiyXqqm2tbDQGMH5AMImdINTWb8Xbfc1FJk0EaMPU3CUbY0WHv3or JuPUfMYTFs3TZba4a70nEnG1rfdUtM1mmvBmcYsmtrJ3Evk2tEM4AJZcprMEXVfP1c330GjwpE7 U5bnWVUnZc1pMljic8pn/2540736/pop.htmlWiltschko, R., & Wiltschko, W. (1981). The Development of Sun Compass Orientation in Young Homing Pigeons. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology. (9(2), p, 135-141). http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.cecybrary.com/login.aspx?direct= true&db=i3h&AN=57739820&site=eds-live&scope=site