Personality disorders


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Personality disorders

  1. 1. BY; Kashif Nadeem Khokhar April 10, 2013
  2. 2. "Personality" can be defined as A dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, emotions, interpersonal orientations, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. Personality is that pattern of Characteristic Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors that distinguishes one person from another and that persists over time and situations.
  3. 3. • Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) show chronic, lifelong, Rigid, Unsuitable patterns of relating to others that cause Social and Occupational Problems. (Few Friends, Job loss, etc.) • Persons with PDs generally are NOT Aware, that they are the Cause of there own problems, (do not have ‘insight’). They don’t have frank psychotic symptoms, and do not seek Psychotic help.
  4. 4. • PDs are categorized by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), into Cluster A, B & C. • Each Cluster has its own Hallmark, Characteristics, Genetic or Familial Associations ( EG; Relatives of people with PDs have a higher likelihood of having certain disorders).
  5. 5. CLUSTER A
  6. 6. Avoids Social Relationships, is “Peculiar” but Not Psychotic. GENETIC OR FAMILIAL ASSOCIATION; Psychotic Illnesses TYPES 1. 2. 3. Paranoid PD Schizoid PD Schizotypal PD
  7. 7. Characterized as; • Distrustful • Suspicious • Attributes Responsibility for own problems to others. • Interprets motives of others as Malevolent
  8. 8. Characterized as; • Long-standing pattern of voluntary social withdrawal. • Detached • Restricted Emotions, • Lack Empathy
  9. 9. Characteristics; • Peculiar Appearance • Magical Thinking ( Believing that one’s thoughts can affect the course of events). • Odd Thought Patterns and behavior, Without Frank Psychosis.
  10. 10. CLUSTER B
  11. 11. Dramatic, Emotional, Inconsistent. GENETIC OR FAMILIAL ASSOCIATION; Mood Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Somatoform Disorders. TYPES; 1. Histrionic PD 2. Narcissistic PD 3. Antisocial PD 4. Borderline PD
  12. 12. Characteristics; • Theatrical • Extroverted • Emotional • Sexually Provocative • Can not Maintain Intimate Relationships.
  13. 13. Characteristics; • Pompous • With a sense of Special Entitlement. • Lacks Empathy for others.
  14. 14. Characteristics; • Refuses to conform to Social Norms • Show no Concern for Others • Associated with Conduct Disorder in Childhood and Criminal Behavior in Adulthood, (“Psychopaths” OR “Sociopaths”). • show cruelty towards animals and destroy property
  15. 15. Characteristics; • Erratic, Impulsive, Unstable Behavior and mood • Feeling Bored, Alone, and Empty. • Suicide Attempts for relatively trivial Reasons, • Self-Mutilation (Cutting or Burning Oneself). • Often combined with Mood & Eating Disorders, • Mini-Psychotic Episodes (i.e. Brief periods of Loss of contact with Reality).
  16. 16. CLUSTER C
  17. 17. Fearful, Anxious GENETIC OR FAMILIAL ASSOCIATION Anxiety Disorders TYPES; 1. Avoidant PD 2. Obsessive-Compulsive PD 3. Dependent PD
  18. 18. Characteristics; • Sensitive to Rejection • Socially Withdrawn • Feeling of inferiority
  19. 19. Characteristics; • Perfectionist • Orderly • Inflexible • Stubborn and Indecisive • Ultimately Inefficient
  20. 20. Characteristics; • Allow other people to make decisions and assume Responsibility for them. • Poor Self-Confidence, • Fear of Being Deserted and Alone. • May tolerate Abuse by Domestic Partner.
  21. 21. • The causes of personality disorders are unknown. • However, many Genetic and Environmental factors are thought to play a role. • Child Abuse and Neglect can lead to PDs. • Physical Abuse shows an extremely strong correlation with the development of Antisocial and Impulsive behavior.
  22. 22. • Symptoms vary widely depending on the type of personality disorder. • In general, PDs involve feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that do not adapt to a wide range of settings. • These patterns usually begin in adolescence and may lead to problems in social and work situations. • The severity of these conditions ranges from Mild to Severe.
  23. 23. For the DSM-IV-TR Diagnosis,  A Personality Disorder must be present by Early Adulthood.  PDs are diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation and the history and severity of the symptoms.  Anti-Social PD can not be diagnosed Until Age 18.  Prior to this age, The diagnosis is “Conduct Disorder”.
  24. 24.  At first, people usually do not seek treatment on their own.  They tend to seek help once their behavior has caused severe problems in their relationships or work, OR  When they are diagnosed with another psychiatric problem, such as a mood or substance abuse disorder. continued
  25. 25. For those who seek help;  Individual or Group Psychotherapy may be Useful.  Behavioral Therapy may also be useful.  Pharmacotherapy also can be used to treat symptoms, such as Depression and Anxiety, Which may be Associated with PDs.
  26. 26.  The outlook varies.  Some PDs go away during middle age without any treatment,  Others only improve slowly throughout life, even with treatment.
  27. 27.  The prevalence of PDs was largely Unknown until Surveys started in 1990s.  In 2008, the median rate of diagnosable PDs was at 10.6%.  WHO using DSM-IV Criteria, Reported in 2009 prevalence estimate of around 6% for PDs.  In USA, between 2001 & 2003 Prevalence of around 9% was reported.  In UK in 2010, it was estimated as 1.3%.
  28. 28. Thank you So Much, for your Time. Kashif N. Khokhar