Final2010 literaryelement


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Final2010 literaryelement

  1. 1. The Basic Elements of a Story Ms. Martin/Mr. Doran/Mrs. Sepp English 8
  2. 2. Setting <ul><li>place and time in which the story takes place. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may be multiple settings in a story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>novels </li></ul></ul></ul>1590s, London
  3. 3. Imagery <ul><li>consists of words and phrases that appeal to readers’ senses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help readers imagine how things look, feel, smell, sound, and taste. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ With wonder, she ran her fingers over the beautiful marble horses that stood along the edge of the pool and gazed down at the water with opaque eyes” (Hosseini 28). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plot <ul><li>The series of events that make up a story. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Parts of a Plot-Freytag’s Pyramid 1. Exposition: setting the scene. The writer introduces the characters and setting, providing description and background. 2. Inciting Incident: something happens to begin the action. A single event usually signals the beginning of the main conflict. The inciting incident is sometimes called 'the complication'. 3. Rising Action: the story builds and gets more exciting. 4. Climax: the moment of greatest tension in a story. This is often the most exciting event. It is the event that the rising action builds up to and that the falling action follows. 5. Falling Action: events happen as a result of the climax and we know that the story will soon end. 6. Resolution: the character solves the main problem/conflict or someone solves it for him or her.
  6. 6. Narrator-the teller of the story <ul><li>▪ Point of View: the perspective from which the story is told </li></ul><ul><li>• First-person - the narrator is a character in the story and uses first-person pronouns, such as I , me, we, and us. </li></ul><ul><li>• Third-person - the narrator is not a character; he or she uses third-person pronouns, such as he, she, it, they, them. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characterization <ul><li>includes all the techniques writers use to create and develop characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>four basic methods of developing a character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Presenting the character’s words and actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Presenting the character’s thoughts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Describing the character’s appearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Showing what others think about the character </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Static/Dynamic Characters <ul><li>• Static characters [flat]: characters who change little, if at all, throughout the literary work. </li></ul><ul><li>• Dynamic characters [round] : characters who change significantly throughout the work. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conflict <ul><li>the struggle between two </li></ul><ul><li>opposing forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. self </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. Man </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. Nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man vs. society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Theme <ul><li>a message, moral or idea that the author wants to impart to the audience through the story. </li></ul><ul><li>can be complex or they can be as simple as the story of “The Tortoise and the Hare” theme, slow and steady winds the race. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Symbol <ul><li>is a person, a place, an object, or an action that stands for something beyond itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the bald eagle is a symbol of the United States. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Finally, <ul><li>Figurative Language : Authors use figurative language to create fresh and original descriptions. Figurative expressions, while not literally true, help readers picture ordinary things in new ways. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Figurative Language <ul><li>Simile : comparison between two unlike things using like or as </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor- This is a stated or implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of “to be.” The comparison is not always announced by “like or as.” Example: “Juliet is the sun.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Figurative Language <ul><li>Personification - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The moon winked. The trees waved to us. The rock told a story. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperbole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She told me a million times. </li></ul></ul></ul>