"Personality" can be defined as A dynamic and
organized set of characteristics possessed by a
person that uniquely influences his or
her cognitions, emotions, interpersonal
orientations, motivations, and behaviors in
Personality is that pattern of Characteristic
Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors that
distinguishes one person from another and that
persists over time and situations.
• Individuals with personality disorders
chronic, lifelong, Rigid, Unsuitable patterns of
relating to others that cause Social and
Occupational Problems. (Few Friends, Job loss,
• Persons with PDs generally are NOT Aware, that
they are the Cause of there own problems, (do not
have ‘insight’). They don’t have frank psychotic
symptoms, and do not seek Psychotic help.
• PDs are categorized by The Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth
Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), into
Cluster A, B & C.
• Each Cluster has its own Hallmark,
Characteristics, Genetic or Familial
Associations ( EG; Relatives of people with PDs
have a higher likelihood of having certain
• Sexually Provocative
• Can not Maintain Intimate Relationships.
• With a sense of Special Entitlement.
• Lacks Empathy for others.
• Refuses to conform to Social Norms
• Show no Concern for Others
• Associated with Conduct Disorder in Childhood
and Criminal Behavior in Adulthood,
(“Psychopaths” OR “Sociopaths”).
• show cruelty towards animals and destroy
• Erratic, Impulsive, Unstable Behavior and mood
• Feeling Bored, Alone, and Empty.
• Suicide Attempts for relatively trivial Reasons,
• Self-Mutilation (Cutting or Burning Oneself).
• Often combined with Mood & Eating Disorders,
• Mini-Psychotic Episodes (i.e. Brief periods of
Loss of contact with Reality).
• Allow other people to make decisions and
assume Responsibility for them.
• Poor Self-Confidence,
• Fear of Being Deserted and Alone.
• May tolerate Abuse by Domestic Partner.
• The causes of personality disorders are
• However, many Genetic and Environmental
factors are thought to play a role.
• Child Abuse and Neglect can lead to PDs.
• Physical Abuse shows an extremely strong
correlation with the development of Antisocial
and Impulsive behavior.
• Symptoms vary widely depending on the type
of personality disorder.
• In general, PDs involve feelings, thoughts,
and behaviors that do not adapt to a wide
range of settings.
• These patterns usually begin in adolescence
and may lead to problems in social and work
• The severity of these conditions ranges from
Mild to Severe.
For the DSM-IV-TR Diagnosis,
A Personality Disorder must be present by Early
PDs are diagnosed based on a psychological
evaluation and the history and severity of the
Anti-Social PD can not be diagnosed Until Age
Prior to this age, The diagnosis is “Conduct
At first, people usually do not seek treatment
on their own.
They tend to seek help once their behavior
has caused severe problems in their
relationships or work, OR
When they are diagnosed with another
psychiatric problem, such as a mood or
substance abuse disorder.
For those who seek help;
Individual or Group Psychotherapy may be
Behavioral Therapy may also be useful.
Pharmacotherapy also can be used to treat
symptoms, such as Depression and Anxiety,
Which may be Associated with PDs.
The outlook varies.
Some PDs go away during middle age without
Others only improve slowly throughout life,
even with treatment.
The prevalence of PDs was largely Unknown
until Surveys started in 1990s.
In 2008, the median rate of diagnosable PDs
was at 10.6%.
WHO using DSM-IV Criteria, Reported in 2009
prevalence estimate of around 6% for PDs.
In USA, between 2001 & 2003 Prevalence of
around 9% was reported.
In UK in 2010, it was estimated as 1.3%.
Kashif N. Khokhar