Water footprint for mining in South Africa


Published on

Water footprint and its relevance and usefulness to mining operations in South Africa. (Many slides contributed by Water Footprint Network)

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water footprint for mining in South Africa

  1. 1. Water Footprint and Mining South Africa Kate Laing Pegasys Strategy & Development 30 November 2011 www.waterfootprint.org
  2. 2. The Water Footprint NetworkMission: Promoting sustainable, equitable and efficientwater use through development of shared standards onwater footprint accounting and guidelines for the reductionand offsetting of impacts of water footprints.Network: bringing together expertise from academia,businesses, civil society, governments and internationalorganisations.
  3. 3. Overview1. Introduction to Water Footprint2. How a Water Footprint is calculated?3. The water impacts of mining • What would a mining water footprint look like?4. Who is interested in Water Footprint? • Water Footprint & Policy • Water Footprint & Corporates • Water Footprint & Consumers5. Water Footprint Response
  4. 4. The Beginning: Virtual Water
  5. 5. Globalization of WaterEconomic perspective:Water-abundant regions have an advantageover water-scarce regions, but water is notfactored into the price of commodities.Environmental-social perspective:Consumers indirectly contribute to waterdepletion and pollution elsewhere, withoutcovering the cost.Political perspective:Several nations become increasinglydependent on external water resources. Waterbecomes a geopolitical resource.
  6. 6. The Water Footprint of a product• The volume of fresh water used to produce the product, summed over the various steps of the supply chain.• This is the same concept as virtual water.• However, a water footprint goes on to: • Quantify the actual volume • Consider of the type of water used • Consider when and where the water is used.
  7. 7. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  8. 8. [Aldaya & Hoekstra, 2009]
  9. 9. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  10. 10. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  11. 11. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  12. 12. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  13. 13. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  14. 14. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  15. 15. Type of water usedGreen water footprint► volume of rainwater evaporated or incorporated into product.Blue water footprint► volume of surface or groundwater evaporated,incorporated into product or returned to another catchment or the sea.Grey water footprint► volume of polluted water.
  16. 16. Components of a Water Footprint Direct water footprint Indirect water footprint consumption Green water footprint Green water footprint Water Water withdrawalNon-consumptive water use (return flow) Blue water footprint Blue water footprint pollution Water Grey water footprint Grey water footprintThe traditional statistics on water use [Hoekstra, 2008]
  17. 17. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  18. 18. [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  19. 19. Water Footprint of the EU‟s Cotton Consumption [Hoekstra, 2008]
  20. 20. Water footprint of EU‟s Cotton Consumption Blue Water 421 Mm3/yr 2959M m3/yr 581 Mm3/yr 803 Mm3/yr 450 Mm3/yr 533 Mm3/yr 690 Mm3/yr 2459 Mm3/yrBlue water footprintMillion m3/yr EU25s impact on blue water resources [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  21. 21. Water footprint of EU‟s cotton consumption Green Water 485 Mm3/yr 165 Mm3/yr 325 186 Mm3/yr Mm3/yr 283 Mm3/yr 3467 Mm3/yrGreen water footprintMillion m3/yr EU25s impact on green water resources [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  22. 22. Water footprint of EU‟s cotton consumption Grey Water 92 310 Mm3/yr Mm3/yr 635 Mm3/yr 102 Mm3/yr 398 83 Mm3/yr Mm3/yr 409 Mm3/yr 697 Mm3/yrDilution water footprintMillion m3/yr EU25s impact on global water resources due to pollution [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  23. 23. Water footprint:Makes a link between consumption in one place andimpacts on water systems elsewhere.Shrinking Aral Sea
  24. 24. Water footprint:Makes a link between consumption in one place andimpacts on water systems elsewhereEndangered Indus River Dolphin [Photo: WWF]
  25. 25. Water Footprint vs Carbon FootprintWater footprint Carbon footprint • measures freshwater • measures emission GH- appropriation gasses • spatial and temporal • no spatial / temporal dimension dimension • actual, locally specific values • global average values • always referring to full supply- • supply-chain included only in chain „scope 3 carbon accounting‟ • focus on reducing own water • many efforts focused on footprint (water use units are offsetting (carbon emission not interchangeable) units are interchangeable)
  26. 26. WF vs Life Cycle AssessmentWater footprint LCA • measures freshwater • measures overall appropriation environmental impact • multi-dimensional (type of • no spatial dimension water use, location, timing) • actual water volumes, no • weighing water volumes weighing. based on impacts
  27. 27. How is a Water Footprint Calculated?
  28. 28. Type of water usedGreen water footprint► volume of rainwater evaporated or incorporated into product.Blue water footprint► volume of surface or groundwater evaporated,incorporated into product or returned to another catchment or the sea.Grey water footprint► volume of polluted water.
  29. 29. The green and blue water footprint in relation to the water balance of a catchment area Green water footprint Blue water footprint Non production-relatedPrecipitation Production-related Water contained Production-related Water contained Water transfer to evapotranspiration evapotranspiration in products evapotranspiration in products other catchment Catchment area Abstraction Return flow Runoff at Runoff from Soil and vegetation field level Ground- and surface water catchment [Hoekstra et al., 2011]
  30. 30. Green Water FootprintGreen water footprint• Volume of rainwater evaporated or incorporated into a product.• Particularly relevant for agricultural products.• Typically measured as rain water crop evapotranspiration• There are some industrial examples of direct use of rainwater..
  31. 31. Blue Water FootprintBlue water footprint• Volume of surface or groundwater consumed in the production of a good.• Consumption refers to the volume of surface water: • Evaporated or incorporated to a product • Or abstracted and returned to another catchment/the sea• In agricultural products this is typically irrigation.• In industrial production this is BOTH surface and ground water abstraction..
  32. 32. Grey Water FootprintGrey water footprint• Volume of polluted freshwater associated with the production of a product over its full supply-chain.• Calculated as the volume of water that is required to assimilate pollutants based on ambient water quality standards..
  33. 33. Grey water footprint in a catchment Assimilative capacity 1. WFgrey < R not fully usedLevel ofpollution L (kg) Critical Full assimilative load 2. WFgrey = R capacity of the river used L1 L2 L3 Critical load is when assimilation capacity is fully consumed Pollution exceeding the assimilative Lcrit = R  (cmax - cnat) 3. WFgrey > R capacity of the environment
  34. 34. Coherence in water footprint accounts• WF product = sum of the water footprints of the process steps taken to produce the product.• WF consumer = sum of the water footprints of all products consumed by the consumer.• WF community = sum of the water footprints of its members.• WF national consumption = sum of the water footprints of its inhabitants.• WF business = sum of the water footprints of the final products that the business produces.• WF within a geographically delineated area = sum of the process water footprints of all processes taking place in the area.
  35. 35. Unit of a water footprint• WF of a product: water volume per product unit. Examples: o water volume per unit of mass o water volume per unit of money o water volume per unit of energy (food products, fuels)
  36. 36. Green, blue, grey, so what?Egyptian Wheat: Australian Wheat:Total water: 930m3/ton Total water: 1588m3/tonGreen water: 0% Green water: 99%Blue water: 100% Blue water: 1%
  37. 37. So what beer? SABMiller SABMiller Water Futures 2009
  38. 38. Mining Impacts on Water
  39. 39. Type of water usedGreen water footprint► volume of rainwater evaporated or incorporated into product.Blue water footprint► volume of surface or groundwater evaporated,incorporated into product or returned to another catchment or the sea.Grey water footprint► volume of polluted water.
  40. 40. Water & Mining issuesMining has an impact upon:• Water quantity• Water qualityThese factors will both affect the water footprint of a miningoperation.
  41. 41. Water Quantity issuesFactors that would affect the water footprint of a mineral output:• Climatic conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity > affect evaporation rates)• Primary water source: surface water, ground water or saline water.• Ore mineralogy and geochemistry (>affects processing)• Tailings and overburden management (>affects water management).• Type of commodity (e.g. uranium requires extensive dust suppression).• The extent of reuse and recycling• Mine site water management regime (e.g. allowable discharges; treatment)• Surrounding communities‟ land uses, and/or industries.• Project design and configuration (type of mining, beneficiation, closure, etc).• The initial moisture content of the ore and waste rock.• Whether the mine is above or below the water table.• Surrounding hydrogeological conditions (e.g. high permeability aquifers; artesian groundwater depressuration issues).
  42. 42. Water Quality issuesWater quality impacts of mining operations:• Acid Rock Drainage (ARD).• Neutral mine drainage (NMD) or Saline Drainage (SD)• Heavy metal contamination and leaching• Processing chemicals pollution• Erosion and sedimentation.
  43. 43. Mining & Water Risk• Extractive companies undertake significant operations in the location of the resource (extraction, treatment, & often processing.) • As such, operations only receive water from an individual catchment or transfer scheme • There is almost no scope to move operations once investment has begun without significant financial costs (water is expensive to move). • Water risk is therefore bound to local context.• Surplus water is as much a risk as scarcity for a mining company.
  44. 44. Shared risk Dimensions of Water Risk Physical Risks Regulatory Risks Reputational Risks Company  High reliance on freshwater  Increasing competition with  Concerns of Risk other users might lead to stakeholders around  Mines are locationally fixed right curtailment or quality and quantity from so continual adverse revocation company operations can conditions cannot be solved cause distribution to by relocating  Increasing cost for rights,Location of Water risks operations or increase storage, waste treatment, cost of doing business  Disruptions of operations and discharge due to extreme weather  Depletion of resource events  Government may reject may create negative licenses based on perceptions elsewhere in stakeholder concern the basin Basin  Availability of freshwater  Institutional weakness or  Large corporates are Risk limited as a result of other failure can affect water easy scapegoats for user requirements quantity or quality basin wide water risk issues around quality  Other basin users might  International basins at risk and quantity even if they pollute water resource if other riparian are not the primary state(s)have poor contributing party  Climate change might alter regulations hydrology of basin and user  End users may chose needs  Local companies favoured not to purchase product over multi-nationals for from a particular basin if licensing and fees there is high risk
  45. 45. This Water Footprint, not That• Water footprint would be measured in m3/ton of product• It would vary significantly, between and within ore types. • It is influenced in large part by the quality of ores.• Because of the importance of local conditions, the water footprint of mining varies considerably between sites.• Operations impact on a mining water footprint• Mine closure has an impact on a mining water footprint.
  46. 46. Water Footprint & Mining• Water Footprint expands the concept of fresh water consumption: • Green water • Grey water • It helps to talk about “non consumption” (recycled water) • It creates a shared standard and language for water use.• Most mines understand their water balance – WF can contribute to understanding where water is consumed in production and identify where best to invest in water saving technology or process.• The WF Assessment helps with understanding the sustainability of water footprint within the context of the local water resources (impact).• Mining companies may understand their current water use but may not be able to plan for future water needs given: • Expansion of activities • Climate change.
  47. 47. Who is interested in WF?
  48. 48. Who is interested in Water Footprints? 1. Policy makers 2. Corporates and businesses 3. Consumers1 2 3
  49. 49. Policy & Water Footprint Water Footprint has insights for: • Trade Policy • Agricultural Policy • Water Policy1 2 3
  50. 50. Policy: Water Footprint & Food Security1 2 3 Agricultural Water Footprint of Morocco
  51. 51. Policy: WF & Water Allocation1 2 3 Example: Water Footprint of Biofuels
  52. 52. Business & Water Footprints Businesses face water risk: • Physical risk • Reputational risk • Regulatory risk • Financial risk There are opportunities for business • Supply chain risk management • Corporate image Corporate social responsibility1 2 3
  53. 53. Water footprint: What is new for business?• From operations to supply-chain thinking.• Shifting focus from water withdrawals to consumptive water use.• From securing the „right to abstract & emit‟ to assessing the full range of economic, social and environmental impacts of water use in space and time.• From meeting emission standards to managing grey water footprint. 1 2 3
  54. 54. Example Corporate Water Footprint1 2 3
  55. 55. SABMiller Water FootprintCrop Cultivation Crop Processing Brewing Distribution Consumer Energy Transport Energy Transport Disposal Fertiliser/ Energy Transport Recycling pesticide Crop Imports Packaging Crop Growth Direct Water Raw Materials (rainfed/ Use Waste irrigated) Direct Water Use 1 2 3
  56. 56. SABMiller Water Footprint1 2 3
  57. 57. SABMiller Water Footprint “Each of these countries are facing different water related issues, are at different levels of economic development, use land in different ways and are experiencing different climatic challenges.” (SABMiller Water Futures)1 2 3
  58. 58. SABMiller Water Footprint
  59. 59. SABMiller 5 R‟s • Influence farmers in responsible water use • Understand the watersheds where there are breweries & P(r)otect bottling plants. • Where appropriate, replenish water resources through rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge • Employ new processes and change behaviour toReduce, Reuse & reduce water consumption within plants. • Collect & re-use waste water within facilities where Recycle appropriate. • Investigate and employ new technologies to recycle. • Provide local communities with clean water through community investment programmes Redistribute • Treat waste water so it can be used for irrigation or other purposes. 1 2 3
  60. 60. Consumers & Water Footprint11 22 33
  61. 61. Consumers & Water Footprint Protest at the proposed $4.8 billion Conga gold mine (Peru, 25 November 2011) Fears that the mine would hurt nearby water supplies, the mine would cause pollution and alter sources of irrigation water.1 2 3
  62. 62. Water & Mining South Africa
  63. 63. Water & Mining South AfricaSource: Greenpeace, True Cost of Coal in South Africa, 2011
  64. 64. Water & Mining South AfricaSource: WWF-SA Coal and Water Futures, 2011
  65. 65. Water footprint sustainability assessment & Water footprint response
  66. 66. Water Footprint ResponseStep 1 Step 2 Step 3 Avoid the water Water footprint Water footprint footprint reduction offsetting
  67. 67. Avoid, Reduce & OffsetAvoid: do not undertake water-using activities if reasonable alternatives are available.Reduce: undertake what is reasonably possible to reduce the existing water footprint.Offset: compensate the residual water footprint by making a reasonable investment (payments or in-kind contributions) in establishing or supporting projects that aim at a sustainable, equitable and efficient use of water in the catchment where the residual water footprint is located.
  68. 68. Role of Technology Preventing water use  redesign of process – e.g. dry sanitation, dry cleaning Water saving technology  innovative devices in households and industries  water-saving irrigation techniques along the whole supply chain (storage – distribution – application)  water reuse Desalination Pollution prevention  recycling chemicals and materials  wastewater treatment
  69. 69. Reporting• Shared terminology & calculation standards• Product transparency – water footprint reporting / disclosure – labelling of products – certification of businesses• Quantitative footprint reduction targets – benchmarking
  70. 70. Investor PerspectivesReduce water risk of investments:• physical risk formed by water shortages or pollution.• risk of damaged corporate image• regulatory risk• financial riskThere will be increased demand for accounting and substantiated quantitative water footprint reduction targets from companies. [Morrison et al., 2009; Pegram et al, 2009; Hoekstra et al., 2009]
  71. 71. Government Perspective Water footprint analysis is becoming embedded in national water policy making. It promotes coherence between water and other governmental policies: environmental, agricultural, energy, trade, foreign policy. Future requirements for product transparency - annual water footprint accounts and implementation of water footprint reduction measures.  e.g. through promoting a water label for water-intensive products;  e.g. through water-certification of businesses.
  72. 72. Government PerspectiveWater use efficiency at different levels:Level MeansUser level Create incentives to the water user: water pricing, promoting technology,Local water use efficiency awareness raisingRiver basin level Allocate water where its value added is highestWater allocation efficiencyGlobal level Virtual water trade from water- abundant to water-scarce regionsGlobal water use efficiencyKey question: how to develop a coherent set of actions at different spatiallevels to solve local water problems?
  73. 73. Thank You Kate Laing Pegasys Strategy & Development Email: kate@pegasys.co.za Twitter: @kate_laingwww.waterfootprint.org