Should newly acquired land from Mexico be slave? Should people vote to decide? Do people have the right to bring their “property “ anywhere?
The North believed the national government should be more powerful, while the South believed that states’ rights should prevail.
The North was aided by protective tariffs that were established during the War of 1812 ( ie. The Tariff of Abomination) to protect the country’s new infant industries. It was effective at the time, but while it supported the North, it hurt the South. There was no similar protective tariffs for agricultural products in the South.
The movement by blacks and whites, women and men, to end slavery. They used techniques like organizations, legislation, rebellion, schools, escapes, and newspapers/books.
Sectionalism – 1800’s – north and South grew differently based on economic development. › North – industrial › South – Agricultural IMPACT: This led to competition between the two sections and eventually to unequal tariff protections that led to secession
Invention that led to increased demand for slaves. › 1792 only 6,000 bales of cotton produced › 1802 -100,000 › 1860 - 4,000,000,000. › The labor intensive work of removing seed from cotton was now replaced by the machine. Now owners could use the enslaved labor to plant and harvest many more acres of cotton, instead of devoting so much of their time to seed separation. IMPACT: This led to increased demand for cheap slave labor to increase plantation profits. South became more entrenched in the system of slavery, at the same time the North was moving away from slavery for both economic and moral reasons.
Congress passed a new tax in 1828 on manufactured European goods in order to protect new American industries- Americans would them buy cheaper American goods IMPACT: it protected new Northern industries, but it hurt the south economically because they had to pay extra taxes. South Carolina threatens to secede. Nullification (1828) Sen. Calhoun proposed that states had the right to declare Federal law null and void (response to tariff) – reinforces the idea of state’s rights
A line is drawn at the 36’30 › All territories above the line must enter as free states › All territories below the line must enter as slave states States must enter as pairs- one free/one slave- in order to preserve a balanced vote in Congress IMPACT: Successfully prevented Civil War/ southern secession for over 40 years
Organized efforts to end slavery › American Colonization Movement to Liberia › American Anti – Slavery Society founded › William Lloyd Garrison “The Liberator” › Fredrick Douglas – “The North Star” › Grimke Sisters – refuse “blood money – inheritance of slaves › Sojourner Truth – Fights for women and black rights. IMPACT: Successfully helps 1,000’s Africans to freedom, but increases the tension/ conflict between the north and the south
Part of the Compromise of 1850 (Henry Clay) Slaveholders could regain their “property,” African people, by pointing them out in the north. › Blacks had no right to testify on their own behalf. › Free blacks were in danger of being enslaved › Judges were paid more if they decided the black person were slave rather than free IMPACT: › Made the North angry that citizens were punished for following their anti-slavery conscience. › The South was more content and did not secede- it delayed the Civil War.
Citizens of each new territory would vote for their area to be slave or free. Popular sovereignty opens areas that had been designated to be “free” areas to slavery IMPACT: Settlers rushed into territories to try to claim the future state for free or slave side. Leads to the passage of the Kansas –Nebraska Act of 1854 where these territories become a battleground for those favoring and opposing slavery. Ex. “Bleeding Kansas “ Seen as a “democratic compromise Reinforces the idea that blacks have no rights
Passionate abolitionists who took revenge on pro – slavery settlers (Bleeding Kansas), planned to raid Harper’s Ferry, Virginia and free all slaves. Abolitionists were caught and hung. IMPACT: This frightened Southerners into tightening slave codes and believing that Northerners were out to “get them”- increased the divide between the north and the south.
A system of routes for Africans to escape from the south to freedom. Informal, but well organized. 1830’s- crossing the Ohio River - secret conductors like Harriet Tubman. IMPACT: › Successful in helping 1000’s of African Americans to escape to freedom › The South felt the North wasn’t respectful of their “property rights”, led them to support states rights over federal rights and eventually to secede from the union
Missouri slave who went North to work in free territory, upon return South he sued to end his slavery stating that living in free territory made him a free man IMPACT: Supreme Court held that he was still a slave › Since he was African American he was not a citizen and did not have the right to sue › Congressional ban on slavery in the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. › Slave owners could bring their “property” anywhere
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the book to make the nation see how bad slavery really was. The book was a success. 1st year sold 300, 000 copies and has now sold over millions. IMPACT: Some historians consider it a cause of the Civil War because it caused so many to support abolition
Democratic party split over issue of slave holders’ rights in territories which leads to Republican victory IMPACT: The 1860 election of Lincoln, a Republican candidate whose party stood for no slavery in the territories, caused South Carolina to secede from the Union in fear it would not be fairly represented- other states follow