Week 5 2010


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organizational behavior WEEK 5

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Week 5 2010

  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort to attain a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>3 KEY ELEMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INTENSITY – how hard a person tries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIRECTION –where the drive is channeled, is it in the same direction as the organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSISITENCE – how long a person maintains effort </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Motivation Process <ul><li>Unsatisfied need creates tension </li></ul><ul><li>Tension stimulates drive w/in individual </li></ul><ul><li>Drives generate a search to find attainable goals that will satisfy the need </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to reduced tension </li></ul>
  5. 5. EARLY THEORIES <ul><li>1. Motivation Process </li></ul><ul><li>2. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>3. Theory X and Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>4. Motivation/Hygiene Theory </li></ul><ul><li>5. McClelland’s Theory of Needs </li></ul>
  6. 6. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES <ul><li>6. Goal-setting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>7. Reinforcement Theory </li></ul><ul><li>8. Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>9. Expectancy Theory </li></ul>
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Self-Actualization: realization of potential Truth , rather than dishonesty </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem: self respect, autonomy, recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Social: affection, belonging, friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: security and protection from harm </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological: hunger, thirst, shelter, bodily needs </li></ul><ul><li>Each need must be satisfied before you can move to the next level of need </li></ul><ul><li>Universally popular but not validated by research </li></ul>
  9. 9. Self actualization <ul><li>Goodness , rather than evil. Beauty , not ugliness or vulgarity. Unity, wholeness, and transcendence of opposites , not arbitrariness or forced choices. Aliveness , not deadness or the mechanization of life. Uniqueness , not bland uniformity. Perfection and necessity , not sloppiness, inconsistency, or accident. Completion , rather than incompleteness. Justice and order , not injustice and lawlessness. Simplicity , not unnecessary complexity. Richness , not environmental impoverishment. Effortlessness , not strain. Playfulness , not grim, humorless, drudgery. Self-sufficiency , not dependency. Meaningfulness, rather than senselessness . </li></ul>
  10. 10. SELF ACTUALIZED PEOPLE <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Addams </li></ul><ul><li>William James </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Schweitzer </li></ul><ul><li>Aldus Huxley </li></ul><ul><li>Eleanor Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>THEORY X & THEORY Y </li></ul>
  12. 12. Theory X & Theory Y Douglas McGregor <ul><li>McGregor maintained: </li></ul><ul><li>-Two fundamental approaches to managing people </li></ul><ul><li>Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened managers use theory y , which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theory x <ul><li>AUTHORITARIAN Management Style </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Employees inherently dislike work & try to avoid it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Therefore, the must be coerced, controlled and -threatened to achieve goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Employees avoid responsibility and see direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Security is the most important factor, very little ambition </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Theory Y PARTICIPATIVE <ul><li>Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees exercise self-direction & self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average employees accept and seek responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees view work as being as natural as rest or play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to make innovative decisions is shared by everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No validity to support either set of assumptions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>however may be appropriate in a particular situation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>policy </li></ul><ul><li>relationship with supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>work conditions </li></ul><ul><li>salary </li></ul><ul><li>company car </li></ul><ul><li>status </li></ul><ul><li>security </li></ul><ul><li>relationship with subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>personal life </li></ul>Examples of Herzberg's 'hygiene' needs (or maintenance factors) in the workplace are:
  16. 16. Motivation/Hygiene theory Dave Herzberg WHAT DO PEOPLE WANT FROM THEIR JOB? <ul><li>Hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>-quality of supervision </li></ul><ul><li>-pay </li></ul><ul><li>-company policies </li></ul><ul><li>-working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>-relationships </li></ul><ul><li>-job security </li></ul><ul><li>Motivator factors affect job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>-promotional opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>-personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>-recognition </li></ul><ul><li>-responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>-achievement </li></ul>
  17. 18. HERZBERG <ul><li>This theory has broad appeal, widely read </li></ul><ul><li>Not much support of the theory </li></ul>
  18. 19. McClelland’s Theory of Needs three types of motivational need <ul><li>Need for Achievement: </li></ul><ul><li>The n-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Power: </li></ul><ul><li>The n-pow person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation: </li></ul><ul><li>The n-affil person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Goal Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific goals lead to increased performance . Difficult goals result in higher performance than easier goals/. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Goal-setting the <ul><li>Goals should be specific and difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Set the highest goals achievable </li></ul><ul><li>Make goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Why are difficult goals motivating? <ul><li>Direct your attention to the task at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Help you to focus </li></ul><ul><li>Energize you because you have to work harder </li></ul><ul><li>People persist longer at achieving a difficult goal </li></ul><ul><li>Leads us to discover new strategies to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Research concludes that setting specific, challenging goals for employees is the best thing a manager can do to improve performance. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Self-Efficacy Theory <ul><li>Also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>An person’s belief that they are capable of performing a task </li></ul><ul><li>The higher your self efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed, the more motivated you become when feedback is negative </li></ul><ul><li>Current theorist associated is Albert Bandura </li></ul>
  23. 24. EQUITY THEORY <ul><li>PEOPLE COMPARE WHAT THEY PUT IN AND WHAT THEY GET OUT OF A JOB, TO OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>We put in: effort, experience, education, competence </li></ul><ul><li>We get out: salary, raises, recognition </li></ul><ul><li>If we believe our comparison to others is equal, we believe this is fair and just </li></ul><ul><li>If we believe our comparison is unequal we experience tension: if under rewarded tension leads to anger, if over rewarded tension leads to guilt </li></ul>
  24. 25. EXPECTANCY THEORY <ul><li>Theorist Victor Vroom </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, most widely accepted explanation of motivation . </li></ul><ul><li>EMPLOYEES WILL BE MOTIVATED TO EXERT A HIGH LEVEL OF EFFORT IF: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The effort leads to a good performance appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A good performance appraisal will lead to financial rewards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The financial rewards will satisfy personal needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. expectancy <ul><li>The premise of this theory is that organizations would reward individuals for performance rather than according to criteria, such as seniority, effort, skill level, or job difficulty. </li></ul>