Basic Theories of Learning


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Basic Theories of Learning

  1. 1. 2. Cognitive Field Theories BasicTheories of Learning
  2. 2. What is a theory? an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain facts or events the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another a belief, policy, or procedure proposed or followed as the basis of action
  3. 3. Association Theory Abramson (1994) defines the concept as a form of behavior modification involving the association of two or more events, such as between two stimuli, or between a stimulus and a response.
  4. 4. Association or Stimulus- Response Theories 1. Thorndike’s Connectionism Theory 2. Conditioning Theory 3. Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura
  5. 5. 1. Thorndike’s Connectionism Theory This theory states that learning is the outcome of the relationships between stimuli and responses. Edward Thorndike
  6. 6. Three primary laws of learning: 1) Law of effect 2) Law of readiness 3) Law of exercise
  7. 7. 2. ConditioningTheory Classical Conditioning Theory It is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Ivan Pavlov
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning Theory
  9. 9. 2. ConditioningTheory Operant Conditioning Theory It is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. B.F. Skinner
  10. 10. Operant Conditioning Theory
  11. 11. 3. Social Learning Theory This theory maintains the importance of the stimulus- response connection in learning, but its emphasis is on observational learning.
  12. 12. Cognitive Theory of Learning Learning is a process of discovering and understanding relationships, and of organizing and finding significance in the sensory experiences around by the external situation.
  13. 13. Cognitive Theories of Learning 1. Kohler’s Insight Theory 2. Lewin’s Topological & Vector Theory 3. Bruner’s Theory of Learning
  14. 14. 1. Kohler’s Insight Theory Gaining insight is a gradual process of exploring, analyzing, and restructuring perceptions until a solution is arrived at. Wolfgang Kohler
  15. 15. 2. Lewin’s Topological & Vector Theory Kurt Lewin The field theory is the "proposition that human behavior is the function of both the person and the environment. This means that one’s behavior is related both to one’s personal characteristics and to the social situation in which one finds oneself.
  16. 16. 3. Bruner’s Theory of Learning Jerome Bruner Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.