Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Katia Jepson
  2. 2. 1. Nationalities2. Steam Changers3. Para4. Object Pronoun Placements5. IOP6. Gustar7. Affirmative & Negative Words8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative tu commands + irregulars + pronoun placement11. Negative tu commands + irregulars + pronoun placement12. Sequencing events
  3. 3. 1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  4. 4. • Generally means ‘for’• The following include all uses of ‘para’: Use Spanish English In order to Llamaré para I will call in order to confirmarlo. confirm Intended for Un regalo para su novia. A present for her boyfriend. (intended for) Destination Salen para Londres. They are leaving for London. For length of time Necesito una I need a room for 6 habitacióon para 6 nights. noches. In time phrases to Lo necesito para I need it for tomorrow. specify a future moment mañana. in time Comparison Es alto para su edad. He is tall for his age.
  5. 5. Pedir Pensarpido piensopides piensasPido Piden Piensa piensan ei e  ie *The stem doesn’t change in the Stem Changing nosotros (we) Verbs or vosotros (you) form. u  ue o ue Jugar ContarJuego CuentoJuegas CuentasJuega Juegan Cuenta Cuentan
  6. 6. • Indirect object pronouns are nouns that tell to whom/what or for whom/what. They replace or accompany indirect objects. Singular Plural Me Nos -me -us Te Os -you (familiar) -you (familiar) Le Les -you -you, then (formal),him, her
  7. 7. • Use gustar to express what activities people like to do: me gusta… nos gusta… te gusta… os gusta… le gusta… les gusta…• When you talk about things that people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things. Singular me gusta la idea nos gusta la idea te gusta la idea os gusta la idea le gusta la idea les gusta la idea Plural me gustan las personas nos gustan las personas te gustan las personas os gustan las personas le gustan las personas les gustan las personas
  8. 8. Affirmative Words Negative WordsAlgo – something Nada – nothingAlguien – someone Nadie – no oneAlgún/alguno(a) – Ningún/ninguno(a) – none, notsame anySiempre – always Nunca – neverTambién – also Tampoco – neither, either • Alguno and ninguno have different forms when used before masculine singular nouns. alguno  algún ninguno  ningún • If a verb is proceeded by no, words that follow must be negative. A double negative is required is required in Spanish when no precedes the verb. No quiero nada. Carlos no quiere ninguno. • However, if a negative word, such as nunca or nadie, comes before the verb, a second negative is not needed. Nadie quiere postre. Las chicas nunca comen en casa.
  9. 9. -ísimo These are the suffixes-ísimos added to adjectives and averbs. It is equivalent-ísima to extremely or very-ísimas before an adjective or malo  malísimo adverb. muchas  muchísimo muchas  muchísimoAdjectives and adverbs ending in c, g, or z, change thespelling to qu, gu, and c respectively. rico  riquísimo larga  larguísimo feliz  felicísimo Adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding –císimo/a joven  jovencísimo trabajador  trabajadorcísimo
  10. 10. • To describe people doing How do you form these things for themselves, use verbs? reflexive verbs. Reflexive 1. Conjugate the verb pronouns are used with the 2. Add the reflexive pronoun reflexive verbs to indicate me nos that the subject of the te os sentence receives the se se action of the verb. Position 1. In front of a conjugated verb• In the reflexive 2. Attached to a gerund construction, the subject is 3. Attached to an infinitve also the object. 4. Attached to an affirmative• The subject, the command pronoun, and the verb are Por ejemplo: all in the same form. 1. Yo me levanto a las ocho de la mañana. 2. Ella se despierta muy temprano.
  11. 11. Affirmative Tú Commands Give instructions or commands to someone by using the Affirmative tú commands of regular verbs. Caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! Comer ¡Come! ¡Come todo la hamburguesa! *Notice it is a tú command, but ends like a 3rd house form. Can attach toAffirmative tú Simply drop direct object commands the ‘s’ pronoun ending Irregular Affirmative Tú Commands Pronoun Placement Affirmative túInfinitve command  Remember that when you use a pronoun withDecir Di an affirmative command, the pronoun attachesHacer Haz to the command.Ir Ve ex: ¡Ponte otro camisa!Poner Pon  When usingan object pronoun, attach theSalir Sal pronoun to the end of the affirmativeSer Sé command.Tener Ten ex: Cruza el parque  ¡Cruzalo!Venir Ven
  12. 12. When you tell someone what not to do, use a negative command. Change toNegative tú opposite vowel Put in ‘yo’ form Add an ‘s’commands ar  e er/ir  a Infinitive yo form negative tú Tú negative command No des/digas Hablar hablo ¡No hables! No hagas Volver vuelvo ¡No vuelvas! No nayas No pongos Irregular Negative Tú Commands No salgas  A few verbs have irregular negative tú commands. No seas Notice that none of the yo forms of these verbs end No tengas in –o. No vengas Dar (doy)  No le des mi dirección a nadie. Estar (estoy)  No estés triste. Ir (voy)  No voyas a la tiende. Pronoun Ser (soy)  Placement No seas mala. Object pronouns precede the verbs in negative commands, just as with other conjugated verbs. ex: ¡No lo uses!  Don’t use it
  13. 13. Primero first Antes de beforeentonces then Después de after The Luego/ Los lunes, mondays, afterdespués martes, etc. tuesdays, etc. Por la In/during Por fin finally mañana the morning In/during No specific Por la tarde the time given afternoon Por la In/during noche the evening