Xnb151 Cultural Food Presentation


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XNB151 Cultural Food Presentation by Courtney Parish, Katherine Wooldridge & Nicholas Kimmins

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Xnb151 Cultural Food Presentation

  1. 1. Italian Cuisine
  2. 2. Italian Representation Within Australia • Italian cuisine is shaped by the importance placed on fresh produce, and quick preparation. (Helstosky, 2004) • Pasta and Pizza are identified as the the most well known food that Australian’s associate with the Italian cuisine (Dickie, 2008) • In 2011 Italy was the 5th top country for the Australian overseas- born population – Around 3.5% of the overall Australian population • However there has been a huge decline in the Australian-born population originating from Europe – Decreasing from 52% in 2001, to 40% in 2011 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013).
  3. 3. Italian Representation around the world • The Italian cuisine has become one of the most widespread cuisines around the world. • The Italian cuisine has been influenced by culinary styles from; North Africa, the Middle east, and western Europe. (Helstosky, 2004) • Only in the past few decades has the Italian population begun to eat what the rest of the world recognize as ‘Italian Cuisine’ – due to the monotonous ‘Mediterranean diet’ that the Italian population became so used to consuming in the 19th century (Helstosky, 2004) • Although most of the world was introduced to Italian cuisine by poor Italian immigrants, it is now, most commonly, foreigners who make the best Italian food around the world. (Fisher, 2008)
  4. 4. The dominant factors affecting the eating habits of the Italian culture Geographical factors – • Throughout the 19th century, cooking in Italy depended highly upon what was available to the population. (Fisher, 2008) • In the far northern regions of Italy, tomatoes were little known, and due to the lack of olive trees, olive oil was little used.  Regional differences within Italy were extreme (Harper & Faccioli, 2009) • In the southern regions however, olive oil was used extensively, as were tomatoes (Sorrentino, 2012) • It is said that there were more natural resources in the north, the south had less rain, fewer forests and fewer rivers (Harper & Faccioli, 2009)
  5. 5. The dominant factors affecting the eating habits of the Italian culture • The rocky terrain that covers much of the Italian landscape is a great condition for growing grapes and olives, however, few crops (wheat, rice, corn) can grow on the uneven soil (Fisher, 2008). • As a result – Italy’s Mediterranean diet was highly attributed to the environment. This diet was highly consistent of cereal products, fish, legumes, olive oil, fruit, vegetables and little meat and wine. (Helstosky, 2004)
  6. 6. Economic and political factors • Throughout the 19th century, the Italian population experienced a difficult economy, and thus, this shaped the cuisine of scarcity (Helstosky, 2004) • The population of Italy was very large in comparison to the potential of the land, and this had an impact on the available resources to the Italian population. (Helstosky, 2004) • As a result of the scarcity of food resources, Italians were forced to use local products such as; olive oil, vegetables, sheep cheese and yogurt  still the cornerstone of many Italian’s diets today (Harper & Faccioli, 2009) • The poor classes of Italy however, had a diet consisting of mostly coarse bread, to which they added vegetables if they had. (Harper & Faccioli, 2009) • Different food consumption habits were based on social class and income due to the expense of food (Helstosky, 2004)
  7. 7. Economic and political factors • Food and food habits were reflective of the poverty that many Italians were confronted with. For example, Italian peasants consumed an unvarying diet and sought to reduce their hunger by devising techniques to make edible to even the most basic resources. (Capatti & Montanari, 2003) • Due to the monotonous diet that Italians became so used to throughout their economic stress, they experienced malnutrition. (Capatti & Montanari, 2003) • Food in Italy became a resource to be managed in order • to preserve order, health and productivity • Mussolini (Fascist group) seized power in 1922 – he set Out to control every aspect of food consumption in Italy  essentially ensuring all Italians consumed less food (Capatti & Montanari, 2003)
  8. 8. • Fascism nationalized Italian cuisine by forcing policies on the population Italian cuisine became unified (Helstosky, 2004) • Lack of good transportation meant that farmers either sold locally or exported their goods – resulting in a lack of accessibility for Italians (Helstosky, 2004) • Although pasta, fresh and dried, is associated with the Italian cuisine, it is important to understand that dried pasta, Spaghetti, was in fact introduced to Europe through the Arab invasion in the 12th Century. (Helstosky, 2004) • Due to the reduced price of pasta, as a result of the cheap production, pasta gained a great importance in the diet of most Italians. (Helstosky, 2004) Economic and political factors (Cont.)
  9. 9. World War One • Italy was poorly prepared for war, especially in regards to food supplies. • Throughout World War 1, Italy survived on allied loans and wheat shipments. • As a result of the expense of meat, dairy and other delicacies (due to the lack of accessibility), wheat, bread and pasta became the foundation of the diet for many Italians during World War 1 • Throughout the war, Italians received the lowest food rations (in caloric value) • As a result, the war changed the quality of the Italian diet (Helstosky, 2004)
  10. 10. • Food is central to an understanding of Italian Culture (Harper & Faccioli, 2009) • Due to the poverty and economic stress that Italians experienced throughout the 19th century, Italians have, inevitably, become a very resourceful culture in terms of food supplies. (Helstosky, 2004) • Women are identified as the gender that identify most with food preparation (Harper & Faccioli, 2009). Due to the increased consumption of pasta in the late- nineteenth century – Italians became commonly known abroad as ‘Macaroni- eaters’. (Montanari, 2013) • It is interesting to understand, however, that many of the dishes that would have been considered to be associated with the Italian ‘peasants’, are now part of the Italian culinary repertoire (Montanari, 2013) Cultural and Social factors
  11. 11. Religious factors • Christianity was centered in Italy since the fourth century. • Christianity emulated the traditional Mediterranean civilization – bread, wine, oil, minimal meat etc. • Christianity differentiated the days that meat could and could not be consumed. • Although it cannot solely be attributed to religion, throughout the Italian diet, a minimal amount of meat consumption is still evident today. (Montanari, 2013)
  12. 12. Italian Food terms and Laws • Italy is included in the European Commission’s food safety policy which like FSANZS is to ensure safety of food, regulate advertising and labeling of food and the production stage to protect consumers health and livelihood in relation to food. The focus is on all stages of production from paddock to plate including primary production, processing, transport to sales (European Union, 2012). The European Commission also has a food labelling guideline, which defines what should and should not be included on a food label in Europe. The key points that the guideline emphasises is as follows; Allergens are always stated on the label, labels must be easily readable and understandable and be stubbornly fixed onto the item and that essential information on manufacturer, how to prepare and the food structure is given on the label to consumers. (European Union, 2012).
  13. 13. Meal Traditions & Celebrations • Religious and holiday traditions are celebrated with large gatherings, are an important time for family to gather and a time for connectedness. All Italian villages celebrate its own saints day, this in the way of large amounts of food, dancing and fireworks. (Food in Italy, n.d.). The traditional meal for this celebration is roast suckling pig. Another important celebration in Italy because of their religious beliefs is Easter, a common dish for Easter is roast baby lamb or Agnellino in Italian, alongside roasted artichokes. (Food in Italy, n.d.). In Italy, the largest meal or most significant is lunch. Several courses can be expected all with different foods during a lunch meal, the majority of the food at lunch consists of pasta, meat and salads. (Globerover, 2010). Breakfast is quite insignificant with the cappuccino and a sweet accompaniment or piece of fruit being the common Italian breakfast on the way to work. (Hoffman & Gerber, 2013, p. 14).
  14. 14. Specific types of foods in Italy • The types of food that are present in Italy depends on a wide range of Factors as with all cuisines. These factors include climate for produce, economy, imports and exports, beliefs and culture. (Wahlqvist, 2011, p. 22). • • Wheat –is the foundation of Italian cuisine as pasta and bread are used extensively in Italian meals. Bread is important in culture as around 80% of Italians identify as Roman Catholic, (CIA, 2013) and bread is crucial in the ritual of communion. It symbolises when Jesus broke the bread at the last supper, and said, this is my body. (Albala, 2012, p.106). • Pasta is the other significant way that the wheat is consumed, this staple is famously known around the world for originating from Italy , common forms that are popular in the Country are; ravioli, fettuccine, tortellini, penne and rigatoni. In Italy, the shape of the pasta and sauce is important parts of meals, if the sauce is a thin glazing sauce more curved pasta such as tortellini is used so sauce stays in the ridges of the shape. (Albala, 2012, p.108).
  15. 15. Specific types of foods in Italy • Wheat, vegetables, fruits especially olives and grapes are grown in vast amounts for the population. The agriculture in Italy only accounts for 4 per cent of GDP. (Culture of Italy, n.d.). Northern Italian meals use less olive oil, pasta and tomato sauce and make the most of their land and incorporate rabbit or quail into their food. Used greatly in the north are ingredients such as cheese, lard, rice and corn for polenta. The coasts provide seafood which will be in the dish if in an area of the coastline, the seafood provided in the waters are such things as carp, trout, cuttlefish, anchoivies and in the area of Liguria swordfish, tuna, sardines and sea bass are present and entwined in dishes. (Demetri & Nascimbeni, n.d) • Rice and polenta in the north were popular staple dishes in the north while the south had a strong presence of pasta. The use of herbs are also commonly used in food preparation such as oregano, basil, thyme and rosemary to name a few. Cheese also has a strong presence in meals with parmesan and mozzarella being used greatly in Italy as well as know all over the world, there are 400 different types of cheeses made in Italy. (Food in Italy, n.d.).
  16. 16. Italy in Australia • The Italian food types are all readily available in Australia, just not as fresh or authentic as you may get in their origin country. Specialty stores for example, Basile import Italian ingredients to their warehouses in capital cities around Australia. (Basile, 2012). Another source to purchase Italian food is in Victoria, Enoteca, they retail Italian wine and foods to consumers. (Enoteca, 2012). • Substitutes for a cheaper price may be available in larger stores such as Coles and Woolworths, which stock tens of thousands of items, this may provide cheaper alternatives.
  17. 17. Breads, cereals, rice, pasta, noodl es Large amounts of cornfields in Friuli Venezia Giulia supply vast amounts of corn for polenta. Wheat- substantial in Italian Cuisine – foundation for bread and pasta Fruit Olives, Grapes - Rich In quantity in Italy Vegetables, legumes High Quantities to feed population Tomatoes – thrive due to longer growing season, tomatoes are more prominent in dishes in the south. Also thrive in the south are Eggplant, brocolli raab, Northern Vegetables in amounts – Cabagges, Black kale, Cardoon (artichoke-like), and radicchio (Italian red lettuce). (Demetri & Nascimbeni, n.d). Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes Prosciutto in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. Vast amounts around the sea bordering regions of fish and seafood Milk, cheese, yoghurt & alternatives Fats & oils Olive Oil Used greatly in Liguira which is the exception of the north, it is used as an everyday item in this northern area. (Phillips, n.d.). Beverages Wine - accompanying most dinners in moderation Other (e.g. condiments, signature herbs/spices) Basil Pesto Originated from Liquria, it is a famous Italian sauce served with either Trofie or Trenette pasta, Still very common in this area. (Demetri & Nascimbeni, n.d).
  18. 18. Typical Daily Eating Plan Breakfast 1 Coffee (50mL milk) 2 slices bread 20g margarine Morning break 1 medium serving Grapes 1 Medium banana Lunch 1 cup cooked pasta 20ml olive oil 65g Prosciutto ½ cup cooked veggies 1 Glass Wine (200mL) Afternoon Tea 2 slices toast 1 tomato 1 cup salad 1 cup (250ml) milk
  19. 19. Dinner 2 cups pasta 20ml olive oil ½ cup mince ½ cup cooked veggies 1 eggplant Pesto 1 Glass Wine (200mL) Evening Snack 4 slices toast 1 Tomato 4 slices cheese 1 cup (250ml) Juice Typical Daily Eating Plan… continued
  20. 20. Types of Food & Serving Size Breakfast 1 Coffee with 50mL milk) and 2 tsp sugar (1/5 serving dairy) (1/3 serving of discretionary) 2 slices bread (1 serving Breads/pasta) 20g margarine (1 serving discretionary) Morning Break 1 medium serving Grapes (1 serving fruit) 1 Medium banana (1 serving fruit) Lunch 1 cup cooked pasta (1 serving bread/pasta) 20ml olive oil (1 serving discretionary) 65g Prosciutto (1 serving meat) ½ cup cooked veggies (1 serving veggies) 1 Glass Wine (200mL) (1 serving discretionary)
  21. 21. Afternoon Break 2 slices toast (1 serving breads/pasta) 1 tomato (1 serving fruit) 1 cup salad (1 serving veggies) 1 Coffee with 50mL and 2 tsp sugar (1/5 serving dairy) (1/3 serving discretionary) Dinner 2 cups pasta (2 servings breads/pasta) 20ml olive oil (1 serving discretionary) ½ cup mince (1 serving meat) ½ cup cooked veggies (1 serving veggies) 1 eggplant (1 serving veggies) Pesto (1 serving discretionary) 1 Glass Wine (200mL) (1 serving discretionary) Evening Snack 4 slices toast (2 servings bread/ pasta) 1 Tomato (1 serving veggies) 4 slices cheese (2 servings dairy) 1 cup (250ml) Juice (2 servings fruit)
  22. 22. Average serves for Italian compared to Australian guide to healthy eating Serves Dairy Meat Veg Fruit Discretionary Bread/P asta Italian 2.5 2 5 5 6.66 7 Australian 2 1 5 2 0.3 6-8
  23. 23. Australian Guide for Healthy Eating Dairy Meat Vegetables Fruit Discretionary Bread/Pasta
  24. 24. Italian Diet Dairy Meat Vegetables Fruit Discretionary Bread/pasta
  25. 25. References • Albala, K. (2012). Three World Cuisines: Italian, Mexican, Chinese. [EBL version]. Retrieved from http://reader.eblib.com.au.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/%28S%28uncz2sqgmkdnyfcyoqqk24dv%29%29/Read er.aspx?p=948647&o=96&u=d%2f6QwFpdY9KzBy3C01kkGg%3d%3d&t=1376367668&h=77977F372708D8 A1E0BB0924A345A16C229D0ED0&s=9492467&ut=245&pg=1&r=img&c=-1&pat=n# • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012-2013. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/2071.0main+features902012-2013 • Basile (2012). Food Importers and Distributers, Italian Food and Wine. Retrieved from http://www.basile.com.au/ • Capatti, A., & Montanari, M. (2003). Italian Cuisine: A Cultural History. [EBL version]. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jprIxTqMCwEC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=influence+on+w hat+italians+eat&ots=Myje2PAEXk&sig=7GeRmOJNDKoWJFpmPawD0pfu_3M#v=onepage&q=influence%2 0on%20what%20italians%20eat&f=false • Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). The World Fact Book. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html • Culture of Italy. (n.d.). Culture of Italy. Retrieved from http://www.everyculture.com/Ge- It/Italy.html#ixzz2bcGLzPet • Demetri, J. & Nascimbeni, D. (n.d). Italian Regional Food. Retrieved from http://www.lifeinitaly.com/food/italian-regional-food.asp • Dickie, J. (2008). Delizia!: The Epic History of the Italians and their Food. [EBL version]. Retrieved http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=nB6NtvQhYDYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=The+influences+ on+what+italians+eat&ots=mFwpHWASJO&sig=7idaOdmLL_MS2EwTcC7aUcqkA7Q#v=onepage&q=The%2 0influences%20on%20what%20italians%20eat&f=false
  26. 26. References • Enoteca. (2012). Italian Food. Retrieved from https://www.enoteca.com.au/index.php?page=shop.browse&category_id=1&opti on=com_virtuemart&Itemid=72&phpMyAdmin=ac57a4655b6b1879c1dae90e2e6 dc7c8&redirected=1&Itemid=72 • European Union. (2012). Europa Food Safety Labeling and Nutrition. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/labellingnutrition/foodlabelling/index_en.htm • European Union. (2012). Food Safety – From the Farm to the fork. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/food/index_en.htm • Fisher, I. (2008). Is Cuisine still Italian even if the Chef isnt?. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.italia150.it/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/iscuisine.pdf • Food in Italy. (n.d.). Food in Italy – Italian Food Italian Cuisine. Retrieved from http://www.foodbycountry.com/Germany-to-Japan/Italy.html • Globerover. (2010). Regional Food in Italy. Retrieved from http://globerove.com/italy/italian-food-guide-regional-food-in-italy/291 • Harper, D., & Faccioli, P. (2009). The Italian Way: Food and Social Life: Food and Social Life. [EBL version]. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&lr=&id=L0qppDj5PowC&oi=fnd&pg=PA 7&dq=daily+eating+plan+for+italians&ots=1O43nIRTT_&sig=qXBtgcAkxVNpP- T_ARReJe2MhxE#v=onepage&q&f=false
  27. 27. References • National Health and Medical Research Council, Department of Health and Ageing. (2013). Eat For Health: Australian Dietary Guidelines Summary. Retrieved from http://www.eatforhealth.gov.au • Phillips, K. (n.d.). Italian Regional Cuisines. Retrieved from http://italianfood.about.com/library/weekly/blregional.htm • Sorrentino, A. (2012) Cuisine and Culture. Center for Migration Studies, 12(2), pp. 131-135. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2050- 411X.1996.tb00149.x/abstract • Wahlqvist, M. (2011). Food and Nutrition: Food and health systems in Australia and New Zealand (3rd ed.). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.