Aftermath Of Wwii

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Chapter 19, Section 4

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Aftermath Of Wwii

  1. 1. Chapter 19, Section 4
  2. 3. <ul><li>After the end of World War II, a new international conflict emerged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cold War . </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. In November 1943, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt met in Tehran to decide the future course of the war. “ Big 3”
  4. 5. <ul><li>In February of 1945, the “Big 3” powers met at Yalta in southern Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>By that time, they knew that the Germans were beaten. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Roosevelt and Churchill realized that 11 million Soviet troops were taking possession of Eastern and Central Europe. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>S elf-determination meant that each country would choose its own form of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet military help against Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations organization to help resolve difficult international disagreements. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Soviets wanted these nations to be pro-Soviet. The Americans wanted free elections.
  8. 9. <ul><li>July 1945. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Truman demanded that free elections be held throughout Eastern Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin refused to concede. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the Eastern European states had Communist governments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many western leaders thought that the Soviets intended to spread communism throughout the world. </li></ul>
  10. 11. This “iron curtain” divided Europe into two hostile sides. Stalin responded by calling Churchill’s speech a “call to war with the Soviet Union.”
  11. 14. <ul><li>Economic mobilization was more extensive. </li></ul><ul><li>The war had an enormous impact on civilian life in many parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Leningrad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over a million people died there due to food shortages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People had to eat dogs, cats, and mice. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>In 1943, 55% of the national income of the Soviet Union went to war materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result there were severe shortages of food and housing. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Women working in industry increased 60%. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dug anti-tank ditches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worked as air raid wardens. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>The U. S. became an arsenal for the Allies by producing most of the military equipment needed to fight the Axis. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1943, the U. S. was building 6 ships a day and 96,000 planes per year. </li></ul>
  15. 22. <ul><li>Japanese-Americans on the West Coast were moved to internment camps away from the ocean. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of them had been born in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were forced to live in camps surrounded by barbed wire. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 28. <ul><li>To keep up public morale in Germany, Hitler refused to cut consumer-goods production for the first two years of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>This decision may have cost Germany the war. </li></ul>
  17. 29. <ul><li>Early in 1942, Hitler increased arms productions and the size of the army. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Speer became minister for armaments and munitions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He tripled armament production between 1942 and 1943. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In July 1944, the German economy was totally mobilized. </li></ul>
  18. 31. <ul><li>Young Japanese volunteered to serve as suicide pilots against U.S. ships. </li></ul><ul><li>They were called Kamikaze (“divine wind”) pilots. </li></ul>
  19. 33. <ul><li>Bombing was used against military targets, enemy troops, and civilian populations. </li></ul><ul><li>World War II was the 1st war in which large masses of civilians were bombed. </li></ul>
  20. 34. Britain: morale remained high. The idea that bombing civilians would force peace was proved wrong. The bombing of Germany added to civilian terror. The Germans particularly feared incendiary bombs, which spread fire when they exploded.
  21. 35. In Dresden enormous firestorms resulted from the bombing, killing 100,000s of people and burning everything that could burn. The bombing of Germany by the Allies may have killed a half-million civilians
  22. 37. The bombing of civilians reached an unprecedented level when the U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945.

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