Compare Bantham’s Idea
of Ethics with Aristotle.
WHAT IS

ETHICS ?

 Come from the Greek’s word Ethos, which means “character”.
 Dealing with human morality, such as goo...
ARISTOTLE
 384-322 B.C.E
 Born in Stagira in North Greece
 He was sent to Athens to study philosophy with Plato in 367
...
ARISTOTLE’S ETHICS
 Ethics starts with actual moral judgments before the formulation
of general principles.
 Find the ul...
CONT…
 Eudemonistic ethics
 Living well and doing well in the world.
 Happiness is the end of the life which all people...
CONT…
 Aristotle distinguishes between happiness (eudaemonia) and moral virtue:
 Moral virtue is not the end of life for...
CONT…
 Pleasure is the natural accompaniment of unimpeded activity. Pleasure, as such,
is neither good nor bad.
 Even so...
Happiness

ARISTOTLE’S QUOTES
Pleasure

CONT…
CONT…
JEREMY BENTHAM
 1748-1832
 British philosopher, jurist, social reformer, political radical
 Leading theorist in Anglo-A...
JEREMY BENTHAM’S
ETHICS
 Principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon
their consequences
 The relevan...
WHAT IS UTILITARIANISM?
 Ethical system around the idea of pleasure
 Ancient hedonism which pursued physical pleasure an...
HIS FAMOUS QUOTES
Happiness
CONT…
 “By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves
or disapproves of every action whatsoever, acc...
CONT…
Pain and Pleasure
 “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters,
pain and pleasure. It ...
SUMMARY
Similarities
 They aim for the happiness in life as the final end.
 They both focus on rational activity, or rea...
SUMMARY
Differences
 Happiness must be based on human nature and must begin from
the facts of personal experience. (Arist...
SUMMARY…
Differences
 In order to be happy, one must live a fully human live by living
life according to reason. (Aristot...
SUMMARY
Differences
 Pleasure is the natural accompaniment of unimpeded activity.
(Aristotle)

 The aim of the wise is n...
THE END
Compare Bantham's Idea of Ethics with Aristotle
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Compare Bantham's Idea of Ethics with Aristotle

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Compare Bantham's Idea of Ethics with Aristotle

  1. 1. Compare Bantham’s Idea of Ethics with Aristotle.
  2. 2. WHAT IS ETHICS ?  Come from the Greek’s word Ethos, which means “character”.  Dealing with human morality, such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue.
  3. 3. ARISTOTLE  384-322 B.C.E  Born in Stagira in North Greece  He was sent to Athens to study philosophy with Plato in 367 B.C.E  Tutor of Alexander the Great  Aristotle started his own school in Athens, called the Lyceum
  4. 4. ARISTOTLE’S ETHICS  Ethics starts with actual moral judgments before the formulation of general principles.  Find the ultimate purpose of human life.  Is an attempt to find out our chief end or highest good : an end which he maintains is really final.  Happiness must be based on human nature and must begin from the facts of personal experience.
  5. 5. CONT…  Eudemonistic ethics  Living well and doing well in the world.  Happiness is the end of the life which all peoples aims.  Focusing on being succesfull.
  6. 6. CONT…  Aristotle distinguishes between happiness (eudaemonia) and moral virtue:  Moral virtue is not the end of life for it can go with inactivity, misery, and unhappiness.  Happiness, the end of life, that to which all aims, is activity in accordance with reason (reason is the arete or peculiar excellence of persons).  Happiness is an activity involving both moral and intellectual arete.  Some external goods are necessary in order to exercise that activity.
  7. 7. CONT…  Pleasure is the natural accompaniment of unimpeded activity. Pleasure, as such, is neither good nor bad.  Even so, pleasure is something positive and its effect is to perfect the exercise of activity. Everything from playing chess to making love is improved with skill.  Pleasure cannot be directly sought--it is the side-product of activity. It is only an element of happiness.  The good person, the one who has attained eudaemonia, is the standard as to what is truly pleasant or unpleasant.
  8. 8. Happiness ARISTOTLE’S QUOTES
  9. 9. Pleasure CONT…
  10. 10. CONT…
  11. 11. JEREMY BENTHAM  1748-1832  British philosopher, jurist, social reformer, political radical  Leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law  Founder of modern utilitarianism  His secretary and collaborator James Mill  Tutor of John Stuart Mill (James Mill’s son)
  12. 12. JEREMY BENTHAM’S ETHICS  Principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon their consequences  The relevant consequences, in particular, are the overall happiness created for everyone affected by the action  The greatest happiness principle  Universal egoism  The artificial identification of one’s interests with those of others
  13. 13. WHAT IS UTILITARIANISM?  Ethical system around the idea of pleasure  Ancient hedonism which pursued physical pleasure and avoided physical pain  Maximize pleasure and minimize pain  His utility’s principal sometimes been called the “utilitarian calculus”  Greatest happiness of the greater number.
  14. 14. HIS FAMOUS QUOTES Happiness
  15. 15. CONT…  “By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness.”
  16. 16. CONT… Pain and Pleasure  “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think: every effort we can make to throw off our subjection, will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it”.
  17. 17. SUMMARY Similarities  They aim for the happiness in life as the final end.  They both focus on rational activity, or reasoning, as the key component in what makes a good life for a human being.  They believe the importance of the state.
  18. 18. SUMMARY Differences  Happiness must be based on human nature and must begin from the facts of personal experience. (Aristotle)  The greatest happiness of the greatest number. (Bentham)
  19. 19. SUMMARY… Differences  In order to be happy, one must live a fully human live by living life according to reason. (Aristotle)  In order to be happy, one must live life with the intent of increasing the overall happiness of everyone, or increasing the amount of pleasure. (Bentham)
  20. 20. SUMMARY Differences  Pleasure is the natural accompaniment of unimpeded activity. (Aristotle)  The aim of the wise is not secure pleasure, is avoid pain. (Aristotle)  Maximize pleasure and minimize pain. (Bentham)  Perspective pleasure and pain are absolutely essential in finding out one’s happiness. (Bentham)
  21. 21. THE END

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