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By: Ben Issler and Katherine Salcedo-Concepcion
Introduction 16 instruments mentioned in the Torah Shofar appears 72 times Mentioned in the Old Testament Most frequent instrument Instrument developed by the ancient Hebrews Specific manufacture instructions given by rabbi Made from Ram’s right horn Smooth Horn Crescent shaped
The Shofar Etymology means “trumpet” First used in Torah(Exodus 19:16,19) On Mount Sinai Camp trembled with fear
Forms of the Shofar Ritual Memorial of blowing of trumpets (Leviticus 23:24) Day of Atonement (Leviticus 25:9) Transfer of the Ark (2 Samuel 6:15) War Walls of Jericho (Josh 6:4,6,8,13) ○ Symbolic meaning ○ Perceived as being supernatural Signal Commands and ceremony (1 Kings 1:34,39) Feast of New Moon (Psalm 81:3) Alarm (Ezekiel 33:3) Solomon’s Succession to the Throne (1 Kings 1:34) Confounding Evil Solomons prayer (1 kings 8:37, Leviticus 26:6)
Instrumentation Two forms: Linear Shofar Yemenite Shofar
Calls of the Shofar Tekiah Teruah Shevarim TekiahGedolah Others calls
Rosh HashanahTekiah – shevarim – teruah – tekiahTekiah – shevarim – tekiahTekiah – teruah – tekiah Numbers 10:6-8 describes these blasts
Movie: The Four 4 Traditional Shofar Blastshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkThNw210is
Modern Representationthroughout the world Differences when it’s used Differences in how it’s made Different calls used
Symbolism Monotheism Transcendental powers (sound of the neshama) References in Torah to the sound God makes while walking Part of a dominant cultural symbol During Rosh Hashanah Different sounds symbolize different meanings Tekiah Teruah Shevarim TekiahGedolah
Oriental Fantasy Stage performance sound clip.
How it is used in modern Israel Rosh Hashanah/Yom Kippur Presidency Welcoming Shabbat Holocaust Siren sounded for two minutes on Yom Hashoah (Day of Remembrance) Meant to match theShofarwail Shofar as a call for action
Resources http://www.mid-east.com/Info/shofars.html The Sounding of the Shofar: David Wulstan “Accessories of Holiness”: Defining Jewish Sacred Objects by Virginia Greene. http://www.myjewishlearning.com/holidays/ Jewish_Holidays/Rosh_Hashanah/In_the_ Community/Shofar.shtml http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles /13602-shofar