Telling The Story Formatted


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How Durham Cathedral could use modern technology to enhance its mission and ministry

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Telling The Story Formatted

  1. 1. 1 elling the Story How Durham Cathedral could use modern technology to enhance and extend its mission and ministry.1 1 Submitted Summative Essay:Mission in Context, MATM, Cranmer Hall, June 2009 “Just as the ‘new technology’ of stained glass windows made the old stories come alive for the populace of medieval yesterday, now our new technologies can also enhance the understanding and admiration of a new populacetoday.In fact, it may be as well to consider the eye strain caused by reading text on screen akin to the neck strain surely felt by the faithful, craning up to decipher the sections of window as well to remember the growth and successof that ‘new technology’. Let us take heart from it, and carry forward that encouragement into our development…”2 Fifteenyearsago,thiswasthe conclusionof my MA dissertation. The technology it referred to was standalone, not pre-dating but developing alongside the internet, which was still in its infancy. The technologiesmayhave proliferated but the sentiment remains – that we should embrace them. Lord, whois infiniteincreativity and seesthe potential beyondourselves, helpusto hear yourvoice, see yourglory, and share yourlove withthe world. Kate Boardman,June 2009 2 Concluding paragraph fromBoardman,K., Modern Technology and Medieval Studies: Can Multimedia Enhance theStudy of Medieval Manuscripts? University of Hull, MA dissertation (unpubl.), 1995 T
  2. 2. 2 NTRODUCTION New media and communication technologies are routinely used today in almost every aspect of life. They bring potential to create and connect, to support and to serve; opportunities that did not exist twenty years ago. Many of these opportunities can and increasingly are being exploited by the Church to enrich the experience offered to members and non-members, pilgrims and visitors. This essay will cover three key areas and explore various outworkings of them, as they could be put to use by Durham Cathedral to enhance its mission today. Firstly, using the website in a more dynamic and personal fashion to communicate with not to its readers. Secondly, to make the most of digital images, using them to visually market the cathedral more aggressively both locally and further afield and exploiting the power of the image to communicate and inspire. Thirdly, emphasis will shift to the consideration of audio, and how digital audio, which is easy and relatively cheap to create, could significantly increase engagement with the Cathedral. Finally, showing how these can harmoniously work together, this essay proposes a larger scale project akin to that referred to in the opening quotation, and which Durham Cathedral is ideally placed to exploit within the next twelve months. An evaluation of all available web technologies or digital tools with regard to how they could be used by the Cathedral is far beyond the scope of this essay. There are a number of initiatives in consideration or development, such as the [instantly successful] presence of the Cathedral on Facebook; these are ignored here due to lack of space and the fact that they are already being discussed. Similarly, the potential to enter 3D environments and create an official presence in Second Life – despite this being the subject of an international conference to be held at St John’s College in July – also needs must be neglected. Both of these technologies are discussed, though not with direct reference to the Cathedral, in a previous essay, the Word made virtual.3 Nor is there scope in an essay of this length to elaborate greatly on pre-existing work on the mission of cathedrals.4 Reference is made at the end to Durham Cathedral in Mission,5 written by Canon Rosalind Brown in August 2008, the bullet points for mission listed therein form a backbone to much of what follows. Two themes underpin the development of this essay. The first motif which runs through it and which defined the content selection is that of telling stories. The Church is and has been full of stories, full of people, from Jesus teaching his disciples in parables through to the 3 Boardman, K. TheWord madevirtual:some thoughts on mission and ministry online. Diocese ofDurham Living Theology Today summative essay, February 2008. 4 Though background tothe thinkingcomesfromworks listed in the bibliography. 5 n I
  3. 3. 3 recently converted’s testimonies; the telling, listening to, recasting, sharing and recasting of stories, and the story, is at the heart of mission. The second theme of the essay is in choosing digital tools which help to exemplify the definition by Michael Sadgrove of cathedrals as places of presence, of passionate engagement, and interpretation (‘As wide as the Earth’, Installation Sermon, Sheffield, 3 June 1998). This essay proposes the particular uses of technology detailed below to add colour and depth to the ongoing story woven by Durham Cathedral today, uses which should enhance and illustrate the sense of presence, draw people in to a more passionate engagement, and offer them a far richer interpretation of the story the Cathedral has to tell. ATHEDRALS AND MODERN TECHNOLOGY “Tostimulate further debate and to encourage those responsible for cathedrals to explore new and imaginative waysof living out their contemporary role.” Aim of HeritageandRenewal.6 Using technology to enhance the mission of the cathedral should be a natural extension to the existing IT and mission strategies. Whilst the Cathedral seems to stand firm, aloof, impervious to the passing of time, the imperative to live out God’s mission in today’s world does not excuse it from moving with that world. Meeting people where they are today 6 HeritageandRenewal, Archbishops' commission on cathedrals,chairedby Lady Howe,1994 includes exploiting the technology that they use to interact with each other and with society. “A cathedral is […] beckoned by its very character to look outwards and become immersed in the wider world beyondits doors […]”7 This may require a pluralist approach at the current time, to reach out across the generations, blending traditional methods of presence and communication to those who grew up in the last century with the newer channels of communication and the always-on presence now assumed by the digital natives of the millennial generation. For a while, there may be a need to provide and maintain multiple communication streams, however, a carefully planned, coherent and integrated strategy for the future should be both attainable and sustainable. Durham Cathedral ought to consider how it connects and communicates both in respect of its existing presence on the internet through its web pages and how they may be extended and enhanced, and through the careful consideration and adoption of other emergent technologies. A key word here is “and adoption of” – communication and information technologies appear, grow and develop at a pace which often surprises those who do not belong to the net generation. It can be strange to consider something which is less than two years old a “mature” technology. With the speed of 7 Lewis, C. & Platten,S. Dreaming Spires? Cathedrals in a new age. London,SPCK, 2006,p.21 C
  4. 4. 4 technology development today this is not uncommon, and must be accepted. To embrace any and all new technological fads is obviously not appropriate for an esteemed institution such as Durham Cathedral, however it is important to keep abreast of the technology, be aware of and understand the marketplace and to be prepared and able to move quickly into the adoption of tools and technologies which are identified as beneficial. Being prepared and able to move quickly to adoption means to have consultancy and decision-making processes in place to enable such a move. A parish church may be much more flexible than a cathedral and a vicar able to take more executive decisions to put things more swiftly into practice than a dean. Today’s consumers can be fickle and can mock failed or clumsy attempts to ‘get wiv the yoof’; conversely they are also a valuable advisory group to engage in conversation. Maintaining an open dialogue with a wide range of stakeholders and revisiting communication methods regularly provides the opportunity to review and recommend new channels to communicate with existing and new audiences. This essay does not mean to reduce ‘mission and ministry’ to ‘connect and communicate’. Prayer, praise, teaching, worship, hospitality, sanctuary; the past, the present and the future – these can all be touched and enhanced by new technology. However because being able to reach out and meet people is at the heart of mission and ministry there are key opportunities available to the Cathedral to exploit in the socially- networked world of today, these are the focus here. Do we risk diminishing the Cathedral’s lofty existence to offer unbroken prayers and praise whether in the presence of a congregation or not by encouraging it to engage more, and more directly, with its audiences? No, because as we shall see, adopting and exploiting technology can help us reach beyond the clergy, beyond the congregation to the city and beyond, to all God’s people; touching those who do or will come but also those who don’t, can’t or won’t. DYNAMIC AND PERSONAL WEB PRESENCE (Giving a human face to the technological) People are connected across the globe today in a world where they expect information not only to be available 24/7 but also to be regularly updated. Moving from a static (Web 1.0) to a more dynamic (Web 2.0) website and incorporating a sense of blogging would enable the Cathedral to connect and communicate in a much richer way with readers, It would display a/the human face (and human voice, see below) of Durham Cathedral. In a blog (from ‘web-log’) people use the web as a public journal where they share thoughts, activities and resources, which can be commented and entered into conversation on. There are a number of Bishops who already blog as individuals, and maintain a public record of not only their thoughts and prayers, but of their teachings, their visits and also of prompts to things for A
  5. 5. 5 their subscribers to read and digest.8 Some appear more personal than official, all are a wonderfully informal face of the man behind the mitre. Most of these are maintained by the Bishops as and by themselves, rather than as a part of their cathedral’s web presence. This does not mean however, that it is inappropriate for a cathedral to do similarly. The people who live and work in the Cathedral precincts are a fascinating group of people involved in many visible aspects of the day-to-day life of the cathedral and city, and many less visible. Updating the website with not just ‘news headlines’ but regular information about what is happening in the world, on large or small scale would build into a vital and visible example of what God is doing in the world through the Cathedral and the people in it. Content for a more dynamic part of the website along the lines of a blog is by no means exhaustive, but might include:  Prayers forthe week,including some of those people/countries/situations prayed for. There are many beautiful prayers read at Evensong or the midday Eucharist, being able to return to these would be helpful for some; for others there wouldbe a focus to be able to pray together with the community throughout the week. 8 Alan Wilson (; John Sentamu (; Tom Wright(  Information on events attended in the region, whether that be clergy preaching elsewhere or engagement with Durham City Vision on developments forthe riverbanks or progress on the World Heritage Site.  Bookreviews, short bible passage commentaries or reflections on events/reading.  Reports of events in the Cathedral or city.Or further afield – the Facebookpage has allowed Adrian Beney to post links to the videos of the Cathedral Choir’s trip toVersailles within a few hours of his return.  Updates fromvarious associations – interim news about the Friends’ Ramsey window,information about the Durham Churches’ Together seminar series etc. These do not replace entry in Newslink or in the printed Cathedral News, but gain currency from being timely, and are a great opportunity to engage people on an ongoing basis. Web page contents like this are often called ‘stories’, and would not be limited to updates from the clergy – there are many other stories to tell. Pieces of interesting information about the building itself, tales from the guides or even a regular entry on life as a chorister, as the girls begin their training would all add to the colour and depth of connection established between the Cathedral and the wider world.
  6. 6. 6 Some of this can – and no doubt will – be done on the new Facebook page, and although this would limit it a little to Facebook-registered users, the informality is already taken as a given in this form. More direct still would be to tie in updates on a blog-style web presence with a presence on Twitter. Twitter is a 140 character infostream, which exploded into popularity when such personalities as Stephen Fry and Barack Obama were discussed in the press as using it. Westminster Abbey, Salisbury Cathedral and St Pauls are all twitterers, of slightly different types (see also Appendix 1 for screen shots),9 as are some of the Bishops already mentioned above.10 Copying an existing ‘style’ in using technologies like blogs or Twitter is difficult, it is impossible for one’s own style to be suppressed. This is a good thing, and many voices are welcome; Durham Cathedral could certainly produce an engaging stream of events, prayers, notifications to provide a vibrant ‘running commentary’ on the life, work and mission of the Cathedral. SING IMAGE AND IMAGES CREATIVELY (Attracting visitors) It is true to say that few cathedrals are easy to arrive at, via public or private transport, and Durham is no exception. One can arrive in Durham on the train and see that the Cathedral towers over the city. Choose to walk from the station 9;; 10 Alan Wilson (;John Sentamu ( is keepingtrackof them. though, and the Cathedral can disappear, leaving an on-foot pilgrim unsure of the route to take. A set of directions with visual prompts on the website would help to ameliorate this, and not only of the direct route to the Cathedral, but also suggested walks around the riverbanks, which play a large part in the Cathedral’s development plan and also in its finances. Sharing the hidden corners of Durham with our visitors is an easy way to enhance their engagement with the world heritage site and the Cathedral’s own part in that.11 Some of the photographs chosen for use on the walking tour (and a number of the finer interior images) should be added to Google Earth. Increasingly people planning holidays use Google Maps to organise itineraries and stays. Again, working with Durham City Vision and the World Heritage Site, the development team should be ensuring authorised photographs and information can be retrieved by anyone searching the web in this way (does, for example, anyone in the Chapter Office maintain a watching brief on Durham Cathedral’s wikipedia site?) Releasing authorised photographs has wider currency than one might expect. The popularity of the recent Photographers’ Evening proved the interest in the subject. The website 11 Walkingtoursto and fromthestation are an obvious startingpoint; however a logical development might then be fortheCathedral engage with DurhamCity Vision andlocal hotels toadaptroutes for them, which they can distributewith city maps or on theirwebsites for people to seein advance; thisis an opportunity to work towardpartnership with differenthotels in the longerterm, with whomwe play a vital role in the drive to make Durhama placeto stay overnight instead ofa day, or three nights rather than two. U
  7. 7. 7 provides nowhere near enough photographs. Some of the Durham City Photographers’ Club framed shots on display at the Photographers’ Evening were far superior to most of the ones that can be seen on the website, and could prove a real draw in encouraging people to come and visit. Prints such as these should also be bought, licensed and made available in the city. One of the city’s finest pieces of advertising for itself is the back wall of the Slug and Lettuce pub, where canvas prints of Durham’s more beautiful views line the wall. There are a vast number of local residents who have never set foot inside the Cathedral and the Cathedral is missing a marketing coup by not making the most of the images that it has. Does the wider provision of images diminish the sacred space of the building, or reduce the likelihood of it taking your breath away when walking in? Not in the least. Creative photography can often help you engage further with the subject, spending time sitting quietly and focussing on small details as well as just seeing the whole. Many visitors to Durham do come with the Cathedral top of their to-see list, but some are work or conference visitors just travelling through. Making the best, the most evocative of the photography we have available to them in the city, in hotels and restaurants and on the web might whet their appetite for a return visit. This is an opportunity not to be missed. That over 50% of voters chose Durham Cathedral in the 2001 BBC poll12 for their favourite building means that many people that do know it, at least from the outside. 12 I discovered Durham Cathedral quite by accident in January, 1973. I was travelling from Manchester to Edinburgh on the train with friends. The early morning was cold and a heavy fog lay all around. We pulled into a station and I got up to stretch and look out the compartment window. To my surprise, there above me, towering up out of the fog were two enornous (sic) Norman towers. It was so very beautiful and impressive, that I hurried to find out the name of the station so I could return soon to see whatever church that was. It was "Durham". I returned within the month and have loved it ever since. I have only discoverd (sic) in the meantime that my father's family were County Durham folk. It was fated to be. Pastor Roy Ledbetter on the Durham Cathedral Facebookpage Many others do not recognise the silhouette, or know what beauty awaits them on stepping inside. Many American tourists never reach further than York. Does the Cathedral wish to attract more ‘visitors’? How many visitors is too many? How many pilgrims is too many? Durham remains a unique setting of castle and cathedral, so emblematic of our political and theological heritage that we should, if not encourage more people, at the least ensure that those who do visit, or who cannot but who do want to learn about it have the opportunity to do so.
  8. 8. 8 DDING AN AUDIO EXPERIENCE (Deepening the experience of visitors) Moving on, we now consider the visitors and pilgrims which the Cathedral already has as well as those it may welcome in the future. How do we offer them the opportunity to make the most of their visit? How can technology help us to do this? The Art Institute in Chicago (AIC) – as do many art galleries, museums and historic buildings – provides an audio guide for visitors to hire for the duration of their visit as a complement or alternative to a guide or catalogue. Some parts of the AIC’s permanent exhibition are more popular than others – for example the classic painting of the puritan couple ‘American Gothic’.13 For these it is possible to download more detailed audio as an mp3, to play on your PC, iPod or mobile phone, covering the work, the artist, its context history and reception. If you only have a limited time to visit the AIC, this service allows you to identify the things you want to see and create your own mini-guide.14 Listening to an audio guide, hired or downloaded, can allow you to engage more deeply with a subject whilst standing in front of it. Richard Mayer in his research15 demonstrates that true understanding is improved by employing dual input (words and pictures, pictures 13 14 See ‘Enrich your visit’: ml#enrich and the moregeneral startingpoint ‘Plan your visit’: 15 Mayer, RichardE. Multimedia Learning.Cambridge: CUP, 2001 and sound). It is better to look at a painting or sculpture – or take a tour of the Cathedral – while listening to audio than it is to keep breaking your gaze to read the next bit of the guide. It can also be much more accessible for those whose reading skills are not so good, or whose eyesight struggles in the light of the Cathedral. The AIC takes a step further in its ‘enrich your visit’ section, and this has also been taken up by the British Museum and others.16 Recording live lectures or creating specific series of audio which is more contextual than on a single work of art. Series on such as van Gogh, the paintings of the Renaissance, the debate about repatriation for the Elgin Marbles, the manuscripts of St Catherine’s Monastery are available from the web as individual downloads or as podcast subscriptions.17 These examples should encourage Durham Cathedral to see a number of possibilities within them. Investment in audio guides for visitors to the Cathedral would almost certainly be a valuable move. The logistics of their security, management, issue and return would make it no small undertaking, even if it has the opportunity to generate some considerable revenue. One would not wish to turn the Cathedral into a ‘living museum’, with people just following the 16 The British Museum‘VisitingTactics’is a valuable summary of need-to-know information thatthe Cathedralcouldlearn much from with respectto its website: uk/735940/British-Museum-Gallery-Guide.html 17 For example, see‘Forgotten Persia’: sources/index.html A
  9. 9. 9 guide (in either audio or print) and not stopping to look around, taking the time for the building and God to interact with them as they move around. Nor would one wish an audio guide to be seen as a stealth entry fee. Audio can however be relatively easily and cheaply created and made available, as the AIC and the British Museum have done, via the web. Different audio series can be created to respond to people’s differing interests. These in no way detract from the group and public tours by the guides. There are two obvious audio guides with which to begin. Firstly, a guide to the building, its architecture and decoration. This can be internal and external, if they are downloading and listening on their own player there is no reason why this should not include exterior discussions. This should include stories and references to the Cathedral, from the milkmaid and the dun cow to Bill Bryson’s quote from Notes from a Small Island, which he would probably be delighted to record personally. This guide could bring together the stories of, and interviews with, the stone masons, the architect, the Ramsey window designer, the clergy and the fascinating tales and endless knowledge of the senior guides. This would make for a riot of audio colour, to interpret and to share the passionate engagement these people have for, and bring forth from the Cathedral. A second guide would be more reflective, an audio pilgrimage. This would take a similar basic format as the printed version(s) but be extended to allow for the potential of the medium. It should include appropriate music, reflections and prayers to accompany the main text as pilgrims make their way around the Cathedral. There can be gentle prompts at relevant points: ‘pause awhile in the crossing, see how the light catches…’ Poetic, perhaps, but allowing the listener be drawn into their own conversation with God in the space. Audio guides can be downloaded in advance of a visit, brought to a visit or used for more information after a visit, perhaps tempting a return trip. The audio series offered by the AIC and the British Museum show us the way beyond guides. Part of the mission and ministry of the Cathedral is to teach. Primarily this is the teaching of the Bishop, but teaching also happens both regularly in preaching and in occasional studies. Beyond the congregational engagement, a Cathedral should be a diocesan resource, and the teaching ministry of the gifted clergy and lay staff should be available to a wider audience, in the same way that the Durham Churches Together series from Easter to Pentecost was videoed and will be available to all on DVD. Capturing the Lent courses offered by the Cathedral and individual events such as short talks for the launch of books by members of Chapter would create and develop a base of teaching materials for people within and without the congregational community, within and without Durham to engage with. There are such interesting and thought- provoking lectures and talks held at the Cathedral that this would be a valuable asset. Not everyone can attend every
  10. 10. 10 event, and even those who can, may be glad of the opportunity to ‘listen again’. Some of the teaching that happens on for example the Liturgy or Benedictine days can make a real difference to one’s devotional life, knowing more about the prayers and development of parts of the service and feeling oneself a small but not insignificant part of that ongoing chain. This is surely to be encouraged. ISTEN AGAIN The potential to ‘listen again’ leads naturally on to the consideration of podcasting sermons. Already the text of sermons is available on the Cathedral website, and when you know the person who gave the sermon, you can often hear their personality. Hearing the way that words were actually delivered makes for a different experience than simply reading the base text for yourself. It draws you into the conversation. It is an easy technological step to record and transmit the sermons given in the Cathedral to the web as a podcast. If someone preaches a message which hits home and a listener wants to reconnect with it, why not? Podcasting teaching from the Cathedral spreads its mission beyond the people who step through the door on a Sunday morning to provide a wider ministry. That may be to a regular member of the community now ill or house-bound, someone who has moved away but follows the sermons with fond memories of happy years in Durham. It might also be picked up by and speak hope to Christians persecuted far away in the world, but with access to the internet. It is an encapsulated moment in time, to be true, but podcasting is increasingly common and generally roundly successful. As with many new technologies, people unfamiliar with it do not always appreciate it, nor feel comfortable with throwing themselves on the mercy of a potentially global audience. There are theological fears about who you are actually preaching to, if sermons are podcast, and whether this makes a difference. Does knowing that the sermon will be podcast affect how one preaches or what is preached on the day? Is it really likely to change the message preached on a particular day in a particular place to a particular congregation (especially when the text already appears on the website)? Far from being a distraction, the context is important, and sets the tone for the podcast – preaching is designed to be God’s word at a moment in time. If it is a genuinely Spirit-inspired message, isn't it going to be able to reflect again and again anyway, like the Gospel stories do? HE DIGITAL TREASURES With the recent notice to eject SSG from the Bookshop, and redevelop the claustral buildings, Durham Cathedral faces closing its Treasures for up to a year, while creating new ‘stories’ around the heritage and history of the Cathedral and the Northern Saints. But why close? In physical reality, yes, but this represents a fantastic opportunity to make the most of digital and web technologies and the talents and scholarship at the Cathedral to create a virtual visit in the interim. This would not only retain some access to the Treasures whilst the exhibition was closed, but also would provide no small marketing potential for the revamped L T
  11. 11. 11 display when it re-opens. Taking the time to record many of the Cathedral’s treasures is also a chance to preserve them digitally for the future. However one may feel about the home location of the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Turning the Pages project offers a stunning view of the artefact, its history, context, production, relations and inheritance. Combining both high-quality images with music and written interpretation, it brings otherwise inaccessible yet key pieces of our heritage to everyone. Fifteen years ago, this technology was in its infancy, now it is commonplace, and the vast treasure of Durham Cathedral should be opened up to everyone. Modern technology offers the applications to do this, and the opportunity should be grasped. It is a common misconception that by making glimpses of digital reality available to the world, people will ‘make do’ with visiting virtually. This is not the case, it can encourage and engage, and enhance the Cathedral’s connections with its varied audiences. The careful preservation of the Cathedral’s artefacts no longer means that they should not be available to teach, meditate on and inspire new generations.18 ONCLUSION These are just a very few of the ways that the Cathedral could exploit modern technology for mission by leveraging the available web tools to enable it to connect and communicate more widely and effectively. This essay hopes to have illustrated that there are 18 At Appendix 2, some imagesof the Lindisfarne Gospelsin SecondLife aspects of new technology which could add value to many or even all of the mission activities from the Cathedral’s Purpose Statement:  Being Anglican, being the shrine of St Cuthbert, being a living centre of prayer, pilgrimage and presence, welcoming people whatever their faith.  Being a sacred space.  Being a sign of the presence of God in the world.  Being a place where daily prayer and praise are offered.  Being a place of hospitality and sanctuary  Bearing witness to the gospel through evangelism, service, environmental and social responsibility, practical care for those in need.  Encouraging and supporting pilgrimage and spiritual formation.  Being a focus foradult and children’s Christian education, for theological reflections, intellectual engagement in the region in partnership withthe university and diocese.  Supporting the bishop and diocese in mission.  Collaborating ecumenically with churches in the region.  Conserving, developing and interpreting the historical buildings, fabric and artefacts.  Celebrating human creativity through music and the arts. C
  12. 12. 12  Promoting the welfare of the city, county and region in partnership with others.19 Each aspect helps the Cathedral to reach, inform, connect with, teach, support and share with both the gathered and the dispersed communities. A rule of thumb when considering adopting a new technology is perhaps to apply to it a test of Michael Sadgrove’s definitions of cathedral mission. If a technology responds to at least one of them, that is: if it increases a sense of presence, brings a richer interpretation or helps to tell the Cathedral’s story in a way that demonstrates or elicits a passionate engagement with the building, the community and with God, then it should be embraced. “I dare to summon the whole Church bravely to cross this new threshold, to put into the deep of the Net, so that now as in the past the great engagement of the Gospel and culture may show to the world ‘the glory of God on the face of Christ’ (2 Cor 4:6). May the Lord bless all those who work for this aim.” Pope JohnPaul II, January 24th, 2002 19 Brown,Canon R., DurhamCathedral in Mission, August, 2008,p.2
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14 Appendix 1: Church Twits 
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16 And the difference between +Sentamu’s twitter page and his blog:
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Appendix 2: Digital Treasures in Second Life
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20 Bibliography Amery,Colin,“Leadusnotintotemptation.” Perspectives,March,1997. Boardman,Kate,“ModernTechnologyandMedieval Studies:CanMultimediaEnhance the Studyof Medieval Manuscripts?”Hull,1995. ---,“The Word made virtual:some thoughtsonmissionandministryinanonline world.” (accessedJune 24,2009). Brown,CanonR., “Durham Cathedral inMission.” August,2008. CHURCH OFENGLAND,Archbishops'CommissiononCathedrals, Heritageand Renewal.(ChurchHouse Publishing,1994). Eliot,T.S., The Valueand Useof Cathedralsin England Today.(Chichester: Moore &TillyerLtd,1952). EnglishTouristBoard,“Cathedral Tourism:A surveyof problemsandopportunities.” May,1978. Halliburton,John, Cathedralsad Society:A TheologicalAppraisal.(Manchester,1995). Jeffery,Robert,“Cathedralsinthe AnglicanCommunion.” 2000. Mayer, RichardE., Multimedia Learning.(Cambridge UniversityPress,2001). Platten,Stephen,andChristopherLewis, Dreaming Spires?Cathedralsin a New Age. (SPCKPublishing, 2006). ---,Flagshipsof theSpirit: Cathedralsand Society.(Darton,Longman&ToddLtd, 1998). Sadgrove,Michael,“DurhamCathedral asSacredSpace.”April,1997. ---,“DurhamCathedral:a personal perspective.” February,2006. ---,“'Gettingthe Balance Right',PilgrimsAssociationConference 2004.” October,2004. ---,“The Role and Functionof Cathedrals.” March,2006. Sheldrake,Philip,“Space andthe Sacred:CathedralsandCities.” Contact:practicaltheology and pastoral care, 147 (2005): 8-17. The Archbishops'Council,“A Future forChurchBuildings:Reportbythe ChurchHeritage Forum.” 2003. Williams,Emyr,“VisitorstoStDavid'sCathedral.”RuralTheology 5, no. 69 (2007).