the information experience of newmothers in social media	a	  grounded	  theory	  study	  kate	  davis	  confirma4on	  of	  ...
background	  research	  ques4on	  literature	  review	  research	  methodology	  research	  design	  contribu4on	  next	  ...
new	  mothers	  and	  informa4on	  informa4on	  experience	  in	  social	  media	  new	  mothers	  and	  social	  media	  ...
* diverse and extensive 	     information needs	 * social isolation is on 	                 the rise	 * information plays ...
what is informationexperience?	      * interactions people have with information	                  * engagement with infor...
the	  ‘par4cipa4ve,	  mul4modal,	  flat	  and	  ever-­‐changing	  features	  of	  Web	  2.0	  services’	  (Špiranec	  &	  Z...
mothers are big users of 	                                                  social media	                                 ...
research	question
what is the nature of new mothers’information experience in socialmedia?	                               research	         ...
the	  literature	  review	  in	  grounded	  theory	                            theore4cal	  posi4oning	                   ...
an	  analy4cal	  overview	  of	  exis4ng	  related	  research,	  which	  highlights	  gaps	  and	  demonstrates	  the	  ne...
* relational view of information literacy	      * community information literacy	            * information in many forms	 ...
informa4on	  &	        * behavioural in focus	new mothers	            * descriptive in nature	                           *...
social	                                                 support	image	  courtesy	  justplainhope
new	  mothers	  &	  social media	                          image	  courtesy	  mayte_pons	  
research gaps	existing research	                                                  this study	behavioural	  in	  focus	    ...
grounded	  	                                            theory	1.  a	  methodology	  for	  the	  development	  of	      th...
history	Glaser	  and	  Strauss	     	  *	  response	  to	  the	  posi4vist,	  deduc4ve	  approach	  to	  inquiry	  in	  th...
why	                       constructivist                  grounded theory	*	  well	  suited	  to	  inquiry	  concerned	  ...
design	  pilot	  revised	  data	  collec4on	  strategies	                           research                           des...
participants	image	  courtesy	  sami	  taipale	  
sampling & recruitment
data collection	image	  courtesy	  lars	  plougman	  
data analysis	constant	  compara4ve	  method	         ini4al	      focused	     theore4cal	     satura4ng	     theore4cal	...
pilot	  study	  participants
pilot	  study	  data collection	          can you tell me about how you use          social media?
pilot	  study	  learnings	 construc4vist	  grounded	        semi-­‐structured,	  	                    interview	  	       ...
revised data collectionstrategies	     ini4al	  	      social	  media	  	     follow	  up	     Interview	         observa4...
theory	                     contribution	                                                theore4cal	  	                   ...
july	  2012	  	       autumn	  2013	  	     next	                                 theorising	     coursework	           ...
kate	  davis	  informa4on	  systems	  school	  science	  and	  engineering	  faculty	  queensland	  university	  of	  tech...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

The information experience of new mothers in social media: a grounded theory study


Published on

Slide deck for my PhD Confirmation of Candidature presentation, which I gave (and passed!) in April 2012. I have removed some illustrations of social media activity, which I had permission to use on the day, but this is the bulk of the presentation.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • * new mothers and information* information experience in social media* new mothers and social media
  • * Information experience is a concept that is still being defined.* This study will contribute to our understanding of information experience
  • * Web 2.0 has fundamentally changed the nature of information: how it is created, how it flows, how it is sourced, how it is used, and how it is interpreted. The ‘participative, multimodal, flat and ever-changing features of Web 2.0 services’ (Špiranec & Zorica, 2010, p. 151) are fundamentally different to the features of Web 1.0 and have undoubtedly had a profound impact on the nature of information experience.* Some of my colleagues have begun to explore information experience in social media, but it is a phenomenon that we are still conceptualising.
  • Mothers’ information experience is changing/has changedWe don’t have an empirically derived understanding of the nature of new mothers’ information experience in social mediaA theory that helps service providers, health professionals and other agencies understand the nature of new mothers’ information experience in social media can potentially help with service and platform design, and ultimately, result in positive information experiences for new mums.
  • The literature review will provide context for the research question by highlighting the gaps I found in the literature. It is these gaps that informed the development of the research question.My discussion of the literature here will be quite general, and I have not provided references for specific concepts. A reference list for my entire presentation today, including image sources, will be on my website in the next 24 hours. There’ll be an opportunity at the end of the presentation for you to jot down the URL.This literature review is broken up into five sections:the literature review in grounded theorytheoretical positioninginterdisciplinary research related to new mothers, mothers, and parents, and informationresearch related to the role of information in social support formothersnew mothers and social media
  • * Charmaz (2006): literature review should be conducted after the grounded theory is developedfocus for the literature review is on situating the constructed grounded theory within the existing literatureWhy delay? to avoid ‘contamination’ of data collection, analysis, and the constructed theory* to prevent being ‘awed out’ by other authors* difficult, if not impossible, to predict where the research will goArguments for an early review* establish a need for the research* contextualise the research by positioning within theoretical domains
  • * Moving on to the theoretical positioning of the study, this research is conceptually related to a relational view of information literacy.* IL has its roots in educational settings, but an increasing focus on IL in workplace and community settings.* Relational understandings of information literacy emphasise that information can be much more than text – highly relevant for the current study.* With its focus on the everyday information experience of mothers, this study could be considered a community IL study.* While the label ‘information experience’ is not used widely within the literature, there is a growing body of research that explores aspects of information experience. This study contributes to that body of research and will contribute to discussions that seek to position information experience as a new domain of study.
  • studies from across interdisciplinary literature, including health, health information, communication, and psychologyThe literatures tell us that information is very important to new mothers* mothers are active users of a diverse range of information* information seeking as a function of parenting* becoming a mother* the literature describes + information needed by mothers + where they look for information + what sources they value + issues they have in information interactions* key themes across studies related to sources of information are + health information and health practitioners + parenting information and the importance of shared experiences + the internet as information source, however, strong focus on ‘traditional’ information sources - internet now included as an information source - virtually no consideration of social media as a space for information interactions + personalisation and timelinessGeneral observations about the literature are that it is* behavioural in focus + mechanics of information seeking and use a strong theme* descriptive in nature + describes the type of information required and the sources used to acquire it* picture is incomplete + focus on health information seeking* no empirical studies that describe the ‘lived experience’ of mothers with relation to information + little or no consideration of the broader, more holistic picture of information experience* very limited application of theoretical constructs or frameworks from the information studies domain because the majority of the research is from other fields of study* literature related to maternal role attainment reports information as important but there is very limited information research that focuses on the ‘becoming a mother’ phase* little or no consideration of non purposive information seeking + behavioural approach narrows the range of actions studied
  • studies from literatures of nursing, health promotion, and psychology* mothers are increasingly isolated + decreasing numbers of stay at home mothers + women delaying childbirth until later in life + medicalisation of birth* online social support for mothers a strong theme + focus on spaces created for health or social work interventions + limited literature related to using the internet as part of everydaylife* online interactions akin to offline interactions + social support can be provided through online channels + social capital is built in online parenting communities* information sharing is intrinsic to the process of mother to mother support* shared experience a driver for women to seek parentinginformation online* the venue might be different, but maternal identity is unchanged + in fact there is a strong suggestion that gendered stereotypes related to parenting are reinforced online* no exploration of the role of social media in the provision of social or informational support
  • studies from literatures of nursing, health promotion, and psychology* very limited discussion of mothers’ use of social media in the research literature of any discipline* majority of discussion limited to trade publications and mainstream press* ‘mummy blogger’ phenomenon has begun to attract attention of researchers from psychology, health education, feminism, and media and communication – a handful of studies only* two key themes: + identity and self concept: research suggests that there are two categories of mummy bloggers: those that blog exclusively about family life, and those that blog about other topics in addition to family life – this latter group may be writers that have come to mummy blogging to hone their craft + mummy bloggers share a real sense of community* mummy blogging is only one aspect of the social media activity mothers are engaged in. Even mummy bloggers use other media extensively* mothers’ experiences using social media are largely absent from the literature* this specific cohort completely missing
  • This is a qualitative study that applies constructivist grounded theory.
  • * I’ll now provide an overview of the research design, including a discussion of the pilot study and the refinement of the research design following the pilot study* the design of this study has been significantly revised following the pilot. For this reason, I will begin by discussing the aspects of the original design that will be retained moving forward. These aspects include the target participant group, recruitment strategies, sampling strategies, and data analysis procedures* I’ll then turn to a discussion of the pilot study, including the original data collection design and lessons learned* finally, I’ll provide an overview of the revised data collection strategy
  • * Australian women who currently reside in Australia* I’ve chosen women, because in Australia, women still spend significantly more time on child care related activities than men* new mothers who use social media of one kind or more kinds with regularity* limited to women whose eldest child is under the age of two years* no explicit geographic limits but conducting face-to-face interviews may limit the potential to include women from remote areas* for the purposes of this study, ‘new mother’ is taken to mean a woman whose eldest child is under the age of two years + the literature around maternal role attainment suggests that women develop their maternal identity within a year of the child’s birth, but also that the process of ‘becoming a mother’ extends beyond attainment of maternal identity + other transitions related to milestones and ‘growing up’ in general impact on the woman’s development as a mother + many mothers may feel they re-inhabit the persona of new mother as their child moves through developmental stages + limiting participants to those whose child is under the age of two years allows the period during which maternal role attainment occurs to be considered, while also allowing mothers whose children are entering toddlerhood to be included. This is important because these mothers may feel they are re-inhabiting the persona of ‘new mother’ during this period
  • * non probability sampling is typical of grounded theory studies* data collection and analysis are undertaken simultaneously, with sampling strategies varied as required by the emerging categories* study commenced with convenience sampling* convenience sampling allows the researcher to explore the boundaries of the phenomenon and determine the direction for the study* snowball sampling will be used to extend the convenience sample* as categories begin to emerge, purposeful sampling may be used to attract participants based on their representation of a particular populating or context* eventually, the study will use theoretical sampling to refine and build upon categories, with participants selected for their ability to help me to develop the categories* it is not possible to anticipate the sample size as I will return to the field until categories are saturated and no new insight is gained from data collection* recruitment strategies will primarily take place in social media spaces* ethics clearance has been obtained to allow recruitment messages to be broadcast using my own Twitter and Facebook accounts* a number of different messages have been designed to appeal to different audiences* recruitment through social media is akin to ‘viral marketing’ and will depend on my networks’ willingness to pick up the messages and redistribute them* ethics clearance has also been obtained to distribute flyers, for example, through general practice surgeries and play groups, and a flyer was included in the recent Digital Parents Conference satchel* participants are also invited to distribute messages about the study
  • * the study was designed to make use of in depth, semi structured interviews, which would be supplemented with a pre-interview questionnaire designed to capture demographic and other data to contextualise the interview data.* I’ll discuss the interview procedure in detail when I give an overview of the pilot study shortly, and again when I discuss the future directions for data collection. I’m sure you’ll remember this image when we come to that part of the presentation. * for now, let’s turn to data analysis
  • * constructivist grounded theory provides a specific process for data analysis* the guidelines are ‘systematic, yet flexible’ and are meant to give guidance, not act as rules* the constant comparative method forms the basis of grounded theory analysis, through the entire analysis process – from coding to theorising. Comparison is a key activity* Charmaz and Henwood provide six guidelines for analysis, and while some of these occur sequentially, the process isn’t linear + memo writing is an example of a step in the grounded theory analysis process that does not occur as one stage of a linear model – memo writing involves the researcher writing notes to themselves to unpack concepts, define categories or make comparisons. I also used memos heavily in the pilot to allow reflection on the data collection methods* the remaining steps do occur on a continuum of sorts + initial coding involves the research working quickly through the data on a line-by-line basis, apply analytic, active codes – codes are usually gerunds that describe an action + focused coding takes the most frequent or significant codes and applies these to larger segments of data; codes are assessed for their appropriateness and refined; at this point, codes become categories + theoretical sampling occurs when sampling is directed by the emerging categories and it is through this process that the researcher works towards greater levels of abstraction, eventually moving from categories to more abstract theoretical concepts + saturating theoretical concepts is about using theoretical sampling to return to the field and collect additional data. Saturation is achieved when the theoretical concepts are well defined and returning to the field does not shed any further light on them + finally, theoretical sorting involves sorting and integrating memos* the final stage in grounded theory analysis is theorising* the final outcome for a grounded theory study is a grounded theory, which makes use of quotes from interviews and contextualises the theory within literature.* on a practical note, interview recordings will be transcribed and coding will make use of the computer assisted qualitative data analysis software HyperRESEARCH
  • Moving on now to the pilot study, which was undertaken at the end of 2011 and which included four participants. * one recruitment message sent via Twitter and one posted to Facebook* convenience sample recruited* of the four pilot participants, I had a prior connection with three of them + one was a long term friend who saw my status on Facebook + one was a health practitioner who I see regularly and interact with on Facebook + one was a ‘mummy blogger’ who I’ve been following on Twitter, and vice versa, for some time + one had seen a social media message that someone in my network had re-posted* I sought participants I could access for face-to-face interviews as conducting the interviews in person was part of the research design. However, one of the participants lived in a regional area that I couldn’t access. I decided to go ahead with the interview via Skype.* flexibility with the age cut off for participants’ children assisted with identifying a sample in a timely way, and also allowed me to explore what the term ‘new mother’ might mean to participants. I included on participant who had two children, with the oldest aged two years and ten months, and another participant, also with two children, whose oldest child was aged two years and six months
  • * the main data collection technique for the pilot study was interviews, in particular, in-depth, semi structured interviews* a uniform interview procedure was applied across the pilot. This procedure was outlined in an interview guide I used for each interview* as constructivist grounded theory emphasises the importance of considering context for the data, a pre-interview questionnaire was used to gather some background information about each participant. This will also assist with theoretical sampling later in the project* three of the three pilot interviews were conducted face-to-face and recorded using an MP3 player* one interview was conducted as a Skype voice call and was recorded using the software Call Recorder* following the interviews,audio recordings were transcribed * a single open-ended question was used to start the discussion, with a variety of follow up questions used to allow the participants to expand and clarifyThere are two things I’d like to highlight in terms of the interview questionThe first of these is that I deliberately left the word ‘information’ out of the question. I discussed this approach extensively with my principal supervisor and also with other researchers in our research group. I felt it was quite important to exclude the word information for three reasons. Firstly, the word ‘information’ carries with it connotations of textuality. In the social media environment, and indeed, within the field of everyday information literacy research, information can come in many different packages. I did not want participants to subconsciously limit the discussion by their understanding of the word ‘information. Secondly, a more general question is in line with the constructivist approach to interviewing in grounded theory because it gives the participants power to direct the discussion in any way that they wish. Which relates to the third reason, which is that I believe it is my job as the researcher to guide the participant in the interview and to analyse the data and make connections between what they say and the specific phenomenon I’m investigating. This approach is consistent with other information literacy research, where typically researchers do not use the term ‘information literacy’ in the interviews.The other point I’d like to highlight in terms of the researcher question is that the intention was to test two different questions: + can you tell me about how you use social media? + can you tell me about how you use social media as a new mum?* I wanted to provide some participants with the opportunity to respond to a question that did not focus on their status as a new mother. This was motivated by a desire to see whether participants would focus on their role as a new mother, or answer on a more holistic level, which would essentially give participants the power to direct the interview. Again, this is in line with the constructivist approach to grounded theory.* however, it quickly became apparent that the process of self selecting the participants went through in making themselves available for the study meant that their focus in the interview was on their role as a mother. Interestingly, though, all participants touched on their use of social media in other aspects of their lives* the more specific question was used throughout the interviews because it provided an appropriate focus and did not prevent participants from talking about social media is other aspects of their lives
  • * the pilot study resulted in a number of key learnings that confirm the validity of approaches and that will impact on the design of the study moving forward* the suitability of the constructivist approach to grounded theory was confirmed. The pilot interviews revealed that the phenomenon itself aligns with the constructionist/constructivist epistemology. Participants’ social media interactions allowed them to co-construct maternal identities, beliefs, values and a body of knowledge on parenting* the appropriateness of in depth, semi structured interviews as a data collection technique was confirmed as my confidence as an interviewer increased, and the interviews became lengthier and meatier* the pilot also confirmed that the interview question Can you tell me about how you use social media as a new mother? is appropriate. The specificity of this question assisted participants in understanding the parameters of the interview and confirmed their expectations of the interview, but did not seem to preclude speaking about use of social media in other aspects of their lives.* there were two key learnings about the conduct of interviews: that face-to-face interviews are desirable because it is easier to establish rapport in a face-to-face interaction; and that it is not possible to conduct interviews with a toddler present + the first interview was conducted via Skype but we had to turn the video off as the connection was too slow. This meant I had no visual cues, which, combined with a delay in the audio, meant I cut the participant off a few times. I was also unable to tell that the participant was becoming distracted by a child crying in another room, because I couldn’t see her. + the final interview couldn’t proceed because there was a toddler present who wanted me to play with him, and when he eventually got settled watching Play School, he was immediately distracted by the beep of my MP3 recorder and wanted to investigate. His infant brother slept through the period in which the interview was to be conducted, but he wanted to be involved and his mother was unable to concentrate* my prior connections with some of the participants meant that I had interacted with them in social media before the interviews. I found it quite challenging to ensure I focused on the content of the interview, without bringing my pre- existing knowledge of the participants and their use of social media into the interview. It was tempting to ask participants about particular actions that I had observed in their social media engagement. I became aware of how much richer the data for this project would be if I included observation and if I had the opportunity to speak with the participants about their use of social media after observing them. For this reason, I’ve decided to revise the data collection strategy to include observation and a follow up interview. This is in line with Charmaz’s suggestion that using ethnographic techniques, particularly observation, in combination with interviews provides a rich data set for grounded theory studies.
  • The information experience of new mothers in social media: a grounded theory study

    1. 1. the information experience of newmothers in social media a  grounded  theory  study  kate  davis  confirma4on  of  candidature  april  2012  
    2. 2. background  research  ques4on  literature  review  research  methodology  research  design  contribu4on  next   outline
    3. 3. new  mothers  and  informa4on  informa4on  experience  in  social  media  new  mothers  and  social  media   background
    4. 4. * diverse and extensive information needs * social isolation is on the rise * information plays an important part in the process of maternal role attainment new  mothers  &   information
    5. 5. what is informationexperience? * interactions people have with information * engagement with information informa4on  experience  in     social media
    6. 6. the  ‘par4cipa4ve,  mul4modal,  flat  and  ever-­‐changing  features  of  Web  2.0  services’  (Špiranec  &  Zorica,  2010,  p.  151)  are  fundamentally  different  to  the  features  of  Web  1.0  and  have  undoubtedly  had  a  profound  impact  on  the  nature  of  informa4on  experience   informa4on  experience  in     social media being ‘in flow’ with information image  courtesy  misterbisson  
    7. 7. mothers are big users of social media new  mothers  &  image  courtesy  @taliacarbis   social media
    8. 8. research question
    9. 9. what is the nature of new mothers’information experience in socialmedia? research   question
    10. 10. the  literature  review  in  grounded  theory   theore4cal  posi4oning   mothers  &  informa4on   mothers  &  social  support   new  mothers  &  social  media  literature review
    11. 11. an  analy4cal  overview  of  exis4ng  related  research,  which  highlights  gaps  and  demonstrates  the  need  for  the  study   the  literature  review  in   grounded theory
    12. 12. * relational view of information literacy * community information literacy * information in many forms * body of research related to information experience theore4cal   positioning
    13. 13. informa4on  &   * behavioural in focus new mothers * descriptive in nature * incomplete picture * limited consideration of ‘lived experience’ * limited attention to new mothers * limited consideration of non-purposive activities
    14. 14. social   support image  courtesy  justplainhope  
    15. 15. new  mothers  &  social media image  courtesy  mayte_pons  
    16. 16. research gaps existing research this study behavioural  in  focus   holis4c  focus  on  experience  descrip4ve  in  nature   analy4cal  with  a  focus  on  making  connec4ons   and  genera4ng  theory  focus  on  health  informa4on  seeking   inclusive  of  all  informa4on  interac4ons  focus  on  purposive  informa4on  seeking   holis4c  view  of  everyday  informa4on   experience;  mothers’  lived  experience  with   informa4on  limited  applica4on  of  exis4ng  (behavioural)   applies  induc4ve  techniques  to  develop  informa4on  theories,  with  emphasis  on   theory  abduc4on  where  applied  focus  on  ‘tradi4onal’  informa4on  sources;   focus  on  social  media  insignificant  aWen4on  to  social  media  focus  on  parents  in  general  or  mothers  of   focus  on  new  mothers  children  of  an  unspecified  age  
    17. 17. methodology
    18. 18. grounded     theory 1.  a  methodology  for  the  development  of   theory  that  is  grounded  in  the  research   data  2.  the  theory  that  results  from  the   applica4on  of  the  methodological   framework  
    19. 19. history Glaser  and  Strauss    *  response  to  the  posi4vist,  deduc4ve  approach  to  inquiry  in  the  social      sciences      *  emphasis  on  ‘discovering’  theory    *  The  discovery  of  grounded  theory  presented  a  systema4c  approach  to      qualita4ve  research  and  theory  development  Strauss  and  Corbin    *  began  to  move  grounded  theory  toward  verifica4on    *  Basics  of  qualita6ve  research  was  less  flexible  in  approach,  emphasised      verifica4on,  added  technical  procedures  Charmaz  (and  Bryant)    *  data  and  analysis  co-­‐created  by  researcher  and  par4cipant    *  theory  is  constructed,  rather  than  discovered  
    20. 20. why   constructivist grounded theory *  well  suited  to  inquiry  concerned  with  understanding  phenomena  *  there  is  no  substan4ve  theory  to  explain  the  nature  of  new  mothers’    informa4on  experience  in  social  media  *  strong  precedent  for  the  use  of  grounded  theory  in  informa4on  research  *  construc4vist  approach  matches  the  researcher’s  world  view  and  is    appropriate  for  the  phenomenon  under  study  
    21. 21. design  pilot  revised  data  collec4on  strategies   research design
    22. 22. participants image  courtesy  sami  taipale  
    23. 23. sampling & recruitment
    24. 24. data collection image  courtesy  lars  plougman  
    25. 25. data analysis constant  compara4ve  method   ini4al   focused   theore4cal   satura4ng   theore4cal   coding   coding   sampling   concepts   sor4ng  memo  wri4ng  
    26. 26. pilot  study  participants
    27. 27. pilot  study  data collection can you tell me about how you use social media?
    28. 28. pilot  study  learnings construc4vist  grounded   semi-­‐structured,     interview     face-­‐to-­‐face  interviews   theory   in  depth     ques4on   interviews   mul4ple     social  media   sequen4al     toddlers   observa4on   interviews  
    29. 29. revised data collectionstrategies ini4al     social  media     follow  up   Interview   observa4on   interview   (f2f)   (Skype  or  f2f)   pre-­‐interview   ques4onnaire  
    30. 30. contribution
    31. 31. theory contribution theore4cal     model:  new  mothers’   practice informa4on  experience   method in  social  media   experience    facilitate  understanding   approach   of  how  new  mothers   informa4on  experience   use  social  media   in  social  media   combina4on     of  methods  within   grounded  theory   informa4on  experience   inform     framework   as  a  research  domain   use  of  social  media     by  health  providers  &   other  agencies  to   everyday     connect  with  new   or  community   mothers   informa4on     research  
    32. 32. next
    33. 33. july  2012     autumn  2013     next theorising   coursework   literature     review  revision  data  collec4on  &   analysis   wri4ng  
    34. 34. kate  davis  informa4on  systems  school  science  and  engineering  faculty  queensland  university  of  technology  |  |  @ka4edatwork   questions