Icelanders are very strong on tradition. They expect very strong handshakes at the beginning and end of every conversation. Direct eye contact is very important to them. Icelanders are very direct in their conversation and expect everyone to be prompt .
According to Wikipedia,Icelandic lore is a collection of four sections interspersed with excerpts from earlier skaldic and Eddic poetry containing tales from Nordic mythology. Some of the earliest works date back from 1220. Divided into two parts: Poetic Edda and Prose Edda. Sagas detail life in old Iceland.
Rimurs can be have both verbal and nonverbal qualities. According to Wikipedia-Nonverbal communication, speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, rate, pitch, volume, and speaking style, as well prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation, and stress. (wiki 2012) Rimurs literally mean rhyme, meters.
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Written by Alicia Lowe, LisaStensgard, and Kathleen Intile Picture by: my.opera.com K.I.
Iceland is a Northern European country close to the Atlantic Ocean with a total land mass of 40,000 square miles with a population of 320,000 people. Icelanders are a people that take great pride in their culture which encompasses literature, arts, dancing, and music. In this presentation we will illustrate the different aspects of the Icelandic culture, and show how the culture has evolved from the early Norse heritage of Ad 874 to present day. Iceland and It‟s Culture will be presented according to the following: Alicia Lowe: Icelandic Clothing Lisa Stensgard: Iceland : Nonverbal and Verbal Traditions Kathleen Intile: Gender roles In Iceland K.I.
Icelanders have an extensive history of „costumes.‟ While there is not a lot of documented pictures or descriptions before the 16th Century, since then more information started becoming available with manuscripts and paintings. Pictures from Descriptions of the social classes Wikipedia can be found in a popular Icelandic poem called „Rigsthula.‟ Most „costumes‟ were worn by all classes and ages In the present day, the traditional styles of clothing are worn for ceremonial or special occasions like weddings, birthdays, and the National day (independence day) A.L..
Þjóðbúningurinn The Fjallkona “Lady of the Mountain” is a symbol for the Icelandic peopleNative term for the Icelandic National and their dreams to be independent. Costumes Full traditional dress for a woman would be “the… Skautbúningur, …with elaborate embroidery, belt of linked silver, silver brooch and a high white headdress” (IcelandicTimes.is) Þjóðbúningur karla is the men‟s traditional costume which is wool trousers, a double buttoned vest, double-buttoned coat (A treyja) and a tail cap is usually worn on the head. Colors were normally darker in tones. This costume was the most commonly worn from 17th-19th centuries (Wikipedia). Skautbúningur, worn by the first lady of Iceland from 1996-1998 (Picture taken from Unilang.org) A.L.
Artifacts found over the years have The textilesused in the Viking Age depicted that long hair was the of society have not made it norm for both sexes. through time very well, but little pieces have taught us a bit about Large amounts of combs have been the material used. found in sites that have been excavated, further implying the While most social classes tended Vikings took a great deal of care of to wear the same thing, some their hair. evidence can be found showing Men wore trousers (pants) and a the differences. long tunic that was covered with a cloak, (probably made of out wool) A website danishnet.com depicts and held in place with a single that you can see differences in social class from the “style and cut brooch. of the outfit, the materials used Women were in multiple layers of and quality of the clothes pins ankle length material, made of both which held it in place, is a clear wool and linen. Everything would indication of the owner‟s wealth and status within their be held in place by a brooch on each community (for both men and shoulder. women).” (Danishnet.com) A.L.
….….15. There sat the twain, | and worked at theirtasks: The man hewed wood | for the weavers There were a couple of sectionsbeam; His beard was trimmed, | oer his brow acurl, His clothes fitted close; | in the corner a chest. in this Nordic poem that16. The woman sat | and the distaff wielded, At described clothing that wasthe weaving with arms | outstretched she worn by the Icelandersworked; On her head was a band, | on her breast asmock; On her shoulders a kerchief | with clasps somewhere around 1300, but nothere was. exact date can be confirmed.….….28. The lady sat, | at her arms she looked, She One website calls it a definitesmoothed the cloth, | and fitted the sleeves; Gay “cultural poem that explains onwas her cap, | on her breast were clasps, Broadwas her train, | of blue was her gown, Her brows a mythological basis the originwere bright, | her breast was shining, Whiter her of different castes of earlyneck | than new-fallen snow. society.” (Sacred-Texts.com)….….(English version excerpts copied fromCybersamurai.net) A.L.
Picture from Icelandtouristboard.com Iceland is a great fashion capital for “practical, durable, and fashionable outdoor wear” (Icelandtouristboard.com A traditional piece of clothing you‟ll see Icelanders wear in this day and age is the lopapeysa, „a knitted wool sweater with special design at the top and on the sleeves” (Icelandtouristboard.com) Icelanders are casual in their clothing wear but are able to keep it fashionable even in the cold winter months Lopapeysa, Picture taken A.L. from IcelandToday.is
While clothing has changed over the years, Iceland (likemost every country) has their traditional costumes that arecontinued to be worn for important and special events.There is also their normal wear for everyday life. Nomatter what their social class is, or where the location thatthey live in is, like many other societies Icelanders willuse clothing to depict who they are by their material self.According to philosopher William James, the definition ofmaterial self is “the component of self derived fromphysical elements that reflect who you are”(Beebe et al2011, pg 37). This shows who they are as a person throughthe clothing they wear. A.L.
Icelanders are very strong in their traditions. They always start all conversations With a handshake and end with a handshake. Good eye contact is also important.Icelanders are very direct in their speech and expect punctuality every single time. L.S.
Icelandic folk music dates back to the 14th century Chain dances, known as Vilivaki, date back to the 11th century, and are performed at churches and at Christmas time Children of Iceland prefer to play folk games, which go back many generations Pictures taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/icelandL.S.
Icelandic MusicalInstrumentsFrom left to right:• The symfon is the medieval forerunner of musical instruments and dates from the 13th-17th century.• The Gigja (Rebec),a common Icelandic woman‟s name of the times, dates back to Medieval poetry• The Fiolan, originally made with two strings of horse hair, was not made for music but to accompany songs. They have made a comeback since the 19th century• The Harp was mentioned as far back as the medieval poem Voluspa (Prophecy of the Seeress)• The langspil is considered Iceland‟s National Instrument. Unsure how far back they date, the earliest recorded is around 1783 Pictures taken from:www.leifnorman.net L.S.
Eddas and Sagas of Iceland Eddas are Edic poetry from Nordic Mythology dating from the 1300-1600s. There are several theories on the origin of the word Edda. Great-grandmother, old Norse poetry, or an Icelandic place named Oddi. Divided into poetic Edda which are Old Norse poems from Medieval manuscripts and the Prose Edda are referred to the younger Edda, which consists of a prologue and three books. Sagas are historical legends, often supernatural or mythical elements. Pictures taken from:http://wikipedia.org/wiki/eddas L.S.
Rimurs are epic poems that are rhymed. There are hundreds of counting variations to these meters They consist of two or four lines per stanza that alliterate They date back to the 14th century; the earliest collection being 1480-90 Picture taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wi ki/sagas L.S.
In a study done by Alessia Agliati, antonietta Vescovo, and Luigi Anolli; Icelanders were known more for their ball-hand and pianist gestures, they were more of the arms-back gestures. They laughed less-frequently and seemed to avert their gaze and do a take-turn more frequently. Icelandic conversations were smooth flowing. Icelanders often avert gaze as a way of showing respect and not being impolite or cueing a challenge. Pictures taken from: www.namasthay.deviantart.com L.S.
In ancient Iceland, Norse society was male dominated, and women were under the control of their husbands, according to the Icelandic law book Gragas (Short, 1996, pg.1). Women were therefore restricted in their behavior. They were forbidden to wear mens clothing, cut their hair short, and to carry weapons of any kind. Gender roles at this time were extremely defined, and the roles of both genders were understood. Crossover gender behaviors were strongly forbidden by law, and any man or woman trying to cross the gender line in any way would be punished, and they would ultimately be be ostracized by their communities. During these times there were many differences in the responsibilities between the genders, and these differences could be explained by saying that it “was located at the door of the house”(Short, 1996,pg.2). In other words everything in the house was the woman‟s responsibility while everything outside of the house was the mans.(hurstwic.org) K.I.
In Norse society women had great freedom and were highly respected by their society. They ran the finances of the family. They ran the farm in times when their husbands were away. If they became widows they could own land, and become wealthy. Gragas also protected women‟s private life from any unwelcomed attention. The Norse woman was given many more freedoms and protection by law than women in European society. Picture taken from vorogsaga.blogspot.com K.I.
It is not until the 1850”s that gender equality begins to happen for women.1850-1899 Women are awarded the same inheritance rights as men. Before this time daughters were only allowed by law to 1/3 of their inheritance.1869 The first women‟s association was formed.1882 Limited voting rights are awarded to widows and unmarried women. It is not until 1902 that all women have the right to vote. K.I.
1900 Married women are finally given the right to control their personal property and income.1920 All women gain national suffrage and the right to hold office.1921 A new marital law guarantees equality for all spouses.1961 The equal pay act is established which gave equal pay between the genders.1976 The first gender equality act is enacted. The gender equality council is founded.1995 Equal rights of all men and all women is stated in the constitution. K.I.
1997 Fathers get the right to two weeks maternity/paternity leave for each child born.2003 Fathers get the right to three months maternity/paternity leave.2010 Maternity/Paternity leave has now expanded to three months for the father, three months for the mother, and another three months for the parents to split. This total maternity/paternity leave gives the parents nine months of total maternity/paternity leave. (eng.velferdarraduneyti.is) K.I.
The ministry of Welfare in Iceland has been responsible for enacting and implementing gender legislation for all of its citizens, and the centre for gender Equality is the organization responsible for its administration. The centre is a national agency and is charge of implementing the Act on Equal Status and the Equal Rights of Women and Men. The goal of this organization is to promote gender equality in all aspects of Icelandic society. (centre of welfare). K.I.
Gender roles for Iceland have been progressive even during ancient times. Although gender roles were very much defined Nordic women were given freedoms and responsibilities not seen in other parts of the world. Beginning in the early 1800‟s Iceland began moving towards gender equality for all of it‟s people, a result of this can to attributed to the typical family economy. This can be explained by the theory that all members of the family contributed to the economy of the family(Magnusson, 2006). Both parents took a similar role in support and survival of their family. The traditional genders roles were no longer being followed, and Iceland began to move towards true gender equality for all of its people. Iceland has been an example to the world on how to approach true communication and cooperation between its citizens on gender equality. K.I.
Iceland is a beautiful country no matter the time of yearyou visit. While they have traditions that continue totake place, they have moved forward in views andvalues as the times have changed. Lisa was able to showhow children continue to play folk games while musicand poetry are continued to be handed down to eachgeneration, along with types of communication thatthey find important. Kathie expressed how gender roleshave been divided and strictly enforced throughout thecountry‟s history, but since the 1850‟s they have cometogether and become more equal. And Alicia showedhow the clothing has influenced the people and howthey express themselves in society. If you get an inklingto visit a country abroad, give Iceland a chance, thepeople will welcome you with open arms. A.L.
Why do you think the handshake and direct eye contact is so important to the Icelandic people? What is the most important thing you learned about the Icelandic cultures way of life? Why? Why do you think Iceland is so open about their views on gender neutral relationships? Why do the folklore, poems, and sagas have such an enormous impact on the culture and history? If religion is such an important part of their lives (93% call themselves religious), why do studies show theres only a 23% attendance rate? L.S.
Modern Fairy Tales ? Gender Roles in Icelandic Society. Saga XXXV (1997), pp.137-77. Date accessed February 17th, 2012 From: www.akademia.is/sigm/fairytales.htmlCybersamurai.net (2005-2006). Rigspula.Date of Access February 16th, 2012 From: http://www.cybersamurai.net/Mythology/nordic_gods/LegendsSagas/Edda/poeticEdda/Rigsthula.htmlDanishNet. (2008-2012).Viking Clothing= What did the Vikings Wear? Date of Access February 16th, 2012 From: http://www.danishnet.com/info.php/vikings/clothing-137.htmlAccessed February 14th, 2012 From: www.darkcompany.ca/articles/NorseMusicBInstrumentsGender Equality. Equality. Accessed: Feburary18th, 2012 From: eng.velferdarraduneyti.is>taskAccessed February 14th, 2012 From: www.emergingcommunication.comHurstwic:The Role of Women in Viking Society (1996-2012). Date of Access February 18th, 2012 From: www.hurstwic.org/history/articles/society/text/women.htmIcelandictimes. (2007-2012).Iceland Symbolized in Clothes. Date of Access Date of Access February 18th, 2012 From: http;//icelandictimes.is/section.php?id_=1340IcelandTouristBoard.(2009). About Iceland. Date of Access February 28th, 2012From: http;//www.icelandtouristboard.com/index.php?page=About-Iceland#shoppingSacred-texts.(n.d.). Rigspula. Dateof Access February 18th, 2012 From: http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe14.htmWikipedia. (2012, January). Date of Access February 28th, 2012 From: http;//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ K.I.