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  • It be a little presumptuous to talk about a history of something that is only 10 years old. But in my third-year class only one remembered a time before the Internet. So clearly it’s become a generational thing. Two parts to today: technological history journalistic milestones Question: Do you remember a time before the Web? What was your first memory of using the Web? Learn it from school? What events have you turned to the news for?
  • Ted Nelson - he has a BA in philosophy and an MA in sociology from Harvard - a big thinker - but also a computer guy, – something rather rare at the time - He had taken a course in computer programming at Harvard in 1960 - He’s beginning to think about writing a document management system to index and organize his collection of notes. - uses his notes in different classes, so he doesn’t really want duplicate parts of them. - He’s got this idea of a way in which you could reference different chunks of information. It’s not really a database – those are already in existence. He wants something simpler and more flexible.
  • In 1963 he’s a sociology prof at Vassar College first starts talking about a concept he has been working on called “hypertext“ He gives a lecture called "Computers, Creativity, and the Nature of the Written Word” on Feb. 3, 1965 He talks about a "docuverse", where all data is stored once, and was accessible by a link from anywhere else. Navigation through the information would be non-linear, depending on each individual's choice of links. This was more than text -- it was hypertext. The lecture is written up by a student reporter in the Vassar Miscellany News -- the first mention in print of a principle that will change the world 30 years later. This idea becomes something he writes about for the rest of his career, even though it will take decades to come into existence. He eventually develops it into Project Xanadu -- a scenario in which anyone is allowed to reference anything, provided that references are delivered from the original, and possibly involving micro payments to the copyright holders.
  • Forerunner of today's Internet, Arpanet was created by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, an entity of the United States Defense Department, and began operation in 1969. Research for it began in 1962 after the U.S. reacted with great concern to the 1957 launch of Sputnik, the world's first satellite, by the Soviet Union. 1962 the Soviet Union launches Sputnik, the world's first satellite U.S. feels it is in significant danger of nuclear attack U.S. Air Force hires the Rand Corp. to research ways to make a computer network able to withstand a nuclear attack. Before Arpanet, computer networks had employed a "star" topology. - a central computer to handle all communications among the networked machines. - if central computer is knocked out entire network is vulnerable. “ network” is a loose term -- computers made by different companies can’t speak to each other
  • - Rand recommends new concept in networking - radical assumption: They assumed from the start that it would fail, and designed a decentralized system - network would reroute data away from missing nodes – you could still launch missiles. - Darpanet (Defense Advanced Research Projects Network, 1972) - Internet (date debatable, but about 1983)
  • Information is hidden in the TV channel transmitted between “frames” on TV (vertical blanking interval, or VBI) So you access it through your TV set, via cable or antenna. A decoder or microchip resident in the TV set is needed to extract the teletext information.   Called a "Rolodex in the sky." - Weather, news, sports - The viewer uses an on-screen directory to choose pages
  • Not interactive! Pages transmitted over and over again in a loop that can take up to a minute to cycle back to first page (usually 5 to 30 sec.) Limited to a few hundred pages to make delays tolerable to viewers. User selects subsections from the main menu using a hand-held keypad similar to a TV remote control. A ccess time for a particular frame can be up to 30 seconds, a key factor. You wait for the next broadcast! Many believe teletext has the best potential to become a mass medium because of the almost universal presence of television sets in many nations. BBC later renames its service Ceefax (“See Facts”)
  • It’s interactive! You connect to remote databases Thousands of pages available You can pay bills, buy tickets Messaging and bulletin boards -- among the first truly interactive, participatory services -- proved extremely popular, surprising operators.
  • DARPANET is still only within the U.S Defense department -- but it now has four universities hooked up.
  • Telidon -- a second-generation videotext system High resolution colour drawings, intricate shapes, even photographs are all possible through Telidon technology. Educators in Ontario start thinking about possibilities for distance education Tourist information and educational games broadcast by TV Ontario. Was used successfully for farm-related information and services in Manitoba well into the 1980s.
  • Videotext -- first like the Internet as we know it today. - 1980s: Every western country is experimenting with videotext – the TV is seen as a the primary communications medium in the home for the foreseeable future. - Canada is a world leader Notice different ways of access in photo France is world leader and arguably the greatest videotext success story of the 1980s. France Minitel was still working into the late 1990s The phone company initially gave the decoders free to telephone subscribers. You got Telephone directories. Subway schedules, TV guide -- and of course news -- generally just shortened from wire copy.
  • Starting to see first home computers. Companies starting dial-up services Successful for tidbits of information 1982: CompuServe was charging $5 per hour of access after 6 p.m. and delivering about 30 characters per second. At that rate, it would take 6.2 hours to download the equivalent of an average daily newspaper. Its fastest modems are 300 bps One hundredth the speed of phone modems today. In 1981Compuserve has the New York Times, The Washington Post and The San Francisco Chronicle Los Angeles Times
  • Still unclear how people are going to access online services -- personal computer or intelligent TV? Time 1983 we start to see the computer has come into its own
  • Printers still very expensive!
  • Switzerland: Hypertext Markup Language is invented by Tim Berners-Lee, an Englishman, and colleagues at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory. An easy implementation of hypertext that Ted Nelson had dreamed about. Up to this point we had the networking technology down -- now how do we format the content so it’s usable? HTML not a programming language; a markup language for turning MS Word into a Web document Simple to learn October: Tim Berners-Lee coins the phrase "World Wide Web" to describe his hypertext project. Other thoughts were “Mine of Information” or "Information Mine.” Mining the Web (the idea of “going down” under instead of “surfing on top”) In 1991, he made his WorldWideWeb browser and web server software available on the Internet and posted notices to several newsgroups
  • Can only view WWW by typing command-line instructions
  • It’s graphical -- it has buttons Tipping point Signals the end of 20 years of closed online services
  • Price: Free. (not paying for a content service – just the connection) Yahoo still popular -- it’s what everyone is afraid of -- get their first and stay on top.
  • The H alifax Daily News was, 1994 , the first Canadian newspaper to go online. Jaime Hutt – Web design editor, not web graphics editor at the Minneapolis Star Tribune Tom Regan – Senior Editor at the Christian Science Monitor, he has taught at King’s 1991 -- My internship with Jamie: NSCAD project concerning a computer newspaper Bill Turpin -- Doug MacKay --
  • Web sources include statements from the White House, photos of the damage, victim lists, and updated reports about the disaster. Soon after the blast, Newsday has an Oklahoma City locator map, an AP story, and a graphic describing the types of bombs used in terrorist attacks. First event in which the power of online journalism is realized. That you can put so much more information up. And you can update it as new information emerges.
  • Boston.com -- A city site where people can do things -- transit schedules, movie times, profiles on museum exhibits News sites resurrecting the idea of newspaper as the “the go-to place for community information.”
  • March 26: The bodies of 39 young men who may have been part of a religious group were found late Wednesday afternoon in a mansion near San Diego, and deputies described the deaths as a mass suicide. First time the web is used as the main reporting source in a story The minute the Heaven's Gate Web address was read over the air on the "Today" show Thursday morning, the Minneapolis-based Internet service that hosted it nearly crashed. People rush to the original sources to find out more.
  • A year earlier … July 18, 1996: A TWA jetliner bound for Paris with 229 people aboard exploded in midair last night just after taking off from Kennedy Airport and plunged into the Atlantic Ocean A freelancer, Pierre Salinger, writes an article in the online edition of Paris Match, claiming that a "super-secret" new Navy missile had destroyed TWA 800 during a botched test firing As "proof," Salinger showed off a photo from an official radar tape with an "unexplained blip," which he said was the Navy missile. FBI investigators soon say they have wasted enormous resources and time on what they regard as crackpot theories. One FBI investigator, interviewed just before the latest friendly fire allegations surfaced, said that Salinger's original claims had prompted the FBI to review all relevant Navy records and conduct dozens of interviews with Navy personnel. Prelude to Diana’s death
  • Two New York reporters William Bastone, 39, and Daniel Green, 37 start the Smoking Gun where they publish original documents obtained from courthouses and Freedom of Information requests. Titillating, view of American life -- but it highlights an important new resource available to online audiences -- the ability to view original documents that most people would never be able to dig up in courthouses or government libraries. They discovered that a bullet-perforated datebook carried by Malcom X the day he was assassinated had been stolen, eventually leading to the arrest of a New York court clerk who swiped it from the city archives. And, in February 2000, The Smoking Gun published a restraining order that had been issued against Rick Rockwell , the contestant bachelor on Fox’s 'Who Wants to Marry a Millionaire?' resulting in the cancellation of the short-lived TV show. Not ground-breaking journalism, but …. It opened new possibilities
  • They publish the story on their Web site Friday afternoon, rather than waiting for the Saturday morning to publish it in the print edition of the paper and risk getting scooped. Although it’s not entirely certain, many believe the News did because its editors believed a court was about to issue a publication ban on McVeigh’s comment, believing that a published account of a confession would hurt his chances of a fair trial. Try to remember that in the early days of the web, there are huge divisions in newsrooms between online and print staff. Reporters want to see their big stories break in the paper. Introduces the idea that print editions are for context, background and reflection -- what we’ve come to see today.
  • Matt Drudge -- He seized the agenda from media still encumbered by traditional values. Celebrity gossip Drudge Report – mostly half truths – Drudge: only 80% us true. Aggregation of links and rumour, Known mainly for his 1996 revelation that Jerry Seinfeld had demanded $1 million per episode. Newsweek reporter Michael Isikoff has heard tapes of conversations between White House intern Monica Lewinsky and her friend Monica Tripp that Lewinsky has had sex with the president in the White House. Isikoff has been pursuing the case for more than a year but can’t verify the authenticity of the tapes and chooses to delay publication. Drudge doesn’t worry about verification.
  • Internet Reporter Matt Drudge of the Drudge report scoops Newsweek on Jan. 18 on a story about a presidential girlfriend. Newsweek didn’t even have its own website and takes the unusual step of partnering with AOL to publish it online Jan. 21 to catch up with Drudge’s report. Newsweek launches its own site in October. Wake up call to media. Forces Newsweek to play its hand. Removes the role of gatekeeper an agenda setter. Michael Kinsey (later Slate): “The Internet beat TV and print to this story and ultimately forced it on them for one simple reason: lower standards.” Newsweek wanted more info and it lost its own scoop. Drudge on Fox News: “I’ve been called a muckraker, but I’m the most powerful journalist in America.
  • Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr ended his investigation of President Clinton's relationship with former White House Intern Monica Lewinsky by submitting a 445-page report with grounds for impeachment. Published on the Web accessed in English by 55 million people For the first time a major newsmaker sidestepped the media and said did not direct his source material solely to ‘elite’ gatekeepers. Starr sees media as lefty, Democrat-sympathizers
  • Online news sites gain a sense of community
  • Most sites are overwhelmed by the traffic and are unusable.
  • But they quickly redesign their site, removing all but a few images (to speed download times) and bring auxiliary servers and more bandwidth online.
  • The pressures on newspapers are intense. Classified listings flee print -- much more effective online. Studies: People are sacrificing mainly TV time when they go online
  • Leonard Asper, president and CEO of Canadian media giant CanWest, said it was time to start putting up tollbooths on its canada.com site. "There's no point in having canada.com with 120 million page views a month if nobody is paying for it," he said at a conference in September. "If we lose the page views, fine.” A big issue in cities like Vancouver where the two dailies are owned by CanWest. Soon to find out -- no one wants to pay
  • Anonymous blogger who named himself Salam Pax (meaning “peace” in Arabic and Latin) Salam -Pax Who was for many people the real face of the Iraq war. U.S. military allowed only “embedded” journalists travelling with the military. Pax's journal fills in the gaps in his weblog since March 24. He writes about the terrifying bombing raids, confrontations with coalition ground troops, looting, life under occupation and the slow return to daily routines in Iraq's capital city. Many people don’t believe he’s real, but thousands do. They are gripped by the realism of his situation. Reason: People are resisting the restrictions they saw on so-called “embedded reporters” with the U.S. military Google mirrored it -- site traffic so heavy Andy Carvin, a Washington blogger: "Salam's writings captured a palpable sense of anxiety and frustration — Baghdadis running to the local bakeries and dealing with the price gouging of bread, police standing guard around town trying to keep order," "He serves as a real-time storyteller who's trying to capture a moment in history for the world to see. ... He's humanizing the experience of war, as good storytellers do.” Who is a journalist? One of the major questions in the online age … It causes us to think about values such of objectivity, balance, fairness whether everyone practises these.
  • On September 8, 2004, CBS's News's 60 Minutes Wednesday aired a piece alleging that President George W. Bush had received preferential treatment from the U.S. military that allowed him to land a slot in the Texas Air National Guard and thus escaped being drafted for the Vietnam War. The 60 Minutes Wednesday report hinged on documents that were allegedly taken from Lt. Col. Jerry Killian and given to CBS. After the report aired, several bloggers began to raise questions about the documents citing the typeface on them that appeared to have come from a computer. The questions blew into a media storm and led to a September 20th statement from the network, that "CBS cannot prove that the documents are authentic." CBS launched an internal inquiry that led to a report released on January 10 and ultimately the ouster of three executives and the piece's producer, Mary Mapes. CBS anchor Dan Rather announced he would retire on March 24, but will remain with CBS News as a correspondent for 60 Minutes Sunday and 60 Minutes Wednesday. A community of people who assembled computer and writing experts, analyzed the documents and challenged the conclusions of a mainstream media outlet.
  • Tsunami – Affected some of the world’s poorest regions. But also thousands of more affluent tourists with technologies like digital cameras, mobile phones and weblogs The world is asking …. What’s it like? How did it happen? Did anyone see it coming? Can I help? Within a matter of hours -- long before journalists arrived in the region … A vivid picture began to emerge -- Neil McIntosh, the assistant editor of Guardian Unlimited, terms a “growing army of citizen journalists.” Suddenly, it was possible to see first-hand what photographer Helmut Issels saw from his hotel balcony in Phuket and to understand the problems and politics of relief work. Peter Griffin, a blogger and writer from Mumbai, India set up a blog just hours after news of the disaster reached him. Helped by two other bloggers, Rohit Gupta and Dina Mehta Within hours, the blogging community around the world rallied to set up what has now become South-east Asia Earthquake and Tsunami Blog (SEA-EAT). This is among the better online resources about the tsunami, with information on the latest news in every region, a missing persons page, a blog-like photo-sharing tool and links to relief efforts. In just 48 hours, the SEA-EAT blog had over 200 volunteer bloggers posting from the affected regions as well as from around the globe, Gupta said. “It was a smart mob organising a humanitarian response,” he said. A team of translators ensured that the blog was also available in Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese and Spanish. The blog clocked up over 100,000 site visits in three days. *** For the first time, hundreds of ordinary people produced powerful coverage of a huge news event, along with traditional media. This army of citizen journalists continues to grow, connecting those who want to help with those who need it. Is it journalism?? Not sure. Does it have elements of journalism? Certainly. The point --- many people who wanted the “real” story of the tsunami were reading these stories of real people -- not the ones filtered by major media outlets.
  • The photography startling But the video provided the most gripping views of what happened as it happened, with idyllic beach scenes turning topsy-turvy, chaotic and worse. These videos traveled through e-mails, Weblogs, news sites, cable news outlets and beyond, helping raise awareness of just how horrible the events were, thereby bringing in more donations for relief, also largely online. But sites were soon inundated with traffic, sticking them with large bandwidth bills and slowing video distribution. New England Cable News' Steve Safran made a desperate plea for help one webblog, and soon the new Media Bloggers Association (MBA) took action, launching the Tsunami Video Hosting Initiative. To share video all within a few days of the disaster
  • Newspaper subscriptions are plummeting News sites start experiments with citizen communities. Maybe they’ll create journalism, yes, but … From: http://www.journalism.co.uk/news/story1534.shtml Steve Yelvington a founder of Bluffton Today said that the political dimension to this project is in its social capital; the measure of the connectivity and trust in its community. In this case, citizen journalism is less about news and more about engaging the community in conversation. In another example, over a four-week period one woman had investigated, discussed and co-ordinated a new mothers' group as she moved into the area, all organised through BlufftonToday.
  • Declining interest in mainstream news sources: Nobody under the age of 30 is subscribing to print newspapers State of the News Media Report 2004 By: (American )-- Project for Excellence in Journalism
  • Apple case in which blogs were leaking details of new products. Apple wanted it to stop. And wanted the blogs to reveal their sources. Apple said they’re not journalists (not entitled to protection) We don’t have American-style shield laws But its’ an indication that few are willing to wade into the debate over whether bloggers are journalists
  • In this N.B. case well-known blogger Charles LeBlanc was on trial for obstruction. LeBlanc’s a bit of wing-but but … There was a demonstration in a mall that turned violent. The police were trying to control the crowd. They ignored the mainstream reporters, who they knew. And pushed around LeBlanc. One officer even deleted a photo of himself from LeBlanc’s camera. The headline’s a bit of misnomer here. There is no definition of a journalist in Canada. We’re talking “media privileges” accorded by governments and police. Who can sit in the press gallery for instance?
  • Gillmor: “ If contemporary American journalism is a lecture, what it is evolving into is something that incorporates a conversation and seminar” But it’s a tough slog. People aren’t that interested in reporting on their communities. Guess what -- it’s a lot of work Lots of communities collapse: Bayoshere (SF) Backfence Can’t figure out GEOGRAPHIC communities.
  • Wikipedia Self-publishing is in the mainstream Celebrates Web 2.0 -- the collaborative web Wikipedia, YouTube, MySpace, AmazoneFacebook (not yet)
  • After 10 years … Internet is becoming part of everyday life. … But loud alarm bells! Old media is collapsing but the money to support journalism in new media is not there. Who is going to do the investigative journalism? A dangerous age.
  • Neate Sager Frank D’Angleo, resident of Hamilton’s Steelback brewery, as rumoured to be interested in an NHL team Two blog sites in Canada are currently facing lawsuits over content on their site. In one case the blogger did the posting. In the other a contributor made the posting. Publishing content has legal risks. Consequences are just starting to become apparent.
  • YouTube has been popular for a year. User-generated content is the new Nova Scotia cabinet member caught leaving the scene of a fender-bender Guy followed him home and videoed it on his cellphone, asking him questions along the way. Quasi-journalistic. Interesting.
  • Virginia Tech Jamal Albargouti CNN I-reports Some people are taking up the challenge of citizen journalism.
  • Orato.com Vancouver-based citizen journalism site Sex workers --Pickton trial Big deal - -citizen journalists! Just a blog about Interesting --yes. Anything we would call journalism? -- My colleague at the University, former Toronto Star reporter, said a resounding no recently. I guess I will never be a real reporter or journalist, for I am realizing quickly I have no desire to be the first one to shout out the news. Nor could I be the one to dispassionately, put a story together every day at 4:30 p.m. when court is over. I am someone with a different way of looking at this trial, and that is what you will get from me. But I would not at all on count me for the synopsis of the day’s events.
  • Integration with mainstream media
  • How to harness the audience? The most exciting experiments are not coming from mainstream media Assignment Zero: Headed by Jay Rosen -- a prof at New York university Professional journalists and amateurs working together. Amateurs do the basic research. Pros co-ordinate, edit and set standards A mess Wired: “In the 12 weeks the project was open to the public, it suffered from haphazard planning, technological glitches and a general sense of confusion among participants. Crucial staff members were either forced out or resigned in mid-stream, and its ambitious goal — to produce "the most comprehensive knowledge base to date on the scope, limits and best practices of crowdsourcing" — had to be dramatically curtailed in order to yield some tangible results when Assignment Zero ended on June 5 In the chat rooms: Is anyone here editing? I have some facts; Rosen: you have to be really explicit with people Crowds aren’t easy to organize What we know: Lots of people are going to snap photos of propane explosions … and then comment on it, But put together a news story?
  • We’ve haven’t done a good job so far. People are blurring the line between information and news. And they’re OK with that. They aren’t turning to the news media as they once did.
  • Gulp! Advertising next to news is seen to be ineffective In print you put an ad for “Stars on Ice” in the entertainment news section. It worked. Not online. The model: Google Ad Words -- relevant ads that appear beside your search results
  • Good stuff: Lots of audience growth Innovative uses of technology But …
  • Good News: Canadian Media Research Consortium Audience is way up And it’s important to them.
  • When will that happen? Soon. Wireless will change everything. Apple iPhone in the summer. Big screen for video Full-featured web browser. Most people’s spare time is waiting for the subway, killing time at coffee shop Cellphone service is very profitable -- many see promise in the same funding model?
  • F:\history

    1. 1. History of Online Journalism Download this presentation: journalism.ukings.ca/online/history.ppt January 14, 2009
    2. 2. 1963 <ul><li>Ted Nelson, Harvard sociology student </li></ul><ul><li>Formulates the concept of hypertext </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1965 <ul><li>Nelson, now a sociology prof at Vassar College in upstate New York </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a lecture which is covered in the student newspaper. The first print reference of “hypertext” appears, Feb. 3, 1965 </li></ul>
    4. 4. 1969 <ul><li>ARPANET computer network created by the U.S. Defense Department </li></ul><ul><li>The forerunner of today’s Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Their goal: Design a computer network to withstand nuclear attack </li></ul>
    5. 5. 1969 <ul><li>Decentralized system created under the basic assumption that parts of the network will fail </li></ul><ul><li>Building the network this way lays the foundation for the Internet as a medium that is controlled by no single entity </li></ul><ul><li>1972: The organization in charge is now called DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1971 <ul><li>The BBC files for a patent on “Teledata,” the first teletext system </li></ul><ul><li>Called a &quot;Rolodex in the sky” </li></ul>At the same time, a parallel technology …
    7. 7. 1971 <ul><li>A loop of “pages” broadcast on TV </li></ul><ul><li>Not interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Service is limited to a few hundred available pages </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul>Teletext:
    8. 8. 1974 <ul><li>The British Post Office’s Research Laboratory demonstrates “Viewdata” (later “Prestel”) the first Videotext service </li></ul><ul><li>It’s truly interactive, supporting two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>You use your TV, hooked up to cable and a phone line </li></ul><ul><li>You make entries using a keyboard, dedicated terminal or computer </li></ul><ul><li>Menu-driven systems allow users to browse </li></ul><ul><li>Better graphics than teletext; even photo display. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1974 Snapshot: Three competing technologies … <ul><li>Not interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul><ul><li>But all you need is a TV and a decoder box </li></ul>Videotext Teletext <ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>You need cable TV and an expensive subscription </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly networked </li></ul><ul><li>Almost no one has one </li></ul>Computers
    10. 10. 1975 <ul><li>Canada begins development of Telidon, an advanced videotext system. Goes into operation in 1979 and is considered a world leader with advanced graphics technology </li></ul>
    11. 11. 1975
    12. 12. 1981-82 <ul><li>First computer-based </li></ul><ul><li>online dial-up services </li></ul><ul><li>emerge Eg.: </li></ul><ul><li>Compuserve </li></ul><ul><li>The Source </li></ul><ul><li>Prodigy </li></ul>These are closed systems -- only subscribers have access
    13. 13. 1983-1985 <ul><li>1983: Time Magazine names the computer “Machine of the Year” </li></ul><ul><li>1984: Apple introduces the Macintosh computer. Cost: $2,495 US with built-in B&W monitor. Within 75 days, 50,000 are sold </li></ul><ul><li>1985: Worldwide 22 nations are said to be involved in videotext and teletext </li></ul>
    14. 14. 1986-1988 <ul><li>1986: Computers readily available in university computer labs, offices Computers becoming cheaper and more powerful; first personal printers appear; ($7,000 US for an Apple LaserWriter) </li></ul><ul><li>1988: Internet Relay Chat (IRC, a forebearer to instant messaging) is developed by Finnish graduate student Jarkko Oikarinen DARPA makes the Internet public </li></ul>
    15. 15. 1990 <ul><li>Hypertext Markup Language is invented by Tim Berners-Lee, an Englishman, and colleagues at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory </li></ul>
    16. 16. 1992 <ul><li>July: Lynx, a non-graphical Web and Gopher (FTP)   “browser” is released by the University of Kansas </li></ul><ul><li>November: There are 26 “reasonably reliable” servers exist on the World Wide Web, according to CERN </li></ul>
    17. 17. 1993 <ul><li>August: Mosaic, first graphical Web browser for Windows, is released by the University of Illinois. It causes the web to grow at a 341,634% annual rate of service traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Sept. 25: CompuServe, Prodigy and AOL have a combined 3.9 million U.S. subscribers </li></ul>
    18. 18. 1993 <ul><li>October: First journalism site on the Web is launched at the University of Florida. There now are about 200 web servers in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 8: First article about the web appears in the New York Times </li></ul>
    19. 19. 1994 <ul><li>Jan. 19: The first newspaper to regularly publish on the Web, the Palo Alto Weekly in California, begins twice-weekly postings of its full content </li></ul><ul><li>April: The Yahoo “Internet index” is started by Stanford PhD candidates David Filo and Jerry Yang </li></ul>
    20. 20. 1994 <ul><li>June: the first Canadian newspaper, the Halifax Daily News goes online </li></ul>
    21. 21. 1995 April 19: Oklahoma City Bombing The first major event in which people turn to the Internet for current information
    22. 22. 1995 <ul><li>May: More than 150 news outlets in North America now have online editions </li></ul><ul><li>October: The Boston Globe launches Boston.com on the Web, a unique site bringing many local services together </li></ul>
    23. 23. 1997 <ul><li>March 26: “Heaven’s Gate” Suicides The Internet becomes part of a major news story when members of the Heaven’s Gate cult create a website before committing suicide. Journalists point readers to their source material </li></ul>
    24. 24. 1997 <ul><li>March: False reports emerge online that TWA Flight 800, which crashes off Long Island in 1996 was brought down by a U.S. navy missile </li></ul><ul><li>The power of the medium becomes apparent as readers pressure investigators to reveal the “truth” </li></ul>
    25. 25. 1997 <ul><li>The Smoking Gun debuts -- it publishes entire court documents and other primary sources online </li></ul>
    26. 26. 1997 <ul><li>The Dallas Morning News online edition gets an exclusive that Timothy McVeigh has claimed responsibility for the Oklahoma City Bombing </li></ul><ul><li>First time a mainstream news organization breaks a major story on its website -- not in its newspaper </li></ul>
    27. 27. 1998 <ul><li>Jan. 19 -- Early reports of U.S. President Clinton’s involvement with White House intern Monica Lewinsky demonstrate how a small independent news site can seize a national news agenda </li></ul>
    28. 28. 1998 <ul><li>A media frenzy follows in both the online and traditional press </li></ul>
    29. 29. 1998 <ul><li>September : Starr Report A new relationship between politicians and the public – Starr bypasses the press and distributes a major political document online first </li></ul>Kenneth Starr
    30. 30. 2000 <ul><li>Mainstream news sites begin to involve their audience </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Pierre Trudeau: Thousands of Canadians tell their stories on news websites </li></ul>
    31. 31. 2001 <ul><li>Sept. 11 : Online news operations stumble … </li></ul>
    32. 32. 2001 <ul><li>… then recover … </li></ul>
    33. 33. 2003 <ul><li>Classified listings flee print ... and take money with them </li></ul>
    34. 34. 2003 <ul><li>Canada.com moves to paid subscription model </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking news is free </li></ul><ul><li>Other content requires $$ </li></ul>
    35. 35. 2003 <ul><li>The dawn of citizen journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging software makes web publishing easy and eliminates the need to know HTML </li></ul><ul><li>The “Baghdad Blogger” captivates the world </li></ul>
    36. 36. 2004 <ul><li>Bloggers lead the way in forcing CBS to retract its story on George W. Bush’s military service </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Bloggers beat the mainstream media to tsunami-ravaged South-East Asia … </li></ul>2004
    38. 38. <ul><li>… bringing home the reality of the event with amateur video </li></ul>2004
    39. 39. 2005 Mainstream media starts harnessing user-generated video
    40. 40. 2005 News sites rush to establish citizen communities
    41. 41. 2005 Major trend: “A growing number of news outlets are chasing relatively static or even shrinking audiences for news. One result of this is that most sectors of the news media are losing audience. The only sectors seeing general audience growth today are online, ethnic and alternative media.”
    42. 42. 2006 Katrina Bloggers win protections in the U.S. …
    43. 43. 2006 … and acceptance in Canada
    44. 44. 2006 Participatory journalism advocate Dan Gillmor tries (and fails) to put his emerging philosophy into practice
    45. 45. 2006 <ul><li>Time Magazine Person of the Year </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>“ More sites were becoming profitable … [but] rivals on the Web that offer classified listings or aggregate other people ’ s work -- but produce very little journalistic content of their own -- were continuing to steal revenues away. There still appears no clear path for transferring to this new medium all the wealth that has long financed journalism for the good of civil society.” </li></ul>2006
    47. 47. 2007 Bloggers face greater legal scrutiny
    48. 48. 2007 Citizen media grows in importance
    49. 49. 2007
    50. 50. 2007 New attempts at models for citizen journalism
    51. 51. 2007
    52. 52. 2007
    53. 53. 2007 <ul><li>“ Practicing journalism has become far more difficult and demands new vision. Journalism is becoming a smaller part of people’s information mix … </li></ul><ul><li>“ Journalists have reacted relatively slowly … There are signs that government, corporations and activists have reacted more quickly. Politicians, interest groups and corporate public relations people tell us they have bloggers now on secret retainer — and they are delighted with the results.” </li></ul>
    54. 54. <ul><li>“ The evidence is mounting that the news industry must become more aggressive about developing a new economic model. The signs are clearer that advertising works differently online than in older media. “ Finding out about goods and services on the Web is an activity unto itself, like using the yellow pages, and less a byproduct of getting news, such as seeing a car ad during a newscast. The consequence is that advertisers may not need journalism as they once did, particularly online.” </li></ul>2007
    55. 55. 2007 <ul><li>September: Journalism sites move away from subscription-based news </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising is seen as the only workable funding model </li></ul>
    56. 56. 2008 <ul><li>“ As a category, news Web sites appear to be falling behind financially. They are not growing in advertising revenue as quickly as other kinds of Internet destinations. And these figures do not include the most important revenue source, search, where news is a relatively small player. The questions of who will pay and how they will do it seem more pressing than ever.” </li></ul>
    57. 57. 2008
    58. 58. 2008