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Human Behavior

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Human Behavior

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Human Behavior

  1. 1. Human Behavior
  2. 2. Human Behavior  Refers to the physical actions of a person that can be seen or heard such as smiling or whistling.  The person exhibit's behavior similar or different when he is in or out of an organization based on his thoughts, feelings, emotions and sentiments.  Human behavior in an organization is none appropriately referred to as organizational behavior (OB)
  3. 3. Organizational Behavior  Refers to the study of human behavior in organization of interaction between individuals and organization and of the organization itself.
  4. 4. Three Goals of Organization Behavior  To explain behavior  To predict behavior  To central behavior
  5. 5. Explain Behavior  Organization Behavior needs to systematically describe how people behave under a variety of conditions and understand why people behave as they do.
  6. 6. Predict Behavior  OB must be used to predict behavior so support can be provided to productive and dedicated employees Measures could be instituted to central the disruptive and less productive ones
  7. 7. Central Behavior  Central is important component of effective performance
  8. 8. THE ELEMENTS OF OB  People  Structure  Technology  Environment
  9. 9. The Benefits of Studying OB  Development of people skills  Personal growth  Enhancement of organizational and individual effectiveness  Sharpening & refinement of commonsense
  10. 10. Two Types of skills that a person need to succeed in his chosen career  Skills in doing his work  Skills in relating to people
  11. 11. Personal Growth  Makes a person highly competitive  Intrapersonal intelligence  Knowledge of the behavior of others through the study of OB will help the person understand his own behavior
  12. 12. Enhancement of Organizational and Individual Effectiveness  Effectiveness is a major attribute of successful organization as well as individuals  When right decisions are made effectiveness follows
  13. 13. Sharpening and Refinement of Common Sense  People differ in Common sense they possess.
  14. 14. BRIEF HISTORY of ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR The Origin of OB can be traced to the following: 1. The Human Relations approach  Scientific management approach by Frederick W. Taylor  Human relations approach by Elton Mayo 2. The Personality Theories  Freud Model  Behaviorist approach by WATSON & SKINNER  Humanist approach by Carl Rogers, FRITZ PERLS and ABRAHAM MASLOW.
  15. 15. FREDERICK TAYLOR  Primary purpose of the scientific management was the application of scientific method to increase the individual Workers productivity.  Used scientific Analysis and experiment to increase worker output.  Required individuals as equivalent of machines parts and assigned them specific repetitive tasks.
  16. 16. ELTON MAYO  His research team conducted the HAWTHORNE studies in 1920  To determine what effect hours of work periods of rest and lighting might have on Worker fatigue and productivity.  Found out that social environment have an equivalent if not greater effect in productivity then the physical environment.  Social interaction is a factor for increased productivity.
  17. 17. Sigmund Freud  Psychologist who brought the idea that people are motivated by for more than conscious logical reasoning.  Irrational motives make up the hidden subconscious mind which determines the major part of people’s behavior.
  18. 18. JB WATSON  Behaviorism  Formulated theory about learned behavior.  indicates that a person can be trained to behave according to the wish of the trainees
  19. 19. BF SKINNER S.R.  Extended the theory of WATSON.  Behavior modification.  When people receive a positive stimulus like money or praise for what they have done they tend to repeat their behavior.  When they are ignored and receive no responds to the action, they will not be inclined to repeat it.
  20. 20. CARL ROGERS, FRITZ PERLS and ABRAHAM MASLOW Humanist movement
  21. 21. CARL ROGERS  Focused in the person as an individual instead of adhering to a rigid methodology.  People should acquired their own values and attitudes rather than be committed to a fixed set of prescribed goals.  The more self- directed and aware people are, the better they are able to develop their own individual values and adapt to a changing environment.
  22. 22. FRITZ PERL  Gestalt psychology is to integrate conflicting needs into an organized whole; in which all parts of a person mark together towards growth and development.
  23. 23. ABRAHAM MASLOW  Exposes the idea of developing the personality towards the ultimate achievement of human potential: process of self actualization person needs to work his way up the succeeding steps in the hierarchy of needs.
  24. 24. ETHICS and ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORS  Philosophers maintained that a society has a low regards for morals will disintegrate after a period of time  To avoid chaos and destruction, and to make life in society possible, adherence to the practice of moral principles regulating human relations becomes necessary.
  25. 25. ETHICS  Refer to the set of moral choices a person make based in what he ought to do.
  26. 26. Organizational Ethics  Moral principles that define right or wrong behavior in organization.
  27. 27. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR  Refers to behavior that is accepted as morally “good” and “right” as apposed to “bad” and “wrong”.
  28. 28. What Constitutes right and wrong behavior in organization determined by  The public  Interest groups  Organizations  Individuals personal moral values
  29. 29. ETHICAL ISSUES  Conflict of interest  Fairness and honesty  Communications  Relationships within organization
  30. 30. Conflict of interest  Exists when a person is the position of having to decide whether to advance the interest of the organization or to operate in his own personal interest.  Not to accept bribes to influence the outcome of a decision.
  31. 31. Fairness and Honesty  Ethical behavior demands that beyond obeying the laws, people in an organization should be fair and honest not knowingly harm customers, clients and competitors through deception, coercion or misrepresentation.
  32. 32. Case 1 Topic 1  Individual Differences – refer to the variation in how people respond to the same situation based on personal characteristics differences are usually substantial than meaningless.
  33. 33. Consequence of Individual Differences  Individual Differences becomes a serious concerns when people are situated in a work place.
  34. 34. Consequences pertains to the following  People differ in productivity in the quality of their work in terms of need for contract with other people of commitment to the organization their level of self esteem.  People react different to any style of leadership empowerment.
  35. 35. Productivity  Refers to the rate of output per worker.  It differs from person to person
  36. 36. Quality of Work  Will not be contented in making products of mediocre quality.  Others strive to produce output that barely pass standard requirements
  37. 37. Empowerment  Giving someone the power to do something.
  38. 38. Style of Leadership  Preference of leadership style differ from one person to another same work effectively with democratic style, others and make supervision
  39. 39. Social Contact  Same needs none social contact  Other can work alone the whole day
  40. 40. Commitment  Highly committed tend to produce high quality output  Less committed – less concerned about output and attendance
  41. 41. Self Esteem  Low self esteem tend to be less productive.  Tend to avoid accepting more responsibilities.  Abilities do not match with the requirements of the job.  Appetite happens when people have high self esteem.
  42. 42. What makes people different from another  Demographic  Attitude and abilities  personality
  43. 43. Demographic diversity includes  Gender  Generational differences and age  cultures
  44. 44. Men and Woman are not different along the following concerns: 1. Problem solving abilities 2. Analytical skills 3. Competitive drive 4. Motivation 5. Learning abilities 6. sociability
  45. 45. Reasons why people differ Demographics Aptitude and Ability Personality Intellectual Ability Physical Ability Gender General Differences Culture Physical Characteristics Mental Characteristics
  46. 46. Dimensions of Intellectual Abilities four sub parts of intelligence  Cognitive  Social  Emotional  cultural
  47. 47. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence  Robert stern being developed on approach to the study of intelligence.  Triarchic Theory – there are 3 important parts of intelligence 1. Componential - analytic 2. Experiential - creative 3. Contextual - practical
  48. 48. Multiple Intelligences  Howard Gardner developed a very useful means of understanding intelligence  He proposed eight different components of intelligence which the individual processes in varying degress
  49. 49. 1. Linguistic 2. Logical – mathematical 3. Musical 4. Spatial 5. Bodily – kinesthetic 6. Intrapersonal 7. Interpersonal 8. Naturalist 9. Existential
  50. 50. Determinants of Personality  Result of both heredity and environment
  51. 51. Heredity Factors 1. Physical Stature 2. Facial attractiveness 3. Gender 4. Temperament 5. Much composition and reflexes 6. Energy level 7. Biological rhythms
  52. 52. Environmental factors those that exert pressures in the formation of an individuals personality 1. Cultural 2. Social 3. situational
  53. 53. Personality Factors and Traits  Traits - partially inherited developed depending in the environment factor.
  54. 54. FACTOR 1. Emotional Stability  Stable us  unstable TRAITS  Calm, self confidence  Secured  Nervous, depressed unsecured
  55. 55. FACTOR 2. Extraversion  Extravert  Introvert TRAITS  Sociable, gregarious, assertive  Reserved, timid, quiet
  56. 56. FACTOR 3. Openness to experience  open minded  Close minded TRAITS  Imaginative, cultured, curious original, broadminded, intelligent, artistically sensitive  Conventional, finds comfort in the familiar.
  57. 57. FACTOR 4. Agreeableness  A. agreeable person  B. Disagreeable TRAITS  Cooperate, warm, trusting.  Cold, disagreeable, antagonistic
  58. 58. FACTOR 5. Conscientiousness  High conscientious  w/ low score in Conscientiousness TRAITS  Responsible, organized, dependable, persistent.  Easily distracted dis organized unreliable
  59. 59. FACTOR 6. Self monitoring behavior  High self monitor  Low self monitor TRAITS  Pragmatic, chameleon – like actor in social groups.  Avoid situations that require him to adopt to different to different outer images after in flexible
  60. 60. FACTOR 7. Risk taker & thrill seeking a. Risk taker b. Play safe person TRAITS  Willingness to take risks, purse thrills  Not willing to take risks and pursue thrills
  61. 61. FACTOR 8. Optimism  Optimist  Pessimist TRAITS  Positive emotional state believe in positive outcome  negative
  62. 62. Emotional Intelligence  Daniel Coleman – introduce emotional intelligence or EQ  Refers to the ability of a person to accurately perceiving evaluate, express and regulate emotions and feelings
  63. 63. Five Components of EQ are: 1. Self regulation 2. Motivation 3. Empathy 4. Self awareness 5. Social skills
  64. 64. More in Physical Ability 1. Sense of Sight 2. Sense of Hearing 3. Sense of Taste 4. Sense of Smell 5. Sense of Touch
  65. 65. Learning, Perceptions & Attribution
  66. 66. Learning  Refers to acquiring a complex set of sophisticated skills as a result of change.  Understanding of how people learn is very important because it will help people explain and predict behavior.  Relatively permanent change in behavior in knowledge due to experience.
  67. 67. A change in behavior happen to only in both of the following: 1. Learning 2. Other causes such as drugs, injury, disease and maturation
  68. 68. Learning and Behavior  Behavioral change starts with the mind when it accept knowledge.  Outward manifestation due to the knowledge learned.
  69. 69. Theories of Learning
  70. 70. Classical of Learning  Stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.  STIMULUS – something that incites action.
  71. 71. Original Response Response Neutral Response Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response
  72. 72. Operant Conditioning  Type of learning when people learn to repeat behavior that bring them pleasurable outcomes.  To avoid behaviors that lead to uncomfortable outcomes
  73. 73. Learning Repeat Avoid Pleasurable outcome Uncomfortable outcomes Behavior Behavior
  74. 74. Social Learning  defined as the process of observing the behavior of others.
  75. 75.  Recognizing its consequences  Altering behavior as a result  People learn through social contact with other people  Social learning may be done in three ways.
  76. 76. 1. By observing what happens to other people 2. By being told about something 3. Through direct experience
  77. 77. PERCEPTION  The process by which people select ignorance, interpret, retrieve and respond to information from their environment.
  78. 78. Factors Influencing Perception 1. The perceiver 2. The target 3. The situation
  79. 79. Perceiver – one who perceives the target based on  His past experience  His needs or nature  His personality  His values and attitudes
  80. 80. The Target  The person, object or event that is perceived by another person in the target.  Perception of target may be modified by the following factors
  81. 81. Characteristics of the Target 1. Contrast 2. Intensity 3. Figure ground separation 4. Size 5. Motion 6. repetition
  82. 82. The Situation  The surrounding environment time, work, setting, social setting.
  83. 83. ATTRIBUTION  The process by which people ascribe causes to the behavior they perceive.
  84. 84. FACTORS that influence attribution 1. Distinctiveness 2. Consensus 3. Consistency
  85. 85. Distinctiveness  Consideration given on how a person’s behavior in consistent actions different situations.
  86. 86. Consensus  Likelihood that all those facing the same situation will have similar responses.
  87. 87. Consistency  Refers to the measures of whether an individual responds the same way across time.
  88. 88. Shortcuts Used in Forming Impressions of Others  For whatever reason, we form impressions of others.  Those impressions constitute a data base in our minds that we later uses as sides in making decisions concerning others.  Must often, people are not aware that they are judging others  Most often not all aspects of one persons activities can be observed.  As such people tend to make shortcuts
  89. 89. Which include the following: 1. Selective perception 2. Halo effect 3. Contrast effects 4. Projection 5. Stereo typing
  90. 90. Values Attitudes & Job Satisfaction  Job satisfaction is an important concern for both employer and employee.  Values generally influence attitudes and behavior  Attitudes form the basis for determining how satisfied people are with their jobs.
  91. 91. JOB SATISFACTION Attitudes Values
  92. 92. Values  Refer to the importance of person attaches to things or ideas that serves as guide to action  Enduring beliefs that one’s mode of conduct is better than the opposite mode of conduct.
  93. 93. How People Learn Values  Values are not inborn, they are learned.  As people grow, they learn values through any of the following: 1. Modeling 2. Communications of attitudes 3. Unstated but implied lied attitudes 4. Religion
  94. 94. Types of Values  Values maybe classified in various ways  A classification that is most relevant to the work place one of the following types.
  95. 95. 1. Achievement - Values that pertains to getting things done and working hard to accomplish goals. 2. Helping and concern for others – this value refers to the person’s concern with other people and providing assistance to those who need help. 3. Honesty – value that indicates the persons concern for telling the truth and doing what he thinks is right. 4. Fairness – value that indicates the persons concern for impartiality and fairness to all concerned
  96. 96. Individual VS Organizational Values  Organizations have values that may or may not be compatible with the values of the individual workers  There is value incongruence if the individuals value is not in agreement with the organizations value.  Incongruence may result to conflict
  97. 97. Exposed Values VS Enacted Values  What promoted by the organization maybe different from what is practiced by the organizations individual members.  Exposed values – what members of the organization say they value.  Enacted values – actual behavior of the individual members of the organization.
  98. 98. Instrumental and Terminal Values  Terminal Values – represent the goals that a person would like to achieve in his life time: happiness, love, pleasure, self respect and freedom.  Instrumental Values – refers to preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values: ambitions, honesty, self sufficiency and courage.
  99. 99.  Attitudes are feelings and beliefs that largely determine how employees will perceive their environment, commit themselves to intended actions and ultimately behave.  How one fells about something  Form the basis for job satisfaction in the work place
  100. 100. Main Components of Attitudes 1. Cognitive 2. Affective 3. Behavioral
  101. 101.  Cognitive – the opinion or belief segment of an attitude  Affective – the emotional as feeling segment  Behavioral – the intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something.
  102. 102. How Attitudes are Formed  Formed through learning  Direct and indirect means of social learning
  103. 103. Most important attitudes in the workplace 1. Job satisfaction 2. Job involvement 3. Organizational commitment
  104. 104. When employees are dissatisfied with their jobs, they will have the strong tendency, to engage in any or all the following:  Psychological withdrawal like day dreaming in the job.  Physical withdrawal like unauthorized absences, early departures extended breaks, work slow down  Aggression, like verbal abuse or dangerous action against another employee.
  105. 105. Making Positive Attitude Works for the Organization  People with positive work attitudes make it easy for the organization to achieve its objective.  Recruitment officers must require positive work attitudes before employment offers are made.  There are programs designed to change negative work attitude of employees.
  106. 106. Job Satisfaction  Attitude people have about their jobs is termed job satisfaction  Refers to the positive feelings about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of it’s characteristics  When people are satisfied with their jobs, the following benefits become possible:
  107. 107. 1. High productivity 2. A strong tendency 3. Loyalty to the company 4. Low absenteeism & turn over 5. Less job stress and burn out 6. Better safety performance 7. Better life satisfactors
  108. 108. Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction 1. Salary 2. Wolf itself 3. Promotion opportunity 4. Quality of supervision 5. Relationship with co-worker 6. Working conditions 7. Job security
  109. 109. Ways of Measuring Job Satisfaction 1. Single global method 2. Summations score method
  110. 110. Single Global Method how satisfied are you with your job?  _____________ highly satisfactory  _____________ moderately  _____________ indifferent  _____________ moderately dissatisfied  _____________ highly dissatisfied
  111. 111. Summation Score Method  ______________ % 1. work itself  ______________ % 2. salary  ______________ % 3. promotion opportunities  ______________ % 4. supervision  ______________ % 5. co-workers
  112. 112. Organizational Commitment  Refers to the degree to which an employee identities with a particular organization, it’s goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.  Reflects the employees belief in the mission and goals of the organization, willingness to expend efforts in accomplishing them and intentions to continue working in the organization.
  113. 113. Employees who are organizationally committed have:  Good attendance record  Show willingness to adhere to the firms policies  Lower turn over rates
  114. 114. Three dimensions of organizational commitment  Effective commitment  Continuance commitment  Normative commitment
  115. 115. Motivation
  116. 116. Job performances is a given requirement in any organization. Conditions/Determinants of Job Performance  Capacity to perform  Opportunity to perform  Willingness to perform
  117. 117. Capacity to Perform  to which the employee possesses skills, abilities knowledge and experiences relevant to the job  High performance is expected if the employee has been fully trained and physically capable of doing the job
  118. 118. Opportunity to Perform  Will depend in the work environment provided by the employee.  One who works in an office that is hot, humid and noisy cannot be expected to perform well.  It also diminished by lack of equipment, lack of funds and insufficient authority.
  119. 119. Willingness to Perform  Relates to the degree in which an employee desires and willing to exert efforts to achieve the goals assigned to him. This is alternately called MOTIVATION.
  120. 120. What is Motivation?  People behave differently  Motivated differently
  121. 121. Motivation  Defined as the process of activating behavior, sustaining it and directing it towards a particular goal.  It makes people to act and accomplish  The set of internal and external forces that cause a worker or employee to choose a course of action and engage in a certain behavior.
  122. 122. Motivation consist of the following elements  Intensity  Direction  persistence
  123. 123. Intensity  Level of efforts provided by the employee in the attempt to achieve the goal assigned to him.  How hard a person tries to do work.
  124. 124. Direction  Relates to what an individual chooses to do when he is confronted with a number of possible choices:  Visiting a friend instead of a prospect client – is moving away
  125. 125. Persistence  Dimension of motivation which measures efforts to achieve the organization’s goals.
  126. 126. Theories of Motivation  Content  process
  127. 127. Content Theories  Those that focus an analyzing the wants and needs of an individual. • Hierarchy of needs Theory – Maslow • ERG Theory – Clayton Aldefer • Acquired Needs Theory – David Mc Cleland • Two – Factors Theory – Frederick Herzberg
  128. 128. Process Theories  Explain how people act in response to the wants and needs that they have.  Expectancy Theory – Victor Vroom  Equity Theory – J. Stacey Adams  Goal Setting Theory – Edwin A. Locke
  129. 129. Hierarchy of Needs  Abraham Maslow – presented that idea that human beings process a hierarchy of five needs  Physiological  Safety  Social  Esteem  Self-actualization  Each need is substantially satisfied the need becomes dominant.
  130. 130. The ERG Theory  Need hierarchy theory developed by Clayton Alderfer.  Three sets of needs  Existence – food, water, pay, working, conditions  Relatedness – meaningful social & interpersonal relations  Growth – making creature or productive contribution
  131. 131.  He maintained that If a higher order need cannot be satisfied a lower need becomes dominant as a motivating factor.  More than one need may be activated as the same time which is unlike Maslow’s
  132. 132. Acquired Needs Theory  David Mc Cleland developed this as a result of a research.  They found out that managers are motivated by three fundamental needs
  133. 133.  Need for Achievement - Refers to the desire to do something better or more efficiently; solve problems or master complex tasks.  Need for Affiliation – refers to the desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other  Need for power – refers to the desire to central others to influence their behavior in to be responsible for others
  134. 134. TWO – FACTOR THEORY  Frederick Herzberg develop this theory that identifies job context as a source of job dissatisfaction. Job content as a source of job satisfaction
  135. 135. Job context more to the environment in which people work, called hygiene factor which includes: 1. Organizational policies 2. Quality of supervision 3. Working conditions 4. Base wage or salary 5. Relationship with peers 6. Relationship with subordinates 7. Status 8. security
  136. 136.  Inspiring any of the hygiene factors will not make people satisfied with their work; it will only prevent them from being dissatisfied.  Job content – relates more to what people actually do in their work; called motivation factors 1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Work itself 4. Responsibility 5. Advancement  Growth When these factors are not present, there is law job satisfaction among workers and there is lack of motivation to perform.
  137. 137. Expectancy Theory  It sees people as choosing a course of action according to what they anticipate will give them the greatest reward.
  138. 138. Motivation is a product of the following factors 1. Valence – how much one wants a reward. 2. Expectancy – one’s estimate of the mobility that efforts will result in successful performance. 3. Instrumentality – one’s estimate that performance will result in receiving reward.
  139. 139. Expectancy Mode Effort Expectancy Performance Instrumentality Reward Valence
  140. 140. Equity Theory  That individuals compare job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then responds to eliminate inequities.  Assumes that employees are motivated by a desire to be equitably treated at work. Equity exists when employees perceive that the nations of their inputs (or efforts) to their outputs (or rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other employees.  Inequity exists when these ratios are not equivalent  Inequities leads to the experiences of tension and tension motivates a person to act in a manner to resolve the inequities.
  141. 141. Two types of Inequalities  Over rewarded  Under rewarded
  142. 142.  Employees who feel over rewarded will think there is an imbalance in their relationship with their employer.  They will seek to restore the balance through any of the following: they might 1. Work harder 2. Discount the value of the reward 3. Choose to someone else for comparison of purpose 4. Try to convince other employees to ask for more rewards
  143. 143.  When they feel under rewarded they will seek to reduce their feeling of inequity through any of the following: 1. Lower the quality on quantity of their productivity. 2. Inflate the perceived value of their rewards received 3. Find someone else to compare themselves 4. Bargain for more rewards 5. quit
  144. 144. Goal Setting Theory  That specific and difficult goals, with feedback lend to higher performance.  Based on the promise that behavior is regulated by value and goals.  A goal is the specific target that an individual is trying to achieve
  145. 145. Findings of study on linking goals to performance: 1. Specific goals lend to a higher performance than generalized goals 2. Performance generally increase in direct proportion to goal difficulty. Goals that are difficult to achieve is regarded as a challenge to the ability of a person 3. For goals to improve performance, they must be accepted by the workers. 4. Goals are more affective when they one used to evaluate performance. 5. Goals should be linked to feedback when workers receive feedback, they will know whether or not they are moving towards the direction of higher performance.
  146. 146. Motivational Methods and Programs  Motivation through job design  Organizational behavior modification  Motivation through recognition & pride  Motivation through financial incentives
  147. 147. Job Design  The way the elements in the job are organized  Three concepts important in designing jobs:  Enrichment  Characteristic models  crafting
  148. 148. Enrichment – practice of building motivating Factors as : responsibility, achievement, recognition into job content 1. Direct feedback 2. Client relationship 3. New learning 4. Central over method 5. Control over scheduling 6. Unique experience 7. Direct communication authority 8. Central over resources 9. Personal accountability
  149. 149. Job Characteristic Model  Refers to the method of job design that focuses in the task and interpersonal demands of the job.  Emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the specific attributes of the job  Maintains that there are five core job characteristic of special importance to job design when job characteristics are high job is used to be enriched
  150. 150. 1. Skill variety – degree to which there are many skills to perform 2. Task identify – degree to which one worker is able to do a complete job from beginning to end. 3. Task significance – degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people 4. Autonomy – degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedoms, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures used in carrying it out. 5. Feedback – the degree to which a job provides direct information about performance.
  151. 151. Job Crafting's  Refers to the physical and mental changes workers make in the task or relationship aspect of their jobs  Common types of job crafting:  Changing he number and type of job task • Interaction with others in the job • One’s view of the job
  152. 152. Organizational Behavior Modification  Another Method of motivation (OB mad)  Application of reinforcement theory in motivation people to work  Contention that behavior is determined by it’s consequences  A person tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable consequences
  153. 153. Typical OB Mod program consist of a 5 step problems solving model 1. Identifying critical behaviors that made a significant impact on the employees job performance. 2. Developing baseline line data which is obtained by determining the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under present condition. 3. Identifying behavioral consequence of performance 4. Developing and implementing on intervention strategy to strengthen desirable performance behaviors. 5. Evaluating performance improvement.
  154. 154. Among the benefits of OB Mod Are: 1. Improvement of employee productivity 2. Reduction of errors, absenteeism. Tardiness and accident rates 3. Improvement of friendliness towards customers
  155. 155. Motivation through Recognition & Pride Recognition  Natural human need  Strong motivation  To make it effective motivation 1. Identify a meritorious behavior 2. Recognize the behavior with an oral, written or material reward
  156. 156. Points to be considered for better understanding and implementation of reward and recognition programs. 1. Feedback an essential part of recognition‘ 2. Praise one of the most powerful forms of recognition 3. Reward and recognition programs should be limited to organizational goals 4. Identification of the type of rewards & recognition that the workers will value 5. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the reward and recognition program
  157. 157. Pride  Is also a motivation  One that is intrinsic  Satisfies the need for self esteem and self fulfilment
  158. 158. Motivation through financial incentives  Financial incentives are powerful tools of motivation  Monetary rewards paid to employees because of the output the produce, skills, knowledge and competencies or a combinations of these factors  Firms of financial incentives 1. Time rates 2. Payment by result 3. Performance and profit related pay 4. Skill/competency based pay 5. Café teria or flexible benefits system
  159. 159. Organizational Behavior Management  Professor Kreitner introduces the principles of Organizational Behavior Management (OBM)  Technology based on the natural science approach to the study of behavior  He draws clear distinction between OBM and the none traditional forms of management theory and techniques  OBM procedures are based in specific, observable performance of the individual worker.  There are interval and external sources of behavior central  OBM deals an interaction between the behaving individual and the environment
  160. 160.  Management theorists and practitioners need to stand how OB is maintained, strengthened, or weakened by the environment in order that they can develop effective intervention strategies to facilitate the learning of OB that leads to goal attainment.  OBM is also sometimes termed as operate conditioning, behavior modification, behaviorism, applied behavior analysis, behavior technology and organizational behavior modification.  Organizational behavior management (OBM) in values the process of making specific job related behaviors occur more or less after, depending in whether they enhance or hinder organizational goal attainment through the systematic manipulation of 1. Antecedent conditions that serves as cues 2. Immediate pleasing or dis pleasing consequences 3. Reinforcing consequences
  161. 161. Person Antecedent Behavior consequence Feedback controlFeed-forward control A B C OBM as a feed forward/feedback Control
  162. 162.  Some types of inherent predisposition, dictates how use we behave  Usual practice has been focused either in the person or the situation. But not on the systematic interaction between the person and the situation. We should not try to explain behavior without reference to situational influences.  BF skinner, outlined the three stage model to explain how the environment comes to influence and ultimately control our behavior. “an adequate formulation of the interaction between an organism adjust environment must always specify 3 things 1. The occasion upon which a response occurs 2. The response itself 3. The reinforcing consequences
  163. 163.  Mere to environment interaction has been translated to an Antecedent Behavior Consequence (A-B-C) model Both As and Cs are part of the environment situations while Bs are his specific behavior.  OBM – involves the modification of behavior via environment adjustment this approach to managing behavior requires managers to view person environment interaction as system subject to feed forward and feed back control.
  164. 164.  Practicing managers have been exposed to more theories of behavior causation than actual technique for control. Through the years manager have shown a preference for such benign suplenisms as “lend” “motivate”, “influence” and persuade”.  This has forestalled that widespread use of proven behavior control techniques.  Both management theorists and practitioners have the tendency to react negatively to the word “central” in reference to managing people.
  165. 165.  Informed managers have come to appreciate the importance of viewing their organization as open systems complete with inspects, a productive transformation process outputs. Productivity process can be enhance inside the organization by monitoring and controlling what goes in and comes court of the organization.  This is where feed forward and feedback control enters the picture.  Feed forward control in values anticipating and avoiding problems before the actually occur. Quality control is assured by keeping faulty components from entering the production cycle.  Feedback central in contrast occurs after the fact through monitoring of output and correction of existing problems  Both positive and negative feedback control takes place after job performance. The feed forward variety is preferable because it helps management anticipate and avoid job performance problems.
  166. 166.  Instead of passively waiting for problems to occur and only then take corrective action – to keep these problems from recurring. OBM in Contrast to MASLOW, Mc. Gregor and Herzberg  OBM represents a significant departure from all three of these widely known theories
  167. 167. OBM with MASLOW Self Actualization esteem Safety Physiological Love Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  168. 168. 1. No single reinforce could effectively control all behavior in a single person in control a single behavior in all people 2. Identification of reinforce becomes a case to case proposition.
  169. 169. OBM with Gregor Mc Gregor believe X Theory  People dislike work  Lack ambition  Avoid responsibility  Required close supervision  Must be coerced into working hard Y Theory  Work is a natural activity like play or rest  People are capable & self direction in self control if they are committed to objective  People will become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so  The average person can learn to both accept on seek responsibility  Many people in the general population have imagination, ingenuity & creativity
  170. 170.  Theory Y assumptions more accurately characterize the average employee then the Theory X assumptions  The ABC model with its feed forward and feedback can be seen in the Theory Y of Mc Gregor which emphasized the importance of antecedents (objective) and consequence (reward)
  171. 171. OBM with Herzberg  Herzberg formulated his two-factor theory of job satisfaction  First factor – dissatisfies  Policies  Supervision  Work conditions  Salary  Peers  Subordinates  Status  security
  172. 172.  Second Factor – Satisfiers  Achievement  Recognition  The work itself  Responsibility  Advancement  growth
  173. 173. Each satisfier is related to what the person does every day.  To Herzberg if managers want to motivate job performance, they must provide employees with challenging work that affords the opportunity for personal growth  ODM proponents are not directly interested in job satisfaction  They are more concerned with improving job performance  The works of MASLOW, Mc GREGOR & HERZBERG collectively server to broader or appreciation of the importance of the human dimension of organized endeavor.  But their theories have provided us with virtually no precise behavior control techniques. Systematic feed forward and feed back control of organizational behavior can be done in formed managers.
  174. 174. THE END

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