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Camouflage
•An animals ability to hide itself
 from predators or prey
•Increases chances of survival
 and reproduction
Types of Camouflage
• Crypsis: the use of colours and patterns to
  prevent detection

Background matching      Disruptive colouration
Types of Camouflage
• Motion Dazzle: bold patterns cause a
  misrepresentation of the animals true
  speed and direction

• Countershading: Two tones of colour on
  different areas of the
  body to account for
  directional sunlight
Camouflage is Different Based
On:
• Environment

• Animals physiology and behaviour

• Type of predator or prey they are
  trying to evade
Changing Colours
• Sometimes based on seasons




• Sometimes based on surroundings or mood
Changing Colours
• Changed by:
     - Change in diet
     - Shedding one layer
     - Releasing hormones based on
       environment
     - Chromatophores
How Colour Change Occurs
• Chromatophores: Cells which contain
  or produce pigments or reflect light to
  produce colour
• Biochromes: contain and produce
  pigment
• Schemochromes: change the way
  light is reflected
Mimicry
What Is Mimicry
• The superficial resemblance of two or more organisms that
  are not closely related



• The resemblance which certain animals and plants exhibit
  to other animals and plants or to the natural objects among
  which they live, a characteristic which serves as their chief
  means of protection against enemies
Basic Types of Mimicry

• Batesion Mimicry – eg: syrphid fly vs. honey bee



• Muellerian Mimicry – eg: monarch vs. viceroy
                      butterfly

• Self Mimicry – eg: countless moth
Batesion Mimicry
• Named after British scientist Henry Walter Bates

• A form of protective mimicry in which an unprotected species,
  especially of an insect, closely resembles an unpalatable or
  harmful species and therefore is similarly avoided by
  predators.

• The second species has no defense other than resembling the
  unpalatable species and is afforded protection from certain
  predators by its resemblance to the unpalatable species,
  which the predator associates with a certain appearance and a
  bad experience
Muellerian Mimicry
• Named after German zoologist Fritz Mueller

• A form of protective mimicry in which two or more poisonous
  or unpalatable species closely resemble each other and are
  therefore avoided equally by all their natural predators

• All mimics share the benefits of the coloration since the
  predator will recognize the coloration of an unpalatable group
  after a few bad experiences
Self Mimicry
• A misleading term for animals that have one body part that
  mimics another to increase survival during an attack or
  helps predators appear innocuous

• To trick prey into believing the attack is originating from
  where it is not

• Less often predators utilize self-mimicry to aid in catching
  prey by appearing less threatening or fooling the prey as to
  the origin of the attack
Evolution of Mimicry
Evolution of Mimicry and
Camouflage
• Natural selection normally works by allowing
  animals with beneficial mutations to survive

• Mimicry evolved the same way – animals that
  are better at disguising themselves survive to
  mate more often, spreading their better genes
An Arms Race
• Mimics and the species they are trying to fool
  are in an ongoing arms race

• Mimics are under selection to avoid being
  spotted by the animals they are trying to fool,
  but those animals are under selection to be able
  to spot the mimics

• This selection is constantly ongoing
• The eastern tiger swallowtail caterpillar
  camouflages itself as bird droppings

• Originally, the caterpillars looked nothing like
  bird excrement, and the birds would ignore bird
  excrement

• One mutation to look 1% like bird feces allowed
  that caterpillar to be selected for
• As this 1% mutation spread and was selected for,
  the predators would also be undergoing natural
  selection

• Then, a new caterpillar mutation that looks 2% like
  poop will be selected for and spread.
• This trend continues, with the caterpillars
  evolving to become better mimics while the
  predators evolve to spot them better

• Eventually the entire caterpillar population and
  bird population will have evolved to be better
  mimics/hunters

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Camouflage and mimicry evolution power point

  • 1.
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  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. Camouflage •An animals ability to hide itself from predators or prey •Increases chances of survival and reproduction
  • 15. Types of Camouflage • Crypsis: the use of colours and patterns to prevent detection Background matching Disruptive colouration
  • 16. Types of Camouflage • Motion Dazzle: bold patterns cause a misrepresentation of the animals true speed and direction • Countershading: Two tones of colour on different areas of the body to account for directional sunlight
  • 17. Camouflage is Different Based On: • Environment • Animals physiology and behaviour • Type of predator or prey they are trying to evade
  • 18. Changing Colours • Sometimes based on seasons • Sometimes based on surroundings or mood
  • 19. Changing Colours • Changed by: - Change in diet - Shedding one layer - Releasing hormones based on environment - Chromatophores
  • 20. How Colour Change Occurs • Chromatophores: Cells which contain or produce pigments or reflect light to produce colour • Biochromes: contain and produce pigment • Schemochromes: change the way light is reflected
  • 22. What Is Mimicry • The superficial resemblance of two or more organisms that are not closely related • The resemblance which certain animals and plants exhibit to other animals and plants or to the natural objects among which they live, a characteristic which serves as their chief means of protection against enemies
  • 23. Basic Types of Mimicry • Batesion Mimicry – eg: syrphid fly vs. honey bee • Muellerian Mimicry – eg: monarch vs. viceroy butterfly • Self Mimicry – eg: countless moth
  • 24. Batesion Mimicry • Named after British scientist Henry Walter Bates • A form of protective mimicry in which an unprotected species, especially of an insect, closely resembles an unpalatable or harmful species and therefore is similarly avoided by predators. • The second species has no defense other than resembling the unpalatable species and is afforded protection from certain predators by its resemblance to the unpalatable species, which the predator associates with a certain appearance and a bad experience
  • 25. Muellerian Mimicry • Named after German zoologist Fritz Mueller • A form of protective mimicry in which two or more poisonous or unpalatable species closely resemble each other and are therefore avoided equally by all their natural predators • All mimics share the benefits of the coloration since the predator will recognize the coloration of an unpalatable group after a few bad experiences
  • 26. Self Mimicry • A misleading term for animals that have one body part that mimics another to increase survival during an attack or helps predators appear innocuous • To trick prey into believing the attack is originating from where it is not • Less often predators utilize self-mimicry to aid in catching prey by appearing less threatening or fooling the prey as to the origin of the attack
  • 28. Evolution of Mimicry and Camouflage • Natural selection normally works by allowing animals with beneficial mutations to survive • Mimicry evolved the same way – animals that are better at disguising themselves survive to mate more often, spreading their better genes
  • 29. An Arms Race • Mimics and the species they are trying to fool are in an ongoing arms race • Mimics are under selection to avoid being spotted by the animals they are trying to fool, but those animals are under selection to be able to spot the mimics • This selection is constantly ongoing
  • 30. • The eastern tiger swallowtail caterpillar camouflages itself as bird droppings • Originally, the caterpillars looked nothing like bird excrement, and the birds would ignore bird excrement • One mutation to look 1% like bird feces allowed that caterpillar to be selected for
  • 31. • As this 1% mutation spread and was selected for, the predators would also be undergoing natural selection • Then, a new caterpillar mutation that looks 2% like poop will be selected for and spread.
  • 32. • This trend continues, with the caterpillars evolving to become better mimics while the predators evolve to spot them better • Eventually the entire caterpillar population and bird population will have evolved to be better mimics/hunters