Indigenous wisdom and science gaugau tavana

631 views

Published on

March 18th talk by

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
631
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Indigenous wisdom and science gaugau tavana

  1. 1. “Indigenous Epistemology and Scientific Discovery” N. Gaugau Tavana, Ph.D. Brigham Young University (801) 422-1635 tavana@byu.edu Elon University March 17, 2014 Language Acquisition: Knowledge that Empowers
  2. 2. Indigenous Epistemology Traditional behaviors are shaped by indigenous epistemologies or traditional way of thinking, creating, and conveying knowledge. Indigenous epistemologies are alive and well and are also relevant and useful to the societies to whom they belong
  3. 3. Cultural Values
  4. 4.  Cultures and Languages is a storehouse of Indigenous Wisdom (IW)  Loss of biological resources is a threat to the survival of IW, cultures and languages  IW is key to scientific discoveries and basic to understanding of the natural world  IW can be restored through local, national and international collaborative efforts  Educational programs greatly help with this work
  5. 5. Early Polynesian Settlements
  6. 6. 1. Cultures and Languages: A Storehouse of Indigenous Wisdom Faiva o le tai (fishing and gathering in the ocean Faiva o le vao (hunting and gathering on land
  7. 7. T R O P I C ST R O P I C S Languages & cultures provide understanding of biosphere on which we depend for survival
  8. 8. Indigenous epistemology is acquired through daily experimentation and practice
  9. 9. Cultures transmit indigenous wisdom
  10. 10. Culture ofCulture of voyagingvoyaging 10
  11. 11. Explicit Knowledge Knowledge that is easy to communicate “know what” (facts); “know why” (science); “know who” (networking)
  12. 12. Tacit Knowledge Knowledge that is hard to access, provides context, highly valuable, and is not easily shared
  13. 13. Codification Process of transforming tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge through training and direct experience
  14. 14. Codification
  15. 15. Will IndigenousWill Indigenous Wisdom Survive theWisdom Survive the 2121stst Century?Century?
  16. 16. 2. Loss of biodiversity means loss of languages and cultures Weaving ma’ilo (food plate) Cocos nucifera Making taufolo Artocarpus altilis Taupou’s dress Pandanus tectorius
  17. 17. A threat to Indigenous Wisdom And deeper understanding of the natural world…
  18. 18. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1900 2000 • Languages contain explicit information • Languages are disappearing Indigenous Language LossIndigenous Language Loss
  19. 19. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Spoken only by elderly people Children 20% 80% Remaining indigenous languagesRemaining indigenous languages 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 N. American Languages 280 20 Spoken only by elderly people Children
  20. 20. 3. Indigenous epistemology is key to modern scientific discoveries ethnomedicine ethnotaxonomy
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. “If a man plants 10 (breadfruit) trees in his life he would completely fulfill his duty to his own as well as future generations.” Sir Joseph Banks 1796
  23. 23. “What’s in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name Would smell as sweet.” (Romeo & Juliet, Act ii, Scene 1) The Convergence of Indigenous & Scientific Taxonomy
  24. 24. How Are Plants Named? Prior to Linnaeus, there was great confusion about how to name plants. Organisms were usually grouped by common characteristics. Sometimes unrelated organisms with superficial resemblances were grouped together.
  25. 25. Nomenclature of Breadfruit Cultivars in Samoa Invented by Linnaeus in response to cumbersome 18th century systems First used in Flora Lapponica Expounded in Species Plantarum & used to organize Uppsala garden
  26. 26. Nomenclature of Breadfruit Cultivars in Samoa • Binomial nomenclature consists of two names: Artocarpus altilis Genus species • International Code of Botanical Nomenclature • Used by scientists throughout the world.
  27. 27. The Convergence of Indigenous & Scientific Taxonomy - Results • 46 different varieties named • Binomials & monomials used: Binomial: ‘Ulu ma’a Generic term specific modifier Monomial: Ø maopo Generic term specific (understood) modifier
  28. 28. Rank Order – Frequency of Mention Name Rank Percent Type Translation ma'afala 1 90 UM puou 2 81 UM aveloloa 3 68 UM maopo 4 62 UM ulu ea 5 56 AB “Uvea island” ulu ma’a 6 55 AB “solid” ulu manu'a 7 37 AB “Manu’a ” momolega 8 33 UM ulu sina 9 22 AB “white” sagosago 10 17 UM
  29. 29. Expert wisdom is disappearing fastExpert wisdom is disappearing fast  Mean # names: 6.3  Expert mean # names:11.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 # reported names #respondents common knowledge expert knowledge Two knowledge realms found: common and expert
  30. 30. “Masi” Preservation of Culturally Important Food
  31. 31. Nutritional analyses to identify nutrient- rich varieties. Molecular studies to help identify clones. In vitro propagation. Product development, e.g., flour. Base-line inventories of distribution and use of breadfruit in Africa.
  32. 32. In vitro Regeneration and Mass Propagation Totipotency 1 2 3
  33. 33. In vitro propagation
  34. 34. In Vitro Germplasm Conservation 3-6 months 2-3 months 2 months 6 weeks 2-4 weeks 4-6 Years
  35. 35. Plants, Medicine & Biodiversity 265,000 flowering plant species in the world
  36. 36.  85% of world depends on phytotherapy  25% of all prescription drugs derive from plants  <1% of plants have been studied Wisdom of Plants and Medicine  265,000 flowering plant species in the world
  37. 37. Ethnomedical knowledge developed over years of experimentation
  38. 38. Ethnobotanical Lead Compounds William Withering 1785 • Reduces dropsy • Reduces heart rate Digitalis Digitalis purpurea (Foxglove) “I was told…it had long been a kept secret remedy of an old woman in Shropshire”
  39. 39. Ethnobotanical Lead Compounds Hypertension Reserpine Rauwolfia serpentina Indian Snake-Root Apocynaceae Emil Schlittler Analyzing Ayurvedic traditional remedies used by people of Indian
  40. 40. Catharanthus roseus Rosy periwinkle Apocynaceae Child leukemia Ethnobotanical Lead Compounds Hodgkin’s disease Islands of Madagascar
  41. 41. Ethnobotanical DiscoveryEthnobotanical Discovery Future Promise Anti - viral Anti – alzheimers Anti –inflammatory Erythrina Wiliwili Homalanthus mamala Cycad Lau pama
  42. 42. Ethnobotanical Discovery Future Promise Dr. Paul A. Cox discovered ‘Prostratin’ while speaking with a taulasea - Samoan healer

×