Staaliches Bauhaus was an art school in Germany that combined crafts and fine arts. It
was commonly known as Bauhaus. It operated from 1919 to 1933. Bauhaus in German
term was understood as meaning “School of Building ”. It founder is Walter Gropius in
Weimar. He was an architect.
The Bauhaus style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design,
modernist architecture and art, design and architectural education. It also had a
profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design,
interior design, industrial design, and typography.
Bauhaus’s core objective was a radical concept: to reimagine the material world to
reflect the unity of all the arts. Gropois explained this vision for a union of art and design
in the Proclamation of the Bauhaus (1919), which described a utopian craft guild
combining architecture, sculpture, and painting into a single creative expression.
Bauhaus placed a significant influence on design education. One of the main objectives
of the Bauhaus was to unify art, craft and technology. This approach was incorporated
into the curriculum of the Bauhaus. In the first year, students learnt the basic elements
and principles of design and color theory, and experimented with a range of materials
and processes. This approach to design education became a common feature of
architectural and design school in many countries. .
Wassily chair, by Marcel Breuer
Foyer of the Bauhaus-University Weimar
The cabinetmaking workshop was one of the most popular in Bauhaus. Under the
direction of Marcel Breuer, the studio reconceived the very essence of furniture, often
seeking to dematerialize conventional forms such as chairs to their minimal existence.
The textile workshop, especially under the direction of designer and weaver Gunta
Stolzl, created abstract textiles suitable for use in Bauhaus environment.
Metal working was another popular workshop at the Bauhaus and, along with the
cabinetmaking studio, was the most successful in developing design prototypes for mass
production. Designers such as Marianne Brandt, Wilhelm Wagenfeld, and Christian Dell
created beautiful, modern items such as lighting fixtures and table ware.
The typography workshop became increasingly important under Moholy-Nagy and
Herbert Bayer. Typography was conceived as both an empirical means of
communication and an artistic expression, with visual clarity stressed above all.
Bauhaus Dormitory balconies
Bauhaus Metal Workshop
Masters on the roof of the Bauhaus building, c.1926.