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# Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Dyscalculia Wirral Dyslexia Association

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Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Dyscalculia Wirral Dyslexia Association

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### Mathematical Learning Difficulties and Dyscalculia Wirral Dyslexia Association

1. 1. Mathematical LearningDifficulties and Dyscalculia ‘Enabling every teaching assistant, teacher to explain maths effectively to all learners’ Wirral Dyslexia Association
2. 2. Contents• Exploration of Maths Learning Difficulties and Dyscalculia• Subitising/Numerosity• Multi-sensory teaching Wirral Dyslexia Association
3. 3. There are THREE kinds of people in the world Those who can do maths and Those who can’t Wirral Dyslexia Association
4. 4. How many children are dyscalculic?4-6% of the population are dyscalculic.At least one in every class- affects boys andgirls the same!!Around 6% of children in the UK havesevere difficulties with numeracy(Gross 2007)Equates to 180,000 primary school children(DfE 2010) Wirral Dyslexia Association
5. 5. Definition of Dyscalculia A condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method, they may do so mechanically and without confidence.DFES (2001) Wirral Dyslexia Association
6. 6. What do we mean by dyscalculia?It can be used as an umbrella term formaths difficultiesIt can refer to different levels ofdifficulty and can becomeapparent at differentdevelopmental stagesA good sign of dyscalculia isabsence of number sense or low numbersense Wirral Dyslexia Association
7. 7. What do we mean by number sense?•The ability to determine the number ofobjects in a small collection, to count, and toperform simple addition and subtraction,without direct instruction.•Spoken language and number sense aresurvival skills but abstract maths is not. Wirral Dyslexia Association
8. 8. Why is teaching/learning maths so important?Discuss!!• Think about all the maths that you would use in planning a dinner party- absolutely everything Wirral Dyslexia Association
9. 9. The consequences are profoundAround 20% of the UK have difficulties withmathematics which cause significantpractical, educational or functionaldifficulties(Parsons & Bynner 2005)People with poor numeracy skills are morelikely to be unemployed, depressed, ill andarrested (Butterworth & Yeo 2004) Wirral Dyslexia Association
10. 10. Two thirds of young prisoners havenumeracy skills at or below the level of an11-year-old child (Social Exclusion Unit2002)Costs the UK exchequer as much as £2.4billion every year(Gross et al. 2009) Wirral Dyslexia Association
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12. 12. Symptoms of Dyscalculia• An inability to subitise even very small quantities• An inability to estimate whether a numerical answer is reasonable• Weaknesses in both short term and long term memory• An inability to count backwards reliably• Immature strategies- for example counting all instead of counting on• Weakness in visual and spatial orientation Wirral Dyslexia Association
13. 13. Symptoms (cont’d)• Directional confusion• Slow processing speed• Difficulty sequencing• Difficulty with language• Inability to notice patterns• Poor memory for facts and procedures• Inability to generalise• Difficulties in word problems and multi step calculations• Problems with all aspects of money• Marked delay in learning to tell the time Wirral Dyslexia Association
14. 14. Subitising Wirral Dyslexia Association
15. 15. What do we mean by 1, 2, 3,… subitising?• Subitising comes from Latin= ‘Sudden’• The ability to give the amount of objects in a set without counting• Most people can subitise up to five or six objects• Dyscalculic people do not have this ability• This is innate, we are born with the ability to assess quantity.• Babies can count! Wirral Dyslexia Association
16. 16. Animals can count in thesense that they canrecognise the differencebetween one animal and agroup- this is vital forsurvival Wirral Dyslexia Association
17. 17. Two types of subitizingPerceptual• Perceptual subitizing involves recognising a number without using other mathematical processes- as you did when looking at the dot pictures• This type of subitising helps children to separate collections of units and associate them with one number word- thus developing the process of countingConceptual• In this type of subitising you are recognising a familiar pattern- such as the dots on a dice or domino• If children can use conceptual subitising patterns then this will help them to develop abstract strategies. Wirral Dyslexia Association
18. 18. Dianna Laurillard Centre of educational Neuroscience UCL• Manipulations of special materials (Cuisenaire, dots, patterns, dice ,number lines, beads, counters etc)• Talk plays a key role; pupil has to describe the task , the goal , the action• Games help to align the pupil-teacher task goals Wirral Dyslexia Association
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20. 20. Multi-sensory teaching recognises that in orderto learn, the sensory systems are required fordiscrimination of sounds and symbols and forarranging these in a sequential order.The sensory systems areVisualAuditoryTactile- kinaestheticOral –kinaesthetic
21. 21. Multi sensory, Concrete Apparatus Manipulatives• Base ten• Cuisinaire• Number strings Stern Material• Numicon Wirral Dyslexia Association
22. 22. Must link materials and models to language• 7-3= Seven take away 3 Wirral Dyslexia Association
23. 23. Over learning Repetition Repetition Repetition!• Number facts• Bonds• Tables• Definitions• Procedures After concept and understanding• Cards, Mnemonics, visualisations Wirral Dyslexia Association
24. 24. Number Bond Card (Addition) Front Back 3+ ? = 7 Wirral Dyslexia Association
25. 25. Over Learning/Reasoning• Support learning of number facts by reasoning• Children not in position of either knowing or not knowing a fact as can use reasoning strategies• Two steps for knowing; one just knowing the other deriving Wirral Dyslexia Association
26. 26. Cumulative /structured• Skills build on each other• Ideal world master one skill before moving on• Task analysis check which underlying skill are needed Wirral Dyslexia Association
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