Refers to the physical actions of a person that can be seen or heard
such as smiling or whistling.
The person exhibit's behavior similar or different when he is in or out
of an organization based on his thoughts, feelings, emotions and
Human behavior in an organization is none appropriately referred to
as organizational behavior (OB)
Refers to the study of human behavior in organization of interaction
between individuals and organization and of the organization itself.
Three Goals of Organization
To explain behavior
To predict behavior
To central behavior
Organization Behavior needs to systematically describe how people
behave under a variety of conditions and understand why people
behave as they do.
OB must be used to predict behavior so support can be provided to
productive and dedicated employees
Measures could be instituted to central the disruptive and less
Central is important component of effective performance
THE ELEMENTS OF OB
The Benefits of Studying OB
Development of people skills
Enhancement of organizational and individual effectiveness
Sharpening & refinement of commonsense
Two Types of skills that a person need to
succeed in his chosen career
Skills in doing his work
Skills in relating to people
Makes a person highly competitive
Knowledge of the behavior of others through the study of OB will
help the person understand his own behavior
Enhancement of Organizational
and Individual Effectiveness
Effectiveness is a major attribute of successful organization as well as
When right decisions are made effectiveness follows
Sharpening and Refinement of
People differ in Common sense they possess.
BRIEF HISTORY of ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
The Origin of OB can be traced to the following:
1. The Human Relations approach
Scientific management approach by Frederick W. Taylor
Human relations approach by Elton Mayo
2. The Personality Theories
Behaviorist approach by WATSON & SKINNER
Humanist approach by Carl Rogers, FRITZ PERLS and ABRAHAM
Primary purpose of the scientific management was the application
of scientific method to increase the individual Workers productivity.
Used scientific Analysis and experiment to increase worker output.
Required individuals as equivalent of machines parts and assigned
them specific repetitive tasks.
His research team conducted the HAWTHORNE studies in 1920
To determine what effect hours of work periods of rest and lighting
might have on Worker fatigue and productivity.
Found out that social environment have an equivalent if not greater
effect in productivity then the physical environment.
Social interaction is a factor for increased productivity.
Psychologist who brought the idea that people are motivated by for
more than conscious logical reasoning.
Irrational motives make up the hidden subconscious mind which
determines the major part of people’s behavior.
Formulated theory about learned behavior.
indicates that a person can be trained to behave according to the
wish of the trainees
BF SKINNER S.R.
Extended the theory of WATSON.
When people receive a positive stimulus like money or praise for
what they have done they tend to repeat their behavior.
When they are ignored and receive no responds to the action, they
will not be inclined to repeat it.
CARL ROGERS, FRITZ PERLS and
Focused in the person as an individual instead of adhering to a rigid
People should acquired their own values and attitudes rather than
be committed to a fixed set of prescribed goals.
The more self- directed and aware people are, the better they are
able to develop their own individual values and adapt to a
Gestalt psychology is to integrate conflicting needs into an
organized whole; in which all parts of a person mark together
towards growth and development.
Exposes the idea of developing the personality towards the ultimate
achievement of human potential: process of self actualization
person needs to work his way up the succeeding steps in the
hierarchy of needs.
ETHICS and ORGANIZATIONAL
Philosophers maintained that a society has a low regards for morals
will disintegrate after a period of time
To avoid chaos and destruction, and to make life in society possible,
adherence to the practice of moral principles regulating human
relations becomes necessary.
Refer to the set of moral choices a person make based in what he
ought to do.
Moral principles that define right or wrong behavior in organization.
Refers to behavior that is accepted as morally “good” and “right”
as apposed to “bad” and “wrong”.
What Constitutes right and wrong behavior in
organization determined by
Individuals personal moral values
Conflict of interest
Fairness and honesty
Relationships within organization
Conflict of interest
Exists when a person is the position of having to decide whether to
advance the interest of the organization or to operate in his own
Not to accept bribes to influence the outcome of a decision.
Fairness and Honesty
Ethical behavior demands that beyond obeying the laws, people in
an organization should be fair and honest not knowingly harm
customers, clients and competitors through deception, coercion or
Individual Differences – refer to the variation in how people respond
to the same situation based on personal characteristics differences
are usually substantial than meaningless.
Consequence of Individual
Individual Differences becomes a serious concerns when people
are situated in a work place.
Consequences pertains to the
People differ in productivity in the quality of their work in terms of
need for contract with other people of commitment to the
organization their level of self esteem.
People react different to any style of leadership empowerment.
Refers to the rate of output per worker.
It differs from person to person
Quality of Work
Will not be contented in making products of mediocre quality.
Others strive to produce output that barely pass standard
Giving someone the power to do something.
Style of Leadership
Preference of leadership style differ from one person to another
same work effectively with democratic style, others and make
Same needs none social contact
Other can work alone the whole day
Highly committed tend to produce high quality output
Less committed – less concerned about output and attendance
Low self esteem tend to be less productive.
Tend to avoid accepting more responsibilities.
Abilities do not match with the requirements of the job.
Appetite happens when people have high self esteem.
What makes people different from
Attitude and abilities
Demographic diversity includes
Generational differences and age
Men and Woman are not different
along the following concerns:
1. Problem solving abilities
2. Analytical skills
3. Competitive drive
5. Learning abilities
Demographics Aptitude and Ability Personality
Dimensions of Intellectual Abilities
four sub parts of intelligence
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert stern being developed on approach to the study of
Triarchic Theory – there are 3 important parts of intelligence
1. Componential - analytic
2. Experiential - creative
3. Contextual - practical
Howard Gardner developed a very useful means of understanding
He proposed eight different components of intelligence which the
individual processes in varying degress
6. Self monitoring behavior
High self monitor
Low self monitor
Pragmatic, chameleon – like actor
in social groups.
Avoid situations that require him to
adopt to different to different
outer images after in flexible
7. Risk taker & thrill seeking
a. Risk taker
b. Play safe person
Willingness to take risks, purse thrills
Not willing to take risks and pursue
Positive emotional state believe in
Daniel Coleman – introduce emotional intelligence or EQ
Refers to the ability of a person to accurately perceiving evaluate,
express and regulate emotions and feelings
Five Components of EQ are:
1. Self regulation
4. Self awareness
5. Social skills
More in Physical Ability
1. Sense of Sight
2. Sense of Hearing
3. Sense of Taste
4. Sense of Smell
5. Sense of Touch
Refers to acquiring a complex set of sophisticated skills as a result of
Understanding of how people learn is very important because it will
help people explain and predict behavior.
Relatively permanent change in behavior in knowledge due to
A change in behavior happen to
only in both of the following:
2. Other causes such as drugs, injury, disease and maturation
Learning and Behavior
Behavioral change starts with the mind when it accept knowledge.
Outward manifestation due to the knowledge learned.
Consideration given on how a person’s behavior in consistent
actions different situations.
Likelihood that all those facing the same situation will have similar
Refers to the measures of whether an individual responds the same
way across time.
Shortcuts Used in Forming
Impressions of Others
For whatever reason, we form impressions of others.
Those impressions constitute a data base in our minds that we later
uses as sides in making decisions concerning others.
Must often, people are not aware that they are judging others
Most often not all aspects of one persons activities can be
As such people tend to make shortcuts
Which include the following:
1. Selective perception
2. Halo effect
3. Contrast effects
5. Stereo typing
Values Attitudes & Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is an important concern for both employer and
Values generally influence attitudes and behavior
Attitudes form the basis for determining how satisfied people are
with their jobs.
Refer to the importance of person attaches to things or ideas that
serves as guide to action
Enduring beliefs that one’s mode of conduct is better than the
opposite mode of conduct.
How People Learn Values
Values are not inborn, they are learned.
As people grow, they learn values through any of the following:
2. Communications of attitudes
3. Unstated but implied lied attitudes
Types of Values
Values maybe classified in various ways
A classification that is most relevant to the work place one of the
1. Achievement - Values that pertains to getting things done and
working hard to accomplish goals.
2. Helping and concern for others – this value refers to the person’s
concern with other people and providing assistance to those who
3. Honesty – value that indicates the persons concern for telling the
truth and doing what he thinks is right.
4. Fairness – value that indicates the persons concern for impartiality
and fairness to all concerned
Individual VS Organizational Values
Organizations have values that may or may not be compatible with
the values of the individual workers
There is value incongruence if the individuals value is not in
agreement with the organizations value.
Incongruence may result to conflict
Exposed Values VS Enacted Values
What promoted by the organization maybe different from what is
practiced by the organizations individual members.
Exposed values – what members of the organization say they value.
Enacted values – actual behavior of the individual members of the
Instrumental and Terminal Values
Terminal Values – represent the goals that a person would like to
achieve in his life time: happiness, love, pleasure, self respect and
Instrumental Values – refers to preferable modes of behavior or
means of achieving the terminal values: ambitions, honesty, self
sufficiency and courage.
Attitudes are feelings and beliefs that largely determine how
employees will perceive their environment, commit themselves to
intended actions and ultimately behave.
How one fells about something
Form the basis for job satisfaction in the work place
Main Components of Attitudes
Cognitive – the opinion or belief segment of an attitude
Affective – the emotional as feeling segment
Behavioral – the intention to behave in a certain way towards
someone or something.
How Attitudes are Formed
Formed through learning
Direct and indirect means of social learning
Most important attitudes in the
1. Job satisfaction
2. Job involvement
3. Organizational commitment
When employees are dissatisfied with their jobs, they will have
the strong tendency, to engage in any or all the following:
Psychological withdrawal like day dreaming in the job.
Physical withdrawal like unauthorized absences, early departures
extended breaks, work slow down
Aggression, like verbal abuse or dangerous action against another
Making Positive Attitude Works for the
People with positive work attitudes make it easy for the organization
to achieve its objective.
Recruitment officers must require positive work attitudes before
employment offers are made.
There are programs designed to change negative work attitude of
Attitude people have about their jobs is termed job satisfaction
Refers to the positive feelings about one’s job resulting from an
evaluation of it’s characteristics
When people are satisfied with their jobs, the following benefits
1. High productivity
2. A strong tendency
3. Loyalty to the company
4. Low absenteeism & turn over
5. Less job stress and burn out
6. Better safety performance
7. Better life satisfactors
Factors Associated with Job
2. Wolf itself
3. Promotion opportunity
4. Quality of supervision
5. Relationship with co-worker
6. Working conditions
7. Job security
Ways of Measuring Job Satisfaction
1. Single global method
2. Summations score method
Single Global Method
how satisfied are you with your job?
_____________ highly satisfactory
_____________ moderately dissatisfied
_____________ highly dissatisfied
Refers to the degree to which an employee identities with a
particular organization, it’s goals and wishes to maintain
membership in the organization.
Reflects the employees belief in the mission and goals of the
organization, willingness to expend efforts in accomplishing them
and intentions to continue working in the organization.
Employees who are organizationally
Good attendance record
Show willingness to adhere to the firms policies
Lower turn over rates
Three dimensions of organizational
Job performances is a given requirement in any organization.
Conditions/Determinants of Job Performance
Capacity to perform
Opportunity to perform
Willingness to perform
Capacity to Perform
to which the employee possesses skills, abilities knowledge and
experiences relevant to the job
High performance is expected if the employee has been fully
trained and physically capable of doing the job
Opportunity to Perform
Will depend in the work environment provided by the employee.
One who works in an office that is hot, humid and noisy cannot be
expected to perform well.
It also diminished by lack of equipment, lack of funds and
Willingness to Perform
Relates to the degree in which an employee desires and willing to
exert efforts to achieve the goals assigned to him. This is alternately
What is Motivation?
People behave differently
Defined as the process of activating behavior, sustaining it and
directing it towards a particular goal.
It makes people to act and accomplish
The set of internal and external forces that cause a worker or
employee to choose a course of action and engage in a certain
Motivation consist of the following
Level of efforts provided by the employee in the attempt to achieve
the goal assigned to him.
How hard a person tries to do work.
Relates to what an individual chooses to do when he is confronted
with a number of possible choices:
Visiting a friend instead of a prospect client – is moving away
Dimension of motivation which measures efforts to achieve the
Those that focus an analyzing the wants and needs of an individual.
• Hierarchy of needs Theory – Maslow
• ERG Theory – Clayton Aldefer
• Acquired Needs Theory – David Mc Cleland
• Two – Factors Theory – Frederick Herzberg
Explain how people act in response to the wants and needs that
Expectancy Theory – Victor Vroom
Equity Theory – J. Stacey Adams
Goal Setting Theory – Edwin A. Locke
Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow – presented that idea that human beings process
a hierarchy of five needs
Each need is substantially satisfied the need becomes dominant.
The ERG Theory
Need hierarchy theory developed by Clayton Alderfer.
Three sets of needs
Existence – food, water, pay, working, conditions
Relatedness – meaningful social & interpersonal relations
Growth – making creature or productive contribution
He maintained that If a higher order need cannot be satisfied a
lower need becomes dominant as a motivating factor.
More than one need may be activated as the same time which is
Acquired Needs Theory
David Mc Cleland developed this as a result of a research.
They found out that managers are motivated by three fundamental
Need for Achievement - Refers to the desire to do something better
or more efficiently; solve problems or master complex tasks.
Need for Affiliation – refers to the desire to establish and maintain
friendly and warm relations with other
Need for power – refers to the desire to central others to influence
their behavior in to be responsible for others
TWO – FACTOR THEORY
Frederick Herzberg develop this theory that identifies job context as
a source of job dissatisfaction. Job content as a source of job
Job context more to the environment in which
people work, called hygiene factor which includes:
1. Organizational policies
2. Quality of supervision
3. Working conditions
4. Base wage or salary
5. Relationship with peers
6. Relationship with subordinates
Inspiring any of the hygiene factors will not make people satisfied
with their work; it will only prevent them from being dissatisfied.
Job content – relates more to what people actually do in their work;
called motivation factors
3. Work itself
Growth When these factors are not present, there is law job
satisfaction among workers and there is lack of motivation to
It sees people as choosing a course of action according to what
they anticipate will give them the greatest reward.
Motivation is a product of the
1. Valence – how much one wants a reward.
2. Expectancy – one’s estimate of the mobility that efforts will result in
3. Instrumentality – one’s estimate that performance will result in
That individuals compare job inputs and outcomes with those of
others and then responds to eliminate inequities.
Assumes that employees are motivated by a desire to be equitably
treated at work. Equity exists when employees perceive that the
nations of their inputs (or efforts) to their outputs (or rewards) are
equivalent to the ratios of other employees.
Inequity exists when these ratios are not equivalent
Inequities leads to the experiences of tension and tension motivates
a person to act in a manner to resolve the inequities.
Two types of Inequalities
Employees who feel over rewarded will think there is an imbalance
in their relationship with their employer.
They will seek to restore the balance through any of the following:
1. Work harder
2. Discount the value of the reward
3. Choose to someone else for comparison of purpose
4. Try to convince other employees to ask for more rewards
When they feel under rewarded they will seek to reduce their feeling
of inequity through any of the following:
1. Lower the quality on quantity of their productivity.
2. Inflate the perceived value of their rewards received
3. Find someone else to compare themselves
4. Bargain for more rewards
Goal Setting Theory
That specific and difficult goals, with feedback lend to higher
Based on the promise that behavior is regulated by value and goals.
A goal is the specific target that an individual is trying to achieve
Findings of study on linking goals to performance:
1. Specific goals lend to a higher performance than generalized
2. Performance generally increase in direct proportion to goal
difficulty. Goals that are difficult to achieve is regarded as a
challenge to the ability of a person
3. For goals to improve performance, they must be accepted by the
4. Goals are more affective when they one used to evaluate
5. Goals should be linked to feedback when workers receive
feedback, they will know whether or not they are moving towards
the direction of higher performance.
Motivational Methods and
Motivation through job design
Organizational behavior modification
Motivation through recognition & pride
Motivation through financial incentives
The way the elements in the job are organized
Three concepts important in designing jobs:
Enrichment – practice of building motivating Factors
as : responsibility, achievement, recognition into job content
1. Direct feedback
2. Client relationship
3. New learning
4. Central over method
5. Control over scheduling
6. Unique experience
7. Direct communication authority
8. Central over resources
9. Personal accountability
Job Characteristic Model
Refers to the method of job design that focuses in the task and
interpersonal demands of the job.
Emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the specific
attributes of the job
Maintains that there are five core job characteristic of special
importance to job design when job characteristics are high job is
used to be enriched
1. Skill variety – degree to which there are many skills to perform
2. Task identify – degree to which one worker is able to do a
complete job from beginning to end.
3. Task significance – degree to which the job has a substantial
impact on the lives or work of other people
4. Autonomy – degree to which the job gives the employee
substantial freedoms, independence, and discretion in scheduling
the work and determining the procedures used in carrying it out.
5. Feedback – the degree to which a job provides direct information
Refers to the physical and mental changes workers make in the task
or relationship aspect of their jobs
Common types of job crafting:
Changing he number and type of job task
• Interaction with others in the job
• One’s view of the job
Another Method of motivation (OB mad)
Application of reinforcement theory in motivation people to work
Contention that behavior is determined by it’s consequences
A person tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by
Typical OB Mod program consist of a 5
step problems solving model
1. Identifying critical behaviors that made a significant impact on the
employees job performance.
2. Developing baseline line data which is obtained by determining
the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under
3. Identifying behavioral consequence of performance
4. Developing and implementing on intervention strategy to
strengthen desirable performance behaviors.
5. Evaluating performance improvement.
Among the benefits of OB Mod
1. Improvement of employee productivity
2. Reduction of errors, absenteeism. Tardiness and accident rates
3. Improvement of friendliness towards customers
Motivation through Recognition &
Natural human need
To make it effective motivation
1. Identify a meritorious behavior
2. Recognize the behavior with an oral, written or material reward
Points to be considered for better understanding and implementation
of reward and recognition programs.
1. Feedback an essential part of recognition‘
2. Praise one of the most powerful forms of recognition
3. Reward and recognition programs should be limited to
4. Identification of the type of rewards & recognition that the workers
5. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the reward and
Is also a motivation
One that is intrinsic
Satisfies the need for self esteem and self fulfilment
Motivation through financial
Financial incentives are powerful tools of motivation
Monetary rewards paid to employees because of the output the
produce, skills, knowledge and competencies or a combinations of
Firms of financial incentives
1. Time rates
2. Payment by result
3. Performance and profit related pay
4. Skill/competency based pay
5. Café teria or flexible benefits system
Professor Kreitner introduces the principles of Organizational
Behavior Management (OBM)
Technology based on the natural science approach to the study of
He draws clear distinction between OBM and the none traditional
forms of management theory and techniques
OBM procedures are based in specific, observable performance of
the individual worker.
There are interval and external sources of behavior central
OBM deals an interaction between the behaving individual and the
Management theorists and practitioners need to stand how OB is
maintained, strengthened, or weakened by the environment in
order that they can develop effective intervention strategies to
facilitate the learning of OB that leads to goal attainment.
OBM is also sometimes termed as operate conditioning, behavior
modification, behaviorism, applied behavior analysis, behavior
technology and organizational behavior modification.
Organizational behavior management (OBM) in values the process
of making specific job related behaviors occur more or less after,
depending in whether they enhance or hinder organizational goal
attainment through the systematic manipulation of
1. Antecedent conditions that serves as cues
2. Immediate pleasing or dis pleasing consequences
3. Reinforcing consequences
Antecedent Behavior consequence
Feedback controlFeed-forward control
A B C
OBM as a feed forward/feedback Control
Some types of inherent predisposition, dictates how use we behave
Usual practice has been focused either in the person or the
But not on the systematic interaction between the person and the
situation. We should not try to explain behavior without reference
to situational influences.
BF skinner, outlined the three stage model to explain how the
environment comes to influence and ultimately control our
behavior. “an adequate formulation of the interaction between an
organism adjust environment must always specify 3 things
1. The occasion upon which a response occurs
2. The response itself
3. The reinforcing consequences
Mere to environment interaction has been translated to an Antecedent
Behavior Consequence (A-B-C) model
Both As and Cs are part of the environment situations while Bs are his specific
OBM – involves the modification of behavior via environment adjustment
this approach to managing behavior requires managers to view person
environment interaction as system subject to feed forward and feed back
Practicing managers have been exposed to more theories of behavior
causation than actual technique for control. Through the years manager
have shown a preference for such benign suplenisms as “lend”
“motivate”, “influence” and persuade”.
This has forestalled that widespread use of proven behavior control
Both management theorists and practitioners have the tendency to react
negatively to the word “central” in reference to managing people.
Informed managers have come to appreciate the importance of
viewing their organization as open systems complete with inspects,
a productive transformation process outputs. Productivity process
can be enhance inside the organization by monitoring and
controlling what goes in and comes court of the organization.
This is where feed forward and feedback control enters the picture.
Feed forward control in values anticipating and avoiding problems
before the actually occur. Quality control is assured by keeping
faulty components from entering the production cycle.
Feedback central in contrast occurs after the fact through
monitoring of output and correction of existing problems
Both positive and negative feedback control takes place after job
performance. The feed forward variety is preferable because it
helps management anticipate and avoid job performance
Instead of passively waiting for problems to occur and only then
take corrective action – to keep these problems from recurring.
OBM in Contrast to MASLOW, Mc. Gregor and Herzberg
OBM represents a significant departure from all three of these widely
OBM with MASLOW
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
1. No single reinforce could effectively control all behavior in a single
person in control a single behavior in all people
2. Identification of reinforce becomes a case to case proposition.
OBM with Gregor
Mc Gregor believe
People dislike work
Required close supervision
Must be coerced into working
Work is a natural activity like play or
People are capable & self direction
in self control if they are committed
People will become committed to
organizational objectives if they are
rewarded for doing so
The average person can learn to
both accept on seek responsibility
Many people in the general
population have imagination,
ingenuity & creativity
Theory Y assumptions more accurately characterize the average
employee then the Theory X assumptions
The ABC model with its feed forward and feedback can be seen in the
Theory Y of Mc Gregor which emphasized the importance of
antecedents (objective) and consequence (reward)
OBM with Herzberg
Herzberg formulated his two-factor theory of job satisfaction
First factor – dissatisfies
Second Factor – Satisfiers
The work itself
Each satisfier is related to what the person does every day.
To Herzberg if managers want to motivate job performance, they
must provide employees with challenging work that affords the
opportunity for personal growth
ODM proponents are not directly interested in job satisfaction
They are more concerned with improving job performance
The works of MASLOW, Mc GREGOR & HERZBERG collectively server
to broader or appreciation of the importance of the human
dimension of organized endeavor.
But their theories have provided us with virtually no precise behavior
control techniques. Systematic feed forward and feed back control
of organizational behavior can be done in formed managers.