Adaptation 30. sept.2013

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General pathology lecture

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  • Physiologic Hyperplasia Physiologic hyperplasia can be divided into: (1) hormonal hyperplasia, which increases the functional capacity of a tissue when needed, and (2) compensatory hyperplasia, which increases tissue mass after damage or partial resection
  • Physiologic Hyperplasia Physiologic hyperplasia can be divided into: (1) hormonal hyperplasia, which increases the functional capacity of a tissue when needed, and (2) compensatory hyperplasia, which increases tissue mass after damage or partial resection
  • Physiologic Hyperplasia Physiologic hyperplasia can be divided into: (1) hormonal hyperplasia, which increases the functional capacity of a tissue when needed, and (2) compensatory hyperplasia, which increases tissue mass after damage or partial resection
  • Adaptation 30. sept.2013

    1. 1. Cell Adaptation 30. Sept. 2013
    2. 2. Adaptations • Adaptations; are functional and structural responses to more severe physiologic or pathologic stimuli, give new, altered steady states, allow cells to survive & function • The adaptive response may consist of (hypertrophy), (hyperplasia), (atrophy), or (metaplasia). • Reversible changes.
    3. 3. Stages of cellular response to stress & injurious stimuli.
    4. 4. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy
    5. 5. Hypertrophy; the muscle cells synthesize more proteins and the number of myofilaments increases
    6. 6. Cardiac hypertrop hy involv left vent.
    7. 7. HYPER-TROPHY IN-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS
    8. 8. Physiologic hypertrophy of the uterus during pregnancy. A, Gross appearance of a normal uterus (right) and a gravid uterus (left). B, Small spindle-shaped uterine smooth muscle cells from a normal uterus (left) compared with large plump cells in gravid uterus (right).
    9. 9. HYPER-PLASIA IN-CREASE IN NUMBER OF CELLS
    10. 10. Physiologic Hyperplasia; hormonal hyperplasia a. Adult breast tissue. B. lactating breast
    11. 11. Bone Marrow hyperplasia in anemia
    12. 12. Physiologic Hyperplasia; compensatory hyperplasia
    13. 13. Endometrial hyperplasi (physiological & pathological)
    14. 14. Pathologic Hyperplasia Nodular prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH. The normal prostate is 3 to 4 cm in
    15. 15. Nodular prostatic hyperplasia
    16. 16. Physiologic Hyperplasia; hormonal hyperplasia a. Adult breast tissue. B. lactating breast
    17. 17. Hyperplasia is also an important response of connective tissue cells in wound healing
    18. 18. ATROPHY? DE-CREASE IN SIZE OF CELLS IN CELL SIZE DUE TO LOSS OF CELL SUBSTANCE SHRINKAGE
    19. 19. ATROPHY • • • • • • DECREASED WORKLOAD DENERVATION DECREASED BLOOD FLOW DECREASED NUTRITION AGING (involution) PRESSURE
    20. 20. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy
    21. 21. This is cerebral atrophy in a patient with Alzheimer disease. The gyri are narrowed and the intervening sulci widened, particularly pronounced toward the frontal lobe region
    22. 22. Right testicular atrophy.
    23. 23. METAPLASIA • A SUBSTITUTION of one NORMAL CELL or TISSUE type, for ANOTHER – COLUMNAR SQUAMOUS (Cervix) – SQUAMOUS COLUMNAR (Glandular) (Stomach) – FIBROUS BONE –WHY?
    24. 24. Metaplasia. A, Schematic diagram of columnar to squamous metaplasia. B, Metaplastic transformation of esophageal stratified squamous epithelium (left) to mature columnar epithelium (so-called Barrett metaplasia).
    25. 25. Metaplasia of the normal esophageal Squamous mucosa, with the appearance of gastric columnar mucosa
    26. 26. Metaplasia of laryngeal respiratory epithelium in a smoker.

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