What is e-government? Information or transactions provided on-line by local governments to citizens using the Internet and Web sites. The complexity of Web sites ranges from those that merely provide information to others that allow electronic financial transactions Examples: India (Andhraperdesh, Bangalore), Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Newzeland, Australia, UK, Germany and many states of USA
AntivirusData and Web sites Firewall Development e-government Department Web-server Internet / web media Router Internet Service Internet Provider Internet Service Provider Telecommunication Infrastructure User
DefinitionAnonymousIn an Electronic Government There is no official seal / signature There is no paper There is no holiday There is no division / section There is no boundary of cities There is no public office
Basic Types of Web Pages Static Dynamic Interactive Pure HTM web pages depend on Input from user Content must be altered user input changes database with editor web pages query Web server is simply databases but do not transferring files upon change them request. Browser sends request to Browser Browser change a to b Web Server Web-Server Processes request Web-Server Database Database Was “A” Is Now “B”
Spectrum of E-Government Web Sites Provides Information Provides Offers a Offers a Describing Forms that Means to Means toInformation Complete Service The May be submitOnly Printed and Financial Transformations Jurisdiction Information Transactions And its mailed On-line online operations
Phases of e-Government DevelopmentHigh Complexity of e-Government 4 Transaction (Mature) 3 Two-way Interaction Startup 2 One-way Interaction 1 Benefit Low High
UN/ASPA global survey Phase 1 - Startup Static government information published on the web: such as laws and rules, guidelines, handbooks, organizations, directories, etc. An early stage in e-government development. Passive / Passive Relationship: government and its clients do not communicate on the web.Dr. Hongren Zhou: Global Perspectives on E-GovernmentDivision for Public Economics and Public Administration , UNDESA
UN/ASPA global survey Phase 2 – One-Way Interaction Active/Passive relationship: government active – users passive To some extent, government services are available, such as download government forms (e.g., income tax). Users can send e-mail to government, but government may not necessarily response in e-way.Dr. Hongren Zhou: Global Perspectives on E-GovernmentDivision for Public Economics and Public Administration , UNDESA
UN/ASPA global survey Phase 3 – Two-Way Interaction Active/Active relationship: interactions between government and users complete on the web. For example, users obtain tax form on the web, fill it in on the web, and send it back to Revenue Authority through the web. Government and users can communicate each other through the web.Dr. Hongren Zhou: Global Perspectives on E-GovernmentDivision for Public Economics and Public Administration , UNDESA
UN/ASPA global survey Phase 4 - Transactions on the Web E-Government matures at this phase: Complete a business transaction (e.g., tax) on the web. Restructuring government becomes imperative; the ways that government operates are also changed. E-government is not merely computerizing existing government. Instead, it is to transform the existing government.Dr. Hongren Zhou: Global Perspectives on E-GovernmentDivision for Public Economics and Public Administration , UNDESA
Another definitionE-government consist of four areas of services G2C- Government to Citizen G2G- Government to Government G2B- Government to Business G2E- Government to Employee
G2C- Government to Citizen All gov to citizen information should available online News All public-department interaction forms On-line form submission Transactions (payments) Revenue collection, payment of utility bills On-line complaints Track & Trace System: e-citizen can trace all his own complaints and submitted cases and can get online updated info (case situation, any objection, rejection or approval) Citizen Registration: Birth and marriage reg. ID Card, Domicile, Driving License, Job matching, Land use application
G2G- Government to Government Inter-Departmental Interaction Reporting, budgeting and planning to administrative, P&D and financial departments. Interaction among multilevel governments Local Governments, Provincial Governments and Federal Government Notices, summaries and policies for different departments Inspections, observations and inquires Interaction between control offices and field offices
G2B- Government to Business e-Procurements – Tendering – Expression Of Interest – Request For Proposal – Technical Evaluation – Financial Evaluation – Contract Awarding or Purchase Order NOC & Licenses – Cinema, petrol pump, etc. Trade, Business and Industrial Policies Guidelines for different businesses Tax e Filing Loaning: Application submission, inspection verification sanctioning using case management system and track and trace system
G2E- Government to Employee All Service Matters (from joining to retirement) – Appointment – Joining – Payroll – Transfer – Deputation – Leave – Allowances – Deductions – Promotions – Loaning – Qualification updation – Expertise – Professional courses, seminars conferences – Inquiries – ACRs – Retirement – Pension
Primary GoalsSuccessful e-government should aim to meet three : Improve the quality, cost, accessibility, and speed of delivering government information and services. Make government more accountable by increasing the opportunity for citizen participation in the governance process and bringing citizens closer to elected officials and public servants. Organize the production and distribution of public information and services in new ways, that is, to transform government services to meet citizens’ needs in an automated world.
Key Benefits of e-gov Less expensive – e-Government transactions cost 65% less compared to ordinary transactions More convenient hours 24 X 7 Reduced travel and waiting Benefits all customers – No Geographical Boundaries Reduction in bad check processing Reduction of time to recognize money
Access for allMulti Channel Mix By Online for home users – Dialup Internet Connections – Cable Internet Connections For corporate users – Wireless Connectivity – Broadband Connections – Satellite Connectivity By Mobile Phone – GSM, GPRS By CDMA Digital TV
Digital Dividethe gulf between those who have ready access to computers, Internet and mobile devices those who dontDue to socio-economic and/or geographical reasons, have limited or no access
Access for all Kiosk Service Provider Kiosk Switch UPS Printer
e-Government and e-Governance "Governance" is a way of describing the links between government and its broader environment - political, social, administrative." "Governments foremost job is to focus society on achieving the public interest"
m-Government“m” means mobile m-Government is a subset of e-government In the case of m-government, communication are limited to mobile and/or wireless technologies like cellular/mobile phones and PDAs (personal digital assistants) connected to wireless local area networks (LANs). m-Government can help make public information and government services available "anytime, anywhere" to citizens and officials.
Examples Malaysia: citizens can verify their voting information, such as the parliamentary and state constituencies where they are to vote, using SMS (short message service) and can also get results. California: state government has established a Web page where citizens can register to receive wireless PDA and cell phone notification services for energy alerts, lottery results, traffic updates and articles from the Governors press room.
Examples of Malta: Notification of acknowledgements and status change of customer complaints Notifications of court deferrals Notifications for license-renewal to the holders of licences issued by the Trade Department, Malta Tourism Authority, Malta Maritime Authority and Public Transport Authority Notification of exams results Notification for Direct Credit Payments from the Department of Social Security Notification via SMS by the blood bank to advise registered blood donors when urgent needs for blood arise. Notification via SMS to parents from their children’s school to inform them if their children are absent from school on that day Notifications via SMS from the public libraries to individuals who have placed a reservation for a book Bus schedule availability via SMS Notification of job opportunities from ETC to individuals who have selected specific areas of employment Reporting incidents or relevant information to the Police Force
Examples London’s Metropolitan police: security alerts sent out; Singaporeans can learn the results of medical examinations; Hong Kong government uses the system for emergency announcements; Norway and Sweden, people can confirm via an SMS text message if their tax returns are accurate; Finland Citizen can buy bus tickets.
Approaches of e-Governmentinitiatives Bottom-Up Lower level government (Local etc) establish eGov or any initiative towards eGov for its own jurisdiction Indian projects Top Down Top level government (Federal) establish eGov or any initiative towards eGov for all country USA, Brazil, NADRA Hybrid Mixing of above approaches
Proc & ConsTop Down Approach Can benefit from the authority Lack of departmental of a strong central leader. ownership may thwart significant changes. Can encompass all components of ICT Local initiative and innovation development. potential is curbed. Leads to improved utilization of Project becomes complex and resources-shared increases chances of infrastructure. implementation failure. Adherence to standards facilitates data sharing and integration. Donor coordination is easier Scaling up pilots is easier Projects can have a tighter fit with overall development strategy.
Proc & ConsBottom Up Approach Departmental ownership - Quality is hinged to the easier to reengineer and capability of the champion. implement. Sustainability can be hurt due Quicker to implement. to change in leadership. Breeds innovative uses. Data sharing is difficult. Demonstration effect is Variable quality of design as quicker standards is not followed. Applications can evolve and Applications may be out of improve quickly. tune with an accepted Projects can benefit from development plan or direction attention of political leadership of reform. easier to de-bottleneck. Flexibility in administrative arrangements.
BenchmarkingUN Global E-government Readiness Report 2005 Total UN member states: 191 Online member states 179 (94%) The objectives of the Survey are to provide a:i) comparative assessment of the willingness and ability of governments in the use of e-government and ICTs as tools in the public delivery of services; andii) benchmarking tool for monitoring the progress of countries, now three years in a row, as they progress towards higher levels of e-government and e-participation service delivery.
• The web measure index Parameters of benchmarking5 stages of e-government evolution Stage 1: Emerging Presence Static information (limited & basic), online presence (official website; inks to ministries/departments; links to regional/local government Stage 2: Enhanced presence provides unidirectional information: policies, laws and regulation, reports, newsletters, and downloadable databases The user can search for a document and there is a help feature and a site map provided. Stage 3: Interactive presence online services in interactive mode downloadable forms for tax payment, application for license renewal. Audio and video capability is provided for relevant public information. The government officials can be contacted via email, fax, telephone and post. The site is updated with greater regularity to keep the information current and up to date for the public
• The web measure index Parameters of benchmarking Stage 4: Transactional presence two-way interaction government 2 citizen: includes options for paying taxes; applying for ID cards, birth ertificates/passports, license renewals etc. submit these online 24/7. The citizens are able to pay for relevant public services, such as motor vehicle violation, taxes through their credit, bank or debit card. are able to bid online for public contacts via secure links. Stage 5: Networked presence most sophisticated online e-government: integration of G2G, G2C,G2B,G2E interactions. The government encourages participatory in decision-making and is willing and able to involve the society in a two-way open dialogue. web comment form & online consultation
ii. Telecommunications infrastructureindexParameters of benchmarking PC’s/1000 persons; Internet users/1000 persons; Telephone Lines/1000 persons; Online population; Mobile phones/1000 persons; and TV’s/1000 persons.Data for the UN Member States was taken primarily from the UN International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the UN Statistics Division, supplemented by the World Bank.
iii. Human capital indexParameters of benchmarkingThe data for the human capital index 2005 relies on the UNDP ‘education index’ which is a composite of the2. adult literacy rate and the3. combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio with two third weight given to adult literacy and one third to gross enrolment ratio.
The E-Participation Index assesses the quality and usefulness of information and services provided by a country for the purpose of engaging its citizens in public policy making through the use of e-government programs.2. Increasing e-information to citizens for decision making;3. Enhancing e-consultation for deliberative and participatory processes; and4. Supporting e-decision making by increasing the input of citizens in decision making.
E-participation frameworkE-InformationThe government websites offer information on policies and programs,budgets, laws and regulations; and other briefs on key public interest.Tools for dissemination of information exist for timely access and use ofpublic information, including web forums, email lists, newsgroups, andchat rooms.E-ConsultationThe government website explains e-consultation mechanisms and tools.It offers choice of public policy topics online for discussion with real timeand archived access to audio and video of public meetings. Thegovernment encourages citizens to participate in discussions.E-Decision-makingThe government indicates it will take citizen input into decision-making.Government provides actual feedback on the outcome of specific issues.
1 United States 0.9062 2 Denmark 0.9058E-government readiness index 2005: top 25 countries 2004 2005 3 Sweden 0.8983 4 United Kingdom 0.8777 Pakistan 122 136 5 Republic of Korea 0.8727 6 Australia 0.8679 India 86 87 7 Singapore 0.8503 8 Canada 0.8425 Sri Lanka 96 94 9 Finland 0.8231 10 Norway 0.8228 UAE 60 42 11 Germany 0.8050 12 Netherlands 0.8021 13 New Zealand 0.7987 14 Japan 0.7801 15 Iceland 0.7794 16 Austria 0.7602 17 Switzerland 0.7548 18 Belgium 0.7381 19 Estonia 0.7347 20 Ireland 0.7251 21 Malta 0.7012 22 Chile 0.6963 23 France 0.6925 24 Israel 0.6903 25 Italy 0.6794