Wee k3 2010

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organizational behavior WEEK 3

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  • Different ways to look at an organization. Organizations can be looked at INDIVIDUAL LEVEL – the people within the organization, each individual employee within the organization. The GROUP LEVEL which includes departments, teams. The SYSTEM LEVEL is looking at the organization as a whole, what is their culture, identify.
  • Veterans: Great Depression, WWII, began working in the 50’s and 60’s. Also called traditionalists. Highest priority is a comfortable life and family security. Boomers: Born after WWII, grew up when times were good. Civil rights, Beatles, Vietnam, hippie ethic, distrust of authority. Strive to achieve and material success. Seek accomplishment and social recognition. Xers: MTV, AIDS, both parents have careers, computers, Value flexibility, family and relationships, skeptical of authority team oriented, money is important but not as impt. as leisure time and lifestyle. Seek balance. Priorities are friendship, happiness and pleasure. Nexters, Netters, Millennials, Generation Yers. High expectations and seek meaning from work. Life goals to become rich. Diversity is natural and take technology for granted. ATM’s DVD’s, cell phones, laptops, internet. Questioning, socially conscious, and entrepreneurial. High maintenance but high performing.
  • EXAMPLE: BELIEVE HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY BUT SAY NOTHING WHEN YOU GET BACK TOO MUCH CHANGE. Tell kids to brush after every meal but you don’t. Profitability vs. pollution
  • Wee k3 2010

    1. 1. VALUES ATTITUDES PERCEPTION
    2. 2. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS <ul><li>INDIVIDUAL LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>The behavior of the individual in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Personality, values, attitudes, perceptions, motivation, moods & emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROUP LEVEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavior of people in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group behavior, teams, communication, leadership, trust, power, politics, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict & negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATION SYSTEM LEVE L </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization’s structures affects behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure, culture, policies, practices, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change and development </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. INDIVIDUAL LEVEL <ul><li>Values, attitudes, perceptions & learning </li></ul><ul><li>VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>basic convictions that a specific more of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable. Involves judgment. </li></ul>
    4. 4. DOMINANT VALUES IN TODAY’S WORKFORCE <ul><li>COHORT AGE VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>-Veterans 65+ hardworking, conservative, conforming </li></ul><ul><li>loyal to organization </li></ul><ul><li>-Boomers 40-60 success, ambitious, dislike authority, loyal to career </li></ul><ul><li>-Xers (GenX) 20-40 work/life balance, team oriented, dislike rules, loyal to relationships </li></ul><ul><li>-Nexters* Under 30 confident, financial success, self-reliant but team oriented, loyal to self and organization </li></ul>
    5. 5. Millennials <ul><li>The generation born from 1982-2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Also referred to as the iGeneration and the Net Generation due to their hardwiring for technology. They have also been called Generation Y because they are born after Gen-X (1961-1981); however, the characteristics of Millennials are significantly different. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Millennials Born 1977 – 1998 75 million <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>* optimistic * tech-savvy, digital natives * collaborative and they enjoy cooperative activities * used to clear structure from adults; and in fact, they expect it * having strong parent advocates * multicultural * confident * civic-minded * goal-oriented * multitasking </li></ul>
    7. 7. Characteristics cont <ul><li>• Largest generation: (more than 80 million) </li></ul><ul><li>• Most diverse college generation </li></ul><ul><li>• Aiming for graduate school </li></ul><ul><li>• Family oriented </li></ul><ul><li>• Heavily stressed </li></ul><ul><li>• Living in a no boundaries world </li></ul><ul><li>• Technology is a way of life (IM) </li></ul><ul><li>• Concerned with community yet spend 20% of their waking time alone </li></ul>
    8. 8. Core Personality Traits <ul><li>Special </li></ul><ul><li>Sheltered </li></ul><ul><li>Confident </li></ul><ul><li>Team-Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Pressured </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving </li></ul>
    9. 11. ATTITUDES <ul><li>Evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events. They reflect how we feel about something. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Job Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>- job satisfaction: positive feeling about a job </li></ul><ul><li>-job involvement: job performance important to self worth </li></ul><ul><li>-organizational commitment: individual identifies with goals of organization and wants to be a part of it </li></ul>
    10. 12. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE <ul><li>Occurs when there are inconsistencies between two or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s behavior and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>-Suggests that people seek to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes. In other words, individuals SEEK CONSISTENCY. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If individuals are required by job to things that contradict their personal attitude, they will modify that attitude in order to make it combatable with the cognition of what they must do. </li></ul>
    11. 13. Attitudes vs. Behavior <ul><li>Attitudes considered to be important have more impact on behavior </li></ul><ul><li>-the more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior, the stronger the link </li></ul><ul><li>-attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behavior </li></ul><ul><li>-the relationship between attitudes and behavior if the attitude is the result of a personal experience </li></ul><ul><li>-discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur when social pressures hold exceptional power </li></ul>
    12. 14. Perception <ul><li>Process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>We do not see reality, we interpret what we see and call it reality </li></ul><ul><li>People have inherent biases in how they see others nd in how they make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is a mental and cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our surroundings </li></ul>
    13. 15. Why are perceptions important <ul><li>They can be the source of communication distortion </li></ul><ul><li>They can be the source of conflict between people from different cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Think about meeting someone for the first time – you form perceptions based on: appearance, mannerisms, actions, reactions </li></ul><ul><li>You form an opinion based on this person based on YOUR PERCEPTIONS </li></ul>
    14. 16. ATTRIBUTION THEORY <ul><li>Explains how we judge people differently depending on what we attribute to a given behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>-3 determining factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness: does a person display different behaviors in different situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus: If everyone faces a similar situation, they will respond the same way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency: Does the person responds the same way over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can we learn from this? Errors and biases distort judgment </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. Shortcuts to Judging Others <ul><li>Selective Perception: you notice it because it stands out (noticing cars like you drive) </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect: draw an overall conclusion based on one characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast Effects: our reactions are based on others reaactions </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping: judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group that they belong to. </li></ul>
    16. 18. HOW TO AVOID BIASES & ERRORS <ul><li>Focus on Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Look for Information that Disconfirms your beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to create meaning out of random events </li></ul><ul><li>Increase your options </li></ul>
    17. 19. Implications <ul><li>Values: people of common ages have similar experiences thus similar work values. People of like generations may find it easier to work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes: influence behavior. Satisfied employees have lower turnover and absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Perception: employees react to perceptions not reality. Mgrs. Need to be aware of how employees perceive their job and mgmt practices. </li></ul>

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