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справка

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справка

  1. 1. ÑÏÐÀÂÎ×ÍÀß ×ÀÑÒÜ
  2. 2. Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòüÑÂÎÄÍÀß ÒÀÁËÈÖÀ ÂÎÑÜÌÈ ÎÊÎÍ×ÀÍÈÉ (äëÿ ïðèìåðîâ âîçüì¸ì ïðàâèëüíûé ãëàãîë “paint” – ïýéíò = «êðàñèòü»):¹ Âèä îêîí÷àíèÿ: Ê ÷åìó ïðèñîåäèíÿåòñÿ? ×òî îíî äà¸ò? ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîìó1à. +S â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå: Ìíîæåñòâ. ÷èñëî: boyS = = ìàëü÷èêÈ; ïîñëå «Oí/-à/-î» è «Kòî?» è ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûõ1á. +S â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå = êðàñÈÒ; ê ãëàãîëó: paintS = ê ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûì è ê èìåíàì «Âëàäåëüöà»:1â. ’S ñîáñòâåííûì: my mother’S = = ìîåé ìàòÅÐ ’È, Michael’S = = Ìàéêë’ÎÂ; ê ïðàâèëüíîìó ãëàãîëó: +(e)D – ä, paintED =2. – èä, à) ïðîøåäøåå âðåìÿ: = (ïî-)êðàñèË; – ò á) ïàññèâíîå îïðåäåë.: = ïîêðàøÅÍ/íûé, = îêðàøèâàÅÌûé; ê ëþáîìó ãëàãîëó: paintING = à) äååïðè÷àñòèå: = êðàñß;3. +ING – èíã á) àêòèâíîå îïðåäåë.: = êðàñßÙèé, = êðàñèÂØèé; â) ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå: = êðàøÅÍÈÅ; 271
  3. 3. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü ¹ Âèä îêîí÷àíèÿ: Ê ÷åìó ïðèñîåäèíÿåòñÿ? ×òî îíî äà¸ò? Ðóññêî-Ðóññêèå Ôîðìóëû. ÇÍÀÉÒÅ, ÷òî ÂÒÎÐÛÌ (II) âàðèàíòàì ÐÐÔ ê îïðåäåëåíèÿì: Íàðå÷èå: quickLY = = áûñòðÎ; ñîîòâåòñòâóþò èõ áóêâàëüíûå àíãëèéñêèå ïåðåâîäû: 4. +LY – ëè è ê ñóùåñòâèò.: timeLY = = âî´âðåìÿ, I: =→ II: = Àíãë.: dayLY = = åæåäíåâíÎ; ß ðîäèëñÿ =→ ß áûë ðîæä¸í = I was born – áîîí ê ñóùåñòâèòâèòåëüíûì: Îïðåäåëåíèå: Ñèëüíåå ìåíÿ =→ Ñèëüíåå, ÷åì ìåíÿ = Stronger than me. 5. +Y – è windY = = âåòðÅÍÛÉ; Äàé åìó ñäåëàòü ýòî =→ Ïîçâîëü åìó + ñäåëàòü ýòî! = Let him + do it ê êîëè÷åñòâåííûì Ïîðÿäêîâûå 6. +TH – è ÷èñëèòåëüíûì: ÷èñëèòåëüíûå: Ó ìåíÿ åñòü ... =→ ß èìåþ ... = I have ... sevenTH = = ñåäüìÎÉ; =→ Ó ìåíÿ èìååòñÿ … = I’ve got … Ó íåãî åñòü ... =→ Îí èìååò ... = He has ... ê ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì: = «áîëåå ...»: =→ Ó íåãî èìååòñÿ … = He’s got smartER = = óìíåÅ 7. +ER – ý è ê íàðå÷èÿì: Òû ïîäãëÿäûâàë çà íèìè? – Íåò, ÿ ÍÅ ÄÅËÀË ýòîãî ... earliER = = ðàíüøÅ, ðàíåÅ; No, I DIDN’T DO that ... ê ïðèëàãàòåëüíûì: Ìåíÿ íàêàçàëè =→ ß áûë íàêàçàí = I was punished – ïàíèøüò the smartEST = = ñàìûé óìíûé, Åãî îáèäåëè =→ Îí áûë îáèæåí = He was offended – îôýíäèä 8. +EST – èñò è ê íàðå÷èÿì: íàèóìíåéøèé; the earliEST = = ñàìûé ðàííèé. 1 2 3 Êâàðòèðà ìîåé ìàòåðè =→ Ìîåé ìàòåð’è êâàðòèða.———————————————————————————————— = My mother’s flat.ÂÎÒ È ÂѨ !!! ß õî÷ó, ÷òîáû ìåíÿ íàãðàäèëè =→ ß õî÷ó + áûòü íàãðàæä¸í(-íûì). Áîëüøå â àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå = I want + to be rewarded. ðèwîîäèäÍÈ×ÅÃÎ ñî ñëîâîì (â öåëÿõ èçìåíåíèÿ åãî ôóíêöèè) ñäåëàòü ÍÅËÜÇß !!! ß áóäó õóäîæíèêîì =→ ß + áóäó áûòü + õóäîæíèêîì. = I+ will be + an artist – ààòèñò————————————————————————————————272 273
  4. 4. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòüß ñìîãó … =→ ß áóäó (áûòü) â ñîñòîÿíèè … ÏÎËÍÛÉ = I will be able (to) … ÏÅÐÅ×ÅÍÜ «ÍÅ-ÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ» ÃËÀÃÎËÎÂ.ß êóïèë … =→ Ó ìåíÿ (åñòü) + êóïëåí(-íûé) … = I have + bought … – áîîò ÏÅÐÂÀß «ÒÀÁËÈÖÀ ÍÅÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ ÃËÀÃÎËλ (ñî âñåìè òðåìÿ îäèíàêîâûìè ôîðìàìèÌíå áû ïîéòè =→ ß + äîëæåí áûë áû + ïîéòè. = I + should + go. (22 øòóêè),Ìíå áû ñúåñòü ÿáëîêî = 1) ß + áû õîòåë + ñúåñòü ÿáëîêî. òî åñòü èõ ñëîâàðíàÿ ôîðìà, = I’d like to + eat an apple; èõ ïðîøåäøåå âðåìÿ 2) ß + äîëæåí áûë áû + ñúåñòü ÿáëîêî. è èõ ïàññèâíîå îïðåäåëåíèå – I+ should + eat an apple. – ýòî ôàêòè÷åñêè îäíî è òî æå ñëîâî):Ìíå ñêàçàëè =→ ß áûë èçâåù¸í = I was told … – òîóëä bet (bet, bet,) – áýò = äåðæàòü ïàðè, ñïîðèòü burst (burst, burst) – ᜜ñò = ëîïíóòü cast (cast, cast) – êààñò = áðîñàòü; ëèòü (ìåòàëë)Ìíå õî÷åòñÿ =→ ß õî÷ó = I want (to) ... cost (cost, cost) – êîñò = ñòîèòü cut (cut, cut) – êàò = ðåçàòüÌíå íðàâèòñÿ ... =→ ß ñèìïàòèçèðóþ / îáîæàþ ... hit (hit, hit) – õèò = óäàðÿòü = I like (to) ... – ëàéê hurt (hurt, hurt) – õœœò = äåëàòü áîëüíî———————————————————————————————— knit (knit, knit) – íèò = âÿçàòü let (let, let) – ëåò = ïîçâîëÿòü put (put, put) – ïóò = ñòàâèòü, êëàñòü quit (quit, quit) – êwèò = îñòàâèòü rid (rid, rid)* – ðèä = îñâîáîæäàòü set (set, set) – ñýò = ñòàâèòü shed (shed, shed)* – øüåä = òåðÿòü shred (shred, shred)* – øüðåä = êðîìñàòü shut (shut, shut) – øÿò = çàêðûâàòü slit (slit, slit)* – ñëèò = ðàçðåçàòü split (split, slplit) – ñïëèò = êîëîòü spread (spread, spread) – ñïðýä = ðàñïðîñòðàíÿòü sweat (sweat, sweat) – ñwýò = ïîòåòü thrust (thrust, thrust)* – θðàñò = òîëêàòü. * Çâ¸çäî÷êàìè îòìå÷åíû ìàëîóïîòðåáèòåëüíûå ñëîâà.274 275
  5. 5. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü ÂÒÎÐÀß «ÒÀÁËÈÖÀ â) Çäåñü ↓ òîæå 2-ÿ è 3-ÿ ôîðìû îäèíàêîâû ! ÍÅÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ ÃËÀÃÎËλ Èçìåíåíèÿ ãëàãîëîâ è â ýòîé ↓ ïîäãðóïïå (î÷åíü ë¸ãêàÿ äëÿ çàó÷èâàíèÿ) òàêæå ëåãêè äëÿ çàó÷èâàíèÿ, ñ îäèíàêîâûìè 2-é è 3-é ôîðìàìè è ñâîäÿòñÿ (1-ÿ ÷àñòü ýòîé ãðóïïû – 27 øòóê). ê ïîÿâëåíèþ “-t” íà êîíöå ãëàãîëà, ñ îäíîâðåìåííûì «óêîðà÷èâàíèåì» ãëàñíîéNB. Âñïîìèíàåì, ÷òî â åãî ñåðåäèíå 2-ÿ ôîðìà – ýòî ïðîøåäøåå âðåìÿ, (è ñ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèì èçìåíåíèåì â å¸ ïðîèçíîøåíèè !!!): à 3-ÿ ôîðìà – ýòî (ïàññèâíîå) îïðåäåëåíèå, îáðàçîâàííîå èç ýòîãî æå ãëàãîëà. burn (burnt, burnt) – ᜜í (᜜íò) = ãîðåòüÊÀÊ èõ ÇÀÏÎÌÈÍÀÒÜ? creep (crept, crept) – êðèèï (êðýïò) = ïîëçòè deal (dealt, dealt) – äèèë (äýëò) = èìåòü äåëî ñ…a) Èçìåíåíèÿ, ïðîèçîøåäøèå âî 2-õ è â 3-õ ôîðìàõ äîãîâàðèâàòüñÿ ñëåäóþùèõ ãëàãîëîâ ↓ î÷åíü îäíîîáðàçíû. dwell (dwelt, dwelt) – äwýë (äwýëò) = ïðîæèâàòü, æèòü äàííîì ñëó÷àå îíè ñâåëèñü ëèøü feel (felt, felt) – ôèèë (ôýëò) = ÷óâñòâîâàòü ê «óêîðà÷èâàíèþ» ãëàñíîé â ñåðåäèíå ãëàãîëà: keep (kept, kept) – êèèï (êýïò) = (ñî)äåðæàòü kneel (knelt, knelt) – íèèë (íýëò) = âñòàòü íà êîëåíè; bleed (bled, bled) – áëèèä (áëåä) = êðîâîòî÷èòü ñòîÿòü íà êîëåíÿõ breed (bred, bred) – áðèèä (áðýä) = ïîðîæäàòü mean (meant, meant) – ìèèí (ìýíò) = èìåòü â âèäó feed (fed, fed) – ôèèä (ôýä) = êîðìèòü ãîâîðèòü ñåðü¸çíî lead (led, led) – ëèèä (ëåä) = âåñòè meet (met, met) – ìèèò (ìýò) = âñòðå÷àòü(-ñÿ) speed (sped, sped) – ñïèèä (ñïýä) = ñïåøèòü, ãíàòü shoot (shot, shot) – øþóò (ø¸ò) = ñòðåëÿòü + sleep (slept, slept) – ñëèèï (ñëýïò) = ñïàòü have (had, had) – õæâ (õæä) = èìåòü smell (smelt, smelt) – ñìýë (ñìýëò) = ïàõíóòü, íþõàòü (à çäåñü «ïðî↑ïàëî» “ve-” è ïðèáàâèëîñü «íîðìàëüíîå» “+d”); spell (spelt, spelt) – ñïýë (ñïýëò) = ïðîèçíîñèòü ïî áóêâàìá) Òóò ↓ âñå èçìåíåíèÿ – spill (spilt, spilt) – ñïèë (ñïèëò) = ïðîëèâàòü(-ñÿ), – ýòî ïåðåõîä “-d” â→ “-t” íà êîíöå ãëàãîëà: ðàçáðûçãèâàòü(-ñÿ) sweep (swept, swept) – ñwèèï (ñwýïò) = ìåñòè´, ïîäìåòàòü bend (bent, bent) – áýíä (áýíò) = ñãèáàòü weep (wept, wept) – wèèï (wýïò) = ïëàêàòü. build (built, built) – áèëä (áèëò) = ñòðîèòü lend (lent, lent) – ëýíä (ëýíò) = îäàëæèâàòü send (sent, sent) – ñýíä (ñýíò) = ïîñûëàòü spend (spent, spent) – ñïýíä (ñïýíò) = òðàòèòü;276 277
  6. 6. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü ÒÐÅÒÜß «ÒÀÁËÈÖÀ á) Ýòî ↓ – òîæå ÷àñòü ãðóïïû ãëàãîëîâ ñ îäèíàêîâûìè 2-é = ïðîøåäøèì âðåìåíåì ÍÅÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ ÃËÀÃÎËλ è 3-é = ïàññèâíûì îïðåäåëåíèåì ñ îäèíàêîâûìè 2-é è 3-é ôîðìàìè ôîðìàìè. (2-ÿ ÷àñòü ýòîé ãðóïïû – 18 + 6 øòóê). Íî ýòè ôîðìû çíà÷èòåëüíî îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò èõ æå 1-é ôîðìû.ÊÀÊ èõ ÇÀÏÎÌÈÍÀÒÜ?à) Îáðàòèòå âíèìàíèå íà òî, ÷òî ÊÀÊ èõ ÇÀÏÎÌÈÍÀÒÜ? âî 2-õ è â 3-õ ôîðìàõ ýòèõ ↓ ãëàãîëîâ èçìåíèëàñü Çäåñü ↓ ÷óòü-÷óòü ïîòðóäíåå, òîëüêî ãëàñíàÿ âíóòðè ñàìîãî´ ñëîâà, íî «Íàäî – çíà÷èò íàäî!». (÷òî çíà÷èòåëüíî îáëåã÷àåò çàïîìèíàíèå): Âî âñåõ 2-3-èõ ôîðìàõ êîíåö ñëîâà ïðåâðàòèëñÿ â→ “-ought” = «-ooò»: 1-ÿ ô.: 2-ÿ ô. = 3-é ô.: cling (clung, clung) – êëèíã (êëàíã) = öåïëÿòüñÿ bring (brought, brought) – áðèíã (áðîîò) = ïðèíîñèòü dig (dug, dug) – äèã (äàã) = êîïàòü buy (bought, bought) – áàé (áîîò) = ïîêóïàòü fight (fought, fought) – ôàéò (ôîîò) = äðàòüñÿ catch (cought, cought) – êæò÷ (êîîò) = õâàòàòü; find (found, found) – ôàéíä (ôàóíä) = íàõîäèòü ëîâèòü, ïîéìàòü; grind (ground, ground) – ãðàéíä (ãðàóíä) = ìîëîòü seek (sought, sought) – ñèèê (ñîîò) = èñêàòü hold (held, held) – õîóëä (õýëä) = äåðæàòü teach (taught, taught) – òûû÷ (òîîò) = îáó÷àòü, ó÷èòü say (said, said) – ñýé (ñýä) = ñêàçàòü think (thought, thought) – θèíê (θîîò) = äóìàòü. (çäåñü èçì↑åíèëîñü òîëüêî íàïèñàíèå ãëàñíîé: “y → i”) sell (sold, sold) – ñýë (ñîóëä) = ïðîäà(âà)òü ——————————————————————————————— (à çäåñü åù¸ ↑ ïðèáàâèëîñü «íîðìàëüíîå» “+d”) NB ! shine (shone, shone) – øÿéí (ø¸óí) = ñâåòèòü Î÷åíü ðåêîìåíäóþ îáðàòèòü îñîáîå âíèìàíèå íà ìîè êíèãè sit (sat, sat) – ñèò (ñæò) = ñèäåòü slide (slid, slid) – ñëàéä (ñëèä) = ñêîëüçèòü «5 ñåíñàöèé» spin (spun, spun) – ñïèí (ñïàí) = ïðÿñòü; è êðóòèòü(-ñÿ) «Â íà÷àëå áûëî ñëîâî. Ðóññêîå». stand (stood, stood) – ñòæíä (ñòóä) = ñòîÿòü stick (stuck, stuck) – ñòèê (ñòàê) = ëèïíóòü Ñïðàøèâàéòå èõ â ìàãàçèíàõ Âàøåãî ãîðîäà sting (stung, stung) – ñòèíã (ñòàíã) = æàëèòü èëè swing (swung, swung) – ñwèíã (ñwàíã) = êà÷àòü çàêàçûâàéòå â ìî¸ì èíòåðíåò-ìàãàçèíå ïî àäðåñó: win (won, won) – wèí (wàí) = ïîáåæäàòü wind (wound, wound) – wàéíä (wàóíä) = íàìàòûâàòü; www.dragunkin.ru èçâèâàòüñÿ; À. Äðàãóíêèí.278 279
  7. 7. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü ×ÅÒ¨ÐÒÀß «ÒÀÁËÈÖÀ â) ÍÅÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ ÃËÀÃÎËλ Íó à çäåñü íàäî äåöë íàïðÿ÷üñÿ! (ñ ðàçíûìè 2-é è 3-é ôîðìàìè – âñåãî 55 øòóê): arise (arose, arisen) – ýðàéç (ýðîóç, ýðàéçí) = âîçíèêàòüà) bear (bore, born) – áýý (áîî, áîîí) = ðîæ(ä)àòüÊÀÊ ÇÀÏÎÌÈÍÀÒÜ ýòè 3 ñëîâà? bear (bore, borne) – áýý (áîî, áîîí) = íåñòè, íîñèòü ↓ Ëåãêî! – Ïîòîìó ÷òî 3-ÿ ôîðìà ãëàãîëîâ ýòîé ïîäãðóïïû beat (beat, beaten) – áèèò (áýò, áèèòí) = áèòü ñîâïàäàåò ñî ñëîâàðíîé: begin (began, begun) – áèãèí (áèãæí, áèãàí) = íà÷èíàòü blow (blew, blown) – áë¸ó (áëþó, áë¸óí) = äóòü become (became, become) – áèêàì (áèêýéì, áèêàì) = break (broke, broken) – áðýéê (áðîóê, áðîóêí) = ëîìàòü = ñòàíîâèòüñÿ choose (chose, chosen) – ÷óóç (÷îóç, ÷îóçí) = âûá(è)ðàòü come (came, come) – êàì (êýéì, êàì) = ïðèäòè, ïðèõîäèòü do (did, done) – äóó (äèä, äàí) = äåëàòü run (ran, run) – ðàí (ðæí, ðàí) = áåæàòü, áåãàòü; draw (drew, drawn) – äðîî (äðóó, äðîîí) = òàùèòü; ðèñîâàòü drive (drove, driven) – äðàéâ (äðîóâ, äðàéâí) = ãíàòü;á) âîäèòü (ìàøèíó)À ÝÒÈ ↓ ? eat (ate, eaten) – èèò (ýéò, èèòí) = åñòü, êóøàòüÒîæå ëåãêî, ïîòîìó ÷òî fall (fell, fallen) – ôîîë (ôýë, ôîîëí) = ïàäàòü èõ 2-å ôîðìû ïðàâèëüíûå – âñå íà “+D”, fly (flew, flown) – ôëàé (ôëþó, ôëîóí) = ëåòàòü à 3-è – íåïðàâèëüíûå = âñå íà “+N”: forbear(forbore, forborne) – ôîáýý (ôîáîî, ôîáîîí) = âîçäåðæèâàòüñÿ forget (forgot, forgotten) – ôýãýò (ôîãîò, ôîãîòí) = çàáû(âà)òü lade (laded, laden) – ëýéä (ëýéäèä, ëýéäí) = ãðóçèòü freeze (froze, frozen) – ôðèèç (ôðîóç, ôðîóçí) = çàìåðçàòü mow (mowed, mown) – ìîó (ìîóä, ìîóí) = êîñèòü (òðàâó) give (gave, given) – ãèâ (ãýéâ, ãèâí) = äà(âà)òü rive (rived, riven) – ðàéâ (ðàéâä, ðàéâí) = (ðàç)ðóáèòü saw (sawed, sawn) – ñîî (ñîîä, ñîîí) = ïèëèòü go* (went*, gone) – ãîó (wýíò, ãîí) = èäòè; óõîäèòü shave (shaved, shaven) – øüåéâ (øüåéâä, øüåéâí) = áðèòü grow (grew, grown) – ãðîó (ãðóó, ãðîóí) = ðàñòè show (showed, shown) – ø¸ó (ø¸óä, ø¸óí) = ïîêàç(ûâ)àòü know (knew, known) – íîó (íúþó, íîóí) = çíàòü sow (sowed, sown) – ñîó (ñîóä, ñîóí) = ñåÿòü strew (strewed, strewn) – ñòðóó (ñòðóóä, ñòðóóí) = ñûïàòü lie (lay, lain) – ëàé (ëýé, ëýéí) = ëåæàòü swell (swelled, swîllen) – ñwýë (ñwýëä, ñwîîëí) = ðàñïóõàòü; ride (rode, ridden) – ðàéä (ðîóä, ðèäí) = åõàòü (âåðõîì) ring (rang, rung) – ðèíã (ðæíã, ðàíã) = çâîíèòü rise (rose, risen) – ðàéç (ðîóç, ðàéçí) = âñòà(âà)òü see (saw, seen) – ñèè (ñîî, ñèèí) = âèäåòü, ñìîòðåòü shake (shook, shaken) – øüåéê (øþê, øüåéêí) = òðÿñòè280 281
  8. 8. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòüsing (sang, sung) – ñèíã (ñæíã, ñàíã) = ïåòü ÏßÒÀß «ÒÀÁËÈÖÀslay (slew, slain) – ñëýé (ñëþó, ñëýéí) = óáè(âà)òü ÍÅÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ ÃËÀÃÎËλspeak (spoke, spoken) – ñïèèê (ñïîóê, ñïîóêí) = ãîâîðèòü (ñ òðåìÿ ðàçíûìè ôîðìàìè.spring (sprang, sprung) – ñïðèíã (ñïðæíã, ñïðàíã) = ïðûãíóòüsteal (stole, stolen) – ñòèèë (ñòîóë, ñòîóëí) = (ó)êðàñòü È îíà æå ñàìàÿ «ï¸ñòðàÿ»! = = 29 øòóê).stink (stank, stunk) – ñòèíê (ñòæíê, ñòàíê) = âîíÿòüstride (strode, stridden) – ñòðàéä (ñòðîóä, ñòðèäí) = øàãàòü Ýòî, ïîæàëóé, ñàìàÿ òðóäíàÿ ãðóïïà ãëàãîëîâ,strive (strove, striven) – ñòðàéâ (ñòðîóâ, ñòðàéâí) = ñòàðàòüñÿ ïîñêîëüêó ïî÷òè âñå èç íèõ èìåþòswear (swore, sworen) – ñwýý (ñwîî, ñwîîí) = êëÿñòüñÿ ïî äâå 2-ûõ èëè 3-èõ ôîðìû – – íî çíàòü-òî èõ âñå ðàâíî íàäî!swim (swam, swum) – ñwèì (ñwîì, ñwàì) = ïëàâàòü, ïëûòü (Ñì. ïðèìå÷àíèå â êîíöå ýòîãî ñïèñêà).take (took, taken) – òýéê (òóê, òýéêí) = áðàòü, âçÿòütear (tore, torn) – òýý (òîî, òîîí) = ðàçðûâàòü Âåäü – êðîìå âñåãî ïðî÷åãî –throw (threw, thrown) – θ ðîó (θðóó, θðîóí) = áðîñàòü ýòî åù¸ è îáû÷íîå óâåëè÷åíèå Âàøåãî æå ñëîâàðíîãî çàïàñà!wear (wore, worn) – wýý (wîî, wîîí) = íîñèòü (îäåæäó) Ïîìíèì, ÷òî âî âòîðîì ñòîëáèêå –weave (wove, woven) – wèèâ (wîóâ, wóâí) = òêàòü – ãîòîâûå ôîðìû ïðîøåäøåãî âðåìåíè –write (wrote, written) – ðàéò (ðîóò, ðèòí) = (íà)ïèñàòü. – áåðèòå è ãîâîðèòå!,* Îáðàòèòå âíèìàíèå: à â òðåòüåì – ãîòîâûå ôîðìû (ïàññèâíîãî) îïðåäåëåíèÿ – – áåðèòå è ïîëüçóéòåñü! ñåãîäíÿøíÿÿ 2-ÿ ôîðìà ãëàãîëà “go” (= “went” – wýíò = «óø¸ë») 1-ÿ ôîðìà Çíà÷åíèå: 2-ÿ ôîðìà 3-ÿ ôîðìà «âçÿòà» àíãëè÷àíàìè ó ñîâñåì äðóãîãî ãëàãîëà – (ñëîâàðíàÿ): (ïðîø. âðåìÿ): (îïðåäåëåíèå): – ó ñòàðîãî ãëàãîëà “wend”, êîòîðûé – ñëàâà Áîãó! – awake = ïðîñûïàòüñÿ awoke awaked/awoke – òîæå çíà÷èë «èäòè», «óõîäèòü» (ñì. ñòð. 280)! ýwýéê ýwîóê ýwýéêò, ýwîóê Òåïåðü Âû çíàåòå óæå ïðèìåðíî 70% âîîáùå âñåõ bid = âåëåòü; bid/bade bid/bidden íåïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ, è/ëè çíà÷èòåëüíî áîëüøå ïîëîâèíû áèä ïðåäëàãàòü áèä, áýéä áèä, áèäí íåïðàâèëüíûõ ãëàãîëîâ «ïåðâîé íåîáõîäèìîñòè». bind = çàâÿçûâàòü bound bound/bounden*——————————————————————————————— áàéíä áàóíä áàóíä, áàóíäýí bite = êóñàòü bit bit /bitten áàéò áèò áèò, áèòí282 283
  9. 9. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü cleave = ðàñêàëûâàòü clave/cleft cleft melt = ïëàâèòü melted melted/molten* êëèèâ êëýéâ, êëýôò êëýôò ìýëò ìýëòèä ìýëòèä, ìîëòí dare = îñìåëèòüñÿ dared/durst dared owe = áûòü äîëæíûì owed/ought owed äýý äýýä, 䜜ñò äýýä îó îóä, îîò îóä dream = ìå÷òàòü dreamed/dreamt dreamed/dreamt quit = ïîêèäàòü quitted/quit quitted/quit äðèèì äðèèìä, äðýìò äðèèìä, äðýìò êwèò êwèòèä, êwèò êwèòèä, êwèò drink = ïèòü drank drunk/drunken rot = ãíèòü rotted rotted/rotten* äðèíê äðæíê äðàíê, äðàíêí ðîò ðîòèä ðîòèä, ðîòí get = ïîëó÷àòü got got/gotten* seethe = êèïåòü seethed seethed/sodden ãýò ãîò ãîò, ãîòí ñèèð (÷óâñòâàìè) ñèèðä ñèèðä, ñîäí grave = âûñåêàòü graved graved/graven* sew = øèòü sewed sewed/sewn* ãðýéâ ãðýéâä ãðýéâä, ãðýéâí ñúþó ñúþóä ñúþóä, ñúþóí hang = âåøàòü hanged/hung hanged/hung shrink = ñú¸æè(âà)òüñÿ shrank shrunk/shrunken* õæíã õæíãä, õàíã õæíãä, õàíã øüðèíê øüðæíê øüðàíê, øüðàíêí hide = ïðÿòàòü hid hid/hidden* sink = îïóñêàòü sank sunk/sunken* õàéä õèä õèä, õèäí ñèíê ñæíê ñàíê, ñàíêí lean = îïèðàòüñÿ leaned/leant leaned/leant spit = ïëåâàòü spit/spat spat ëèèí ëèèíä, ëýíò ëèèíä, ëýíò ñïèò ñïèò, ñïæò ñïæò learn = èçó÷àòü learned learned/learnt* spoil = ïîðòèòü spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt 뜜í 뜜íä 뜜íä, 뜜íò ñïîéë ñïîéëä, ñïîéëò ñïîéëä, ñïîéëò light = îñâåùàòü lighted/lit lighted/lit strike = óäàðÿòü struck struck/stricken* ëàéò ëàéòèä, ëèò ëàéòèä, ëèò ñòðàéê ñòðàê ñòðàê, ñòðèêí284 285
  10. 10. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü thrive = ïðîöâåòàòü thrived/throve thrived/thriven ØÅÑÒÀß «ÒÀÁËÈÖÀ θðàéâ θðàéâä, θðîóâ θðàéâä, θðàéâí ÍÅÏÐÀÂÈËÜÍÛÕ ÃËÀÃÎËλ tread = ñòóïàòü trod trod/trodden (î÷åíü ìàëîóïîòðåáèòåëüíûõ). òðèèä òðîä òðîä, òðîäí 20 øòóê: work = ðàáîòàòü worked/wrought worked/wrought. abide – ýáàéä = æèòü wœœê wœœêò, ðîîò wœœêò, ðîîò (abode, abode) (ýáîóä) beget – áèãýò = ðîæäàòü * Ôîðìû, îòìå÷åííûå çâ¸çäî÷êîé, (begot, begotten) (áèãîò, áèãîòí) ñåãîäíÿ óæå íå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ â ñîñòàâå êîíñòðóêöèé, behold – áèõîóëä = âèäåòü (beheld, beheld) (áèõýëä) beseech – áèñèèò÷ = óìîëÿòü à òîëüêî: (besought, besought) (áèñîîò) chide – ÷àéä = áðàíèòüà) êàê ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíûå îïðåäåëåíèÿ, (chid, chid/chidden) (÷ûä, ÷ûä/÷ûäí) íàïðèìåð: fling – ôëèíã = êèäàòü A SUNKEN ship = ÇÀÒÎÍÓÂØÅÅ ñóäíî. (flung, flung) (ôëàíã) A LEARNT scholar = ÏÐÎÑÂÅÙ¨ÍÍÛÉ ó÷¸íûé. forsake – ôîñýéê = ïîêèäàòü, (forsook, forsaken) (ôîñóê, ôîñýéêí) = áðîñàòü WROUGHT iron = ÊÎÂÀÍÎÅ æåëåçî; gild – ãèëä = çîëîòèòü (gilded, gilded/gilt*) (ãèëäèä, ãèëäèä/ãèëò)á) èëè êàê ÷àñòü «ñîñòàâíûõ» îïðåäåëåíèé, gird – 㜜ä = îïîÿñ(ûâ)àòüíàïðèìåð: (girded/girt, girt) (㜜äèä/㜜ò, 㜜ò)An horror-STRICKEN man = ×åëîâåê, ÎÕÂÀ×ÅÍÍÛÉ óæàñîì hew – õúþó = ðóáèòü æíîðýñòðèêí ìæí (= «óæàñî-ÎÁÚßÒÛÉ»). (hewed, hewed/hewn*) (õúþóä, õúþóä/õúþóí) ken** – êåí = çíàòü (kent, kent) (êåíò)286 287
  11. 11. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü rend – ðýíä = ðâàòü ÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÈÉ ÀËÔÀÂÈÒ. (rent, rent) (ðýíò) Âàì îáÿçàòåëüíî íóæíî âûó÷èòü íàèçóñòü íàçâàíèÿ àíãëèéñêèõ shear – øüèý = ñòðè÷ü áóêâ, òàê êàê ïðè öèòèðîâàíèè ñëîâ ïî áóêâàì àíãëè÷àíå ÷¸òêî (sheared, sheared/shorn*) (øüèýä, øüèýä/ø¸îí) ïðîèçíîñÿò íàçâàíèÿ áóêâ, èç êîòîðûõ ýòè ñëîâà ñîñòîÿò. sling – ñëèíã = ìåòàòü Ïî-àíãëèéñêè ýòî íàçûâàåòñÿ “SPELLING”, à «ïðîèçíîñèòü ïî (slung, slung) (ñëàíã) (èç ïðàùè) áóêâàì» = “to spell”, íàïðèìåð: ñëîâî “APPLE” àíãëè÷àíèí ïðî÷ò¸ò ïî áóêâàì slink – ñëèíê = êðàñòüñÿ êàê «ÝÉ- äàáë ÏÈÈ - ÝË - ÈÈ», (slunk, slunk) (ñëàíê) ïðè÷¸ì «äàáë» = “double” çíà÷èò «äâîéíîé» – òàê smite – ñìàéò = óäàðÿòü ãîâîðÿò àíãëè÷àíå âìåñòî òîãî, ÷òîáû ãîâîðèòü «ÏÈÈ - ÏÈÈ» (smote, smit/smitten) (ñìîóò, ñìèò/ñìèòí) (òî åñòü «2 ïý»). stave – ñòýéâ = ïðîëàìûâàòü (staved/stove, staved/stove) (ñòýéâä, ñòîóâ) À [ýé] Í [ýéò÷] Î [îó] V [âè:]  [áè:] I [àé] Ð [ïè:] W [äàáëú þ:] string – ñòðèíã = íàíèç(ûâ)àòü Ñ [ñè:] J [äüæåé] Q [êúþ:] Õ [ýêñ] (strung, strung) (ñòðàíã) D [äè:] Ê [êýé] R [à:] Y [wàé] Å [è:] L [ýë] S [ýñ] Z [çýä] wend** – wýíä = óõîäèòü . [ýô] Ì [ýì] T [òè] (went, went) (wýíò) G [äüæè:] N [ýí] U [þ:] wring – ðèíã = æàòü (õëåá). (wrung, wrung) (ðàíã) 1. ÌÍÎÆÅÑÒÂÅÍÍÎÅ ×ÈÑËÎ ÑÓÙÅÑÒÂÈÒÅËÜÍÛÕ. Ïðàâèëüíîå îáðàçîâàíèå ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà: * Ýòè 3-è ôîðìû óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ òîëüêî êàê îïðåäåëåíèÿ; a) ïðè ïîìîùè îêîí÷àíèé “+s”, “+es”: book → books; bus → buses; shoe → shoes; ** Ýòè ãëàãîëû ñåãîäíÿ óæå íå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ, á) êîíå÷íîå “-ó” ïîñëå ñîãëàñíîé èçìåíÿåòñÿ íà “-ie+s”: íî ñëîâî/ôîðìà “went” lady → ladies; fly → flies; city → cities; ñåé÷àñ ÿâëÿåòñÿ åù¸ è 2-îé ôîðìîé ãëàãîëà “go”. â íåêîòîðûõ ñëó÷àÿõ êîíå÷íîå “-f” ïðåâðàùàåòñÿ â “-ve+s”: half → halves; knife → knives; leaf → leaves;288 289
  12. 12. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòüÑóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, óïîòðåáëÿåìûå òîëüêî Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, èìåþùèå âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå âî ìíîæåñòâåííîì ÷èñëå äîïîëíèòåëüíûå çíà÷åíèÿ: (è ñ ãëàãîëîì â ñëîâàðíîé ôîðìå): Åäèíñòâåííîå ÷èñëî: Ìíîæåñòâåííîå ÷èñëî: archives – ààêàéâç = àðõèâ/-û binoculars – áàéíîêüþëýñ = áèíîêëü arm – ààì = ðóêà arms – îðóæèå clothes – êëîó,ñ = îäåæäà colour – êàëý = öâåò colours – ôëàãè glasses – ãëààñèç = î÷êè custom – êàñòýì = ïðèâû÷êà customs – òàìîæíÿ jeans – äæüèèíç = äæèíñû good – ãóä = äîáðî goods – òîâàðû pants – ïæíòñ = øòàíû; òðóñû iron – àéýí = æåëåçî irons – íàðó÷íèêè pyjamas – ïýäææàìýç = ïèæàìà pain – ïýéí = áîëü pains – óñèëèÿ scissors – ñèçýñ = íîæíèöû shorts – øü¸îòñ = øîðòû part – ïààò = ÷àñòü parts – öåëîå tights – òàéòñ = êîëãîòêè scale – ñêýéë = ìàñøòàá scales – âåñû. * Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîå “trousers” – òðàóçýñ = «áðþêè» òåïåðü 2. ËÈ×ÍÛÅ ÌÅÑÒÎÈÌÅÍÈß.óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ è â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå “trouser” – òðàóçý (ÿ ñàì âèäåë âî ìíîãèõ áóòèêàõ â Ëîíäîíå); Cóáúåêòíûå: Îáúåêòíûå:Ñóùåñòâèòåëüíûå, èìþùèå ôîðìó ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ÷èñëà, óïîòðåáëÿåìûå ñ ãëàãîëîì â åäèíñòâåííîì ÷èñëå (= “+(e)S”): I: I like Ann. me: Ann likes me. you: You like Ann. you: Ann likes you. àthletics – æ6ëåòèêñ = àòëåòèêà he: He likes Ann. him: Ann likes him. billiards – áèëüýäç = áèëëèàðä, áèëüÿðä she: She likes Ann. her: Ann likes her. draughts – äðîîòñ = øàøêè it: It likes Ann. it: Ann likes it. economics – èêýíîìèêñ = ýêîíîìèêà we: We like Ann. us: Ann likes us. gymnastics – äæüèìíæñòèêñ = ãèìíàñòèêà hysterics – õèñòýðèêñ = èñòåðèÿ you: You like Ann. you: Ann likes you. mathematics – ìæ6èìæòèêñ = ìàòåìàòèêà they: They like Ann. them: Ann likes them. physics – ôèçèêñ = ôèçèêà politics – ïîëèòèêñ = ïîëèòèêà statistics – ñòýòèñòèêñ = ñòàòèñòèêà;290 291
  13. 13. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü3. ÏÐÈÒßÆÀÒÅËÜÍÛÅ ÌÅÑÒÎÈÌÅÍÈß. either … or … – àé,ý … îî … = èëè … èëè …: Either you are wrong or I am. Hå óïîòðåáëÿåìûå Óïîòðåáëÿåìûå Èëè Âû îøèáàåòåñü, èëè ÿ. ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî: ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî: neither – íàé,ý = íè îäèí (èç): My: It’s my car. Mine: It’s mine. Neither of the two is happy. Your: It’s your car. Yours: It’s yours. Íè îäèí èç äâîèõ íå ñ÷àñòëèâ. His: It’s his car. His: It’s his. Her: It’s her car. Hers: It’s hers. neither … nor … – íàé,ý … íîî … = íè ..., íè ...: Its: The bird hurt its wing. Its: It’s its. Íå neither drinks, nor smokes. Our: It’s our car. Ours: It’s ours. Îí íè ïü¸ò, íè êóðèò. Your: It’s your car. Yours: It’s yours. Their: It’s their car. Theirs: It’s theirs. every – ýâðè = êàæäûé: She visits them every third week.4. ÂÎÇÂÐÀÒÍÛÅ ÌÅÑÒÎÈÌÅÍÈß (= «ñåáÿ», «-cÿ»): Îíà ïðèåçæàåò ê íèì êàæäóþ òðåòüþ íåäåëþ. myself – ìàéñýëô –I looked at myself. yourself – ¸îñýëô – You looked at yourself. each – èèò÷ = êàæäûé (èç): himself – õèìñýëô – He looked at himself. They cost a pound each. herself – õœœñýëô – She looked at herself. Îíè ñòîèëè no ôóíòó êàæäàÿ. itself – èòñýëô – It looked at itself. ourselves – àóýñýëâç – We looked at ourselves. 6. ÍÅÎÏÐÅÄÅËÅÍÍÎÅ ÌÅÑÒÎÈÌÅÍÈÅ “OTHER” – à,ý: yourselves – ¸îñýëâç – You looked at yourselves. themselves – ,ýìñýëâç – They looked at themselves. Åäèíñòâåííîå ÷èñëî: other pen = äðóãàÿ/ñëåäóþùàÿ ðó÷êà5. ÍÅÎÏÐÅÄÅËÅÍÍÛÅ ÌÅÑÒÎÈÌÅÍÈß: another pen = äðóãàÿ/åù¸ îäíà ðó÷êà the other pen = (òà) äðóãàÿ ðó÷êà, all – îîë = öåëûé, âåñü: îñòàâøàÿñÿ ðó÷êà; He worked all year round. Îí ðàáîòàë öåëûé ãîä. Ìíîæåñòâåííîå ÷èñëî: other boys = äðóãèå ìàëü÷èêè either – àé,ý = îáà, êàæäûé (èç): the other boys = òå /äðóãèå/îñòàâøèåñÿ ìàëü÷èêè others* are swimming = äðóãèå ïëûâóò/ïëàâàþò Either plan is corect. the others* went = òå /äðóãèå/îñòàâøèåñÿ óøëè Îáà ïëàíà ïðàâèëüíû. * – èñïîëüçóåòñÿ áåç ñóùåñòâèòåëüíîãî.292 293
  14. 14. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü7. ÑÎÑÒÀÂÍÛÅ ÍÅÎÏÐÅÄÅËÅÍÍÛÅ ÌÅÑÒÎÈÌÅÍÈß. Êîðíè: 4: the square root of four SOME: ANY: NO: EVERY: 4: ñàì ýíè íîó ýâðè the cube root of four 4:×ÅËÎÂÅÊ: somebody anybody nobody everybody the n-th root of four; someone anyone no one everyoneÏÐÅÄÌÅÒ: something anything nothing everything Äðîáè: 1/2:ÌÅÑÒÎ: somewhere anywhere nowhere everywhere one halfÂÐÅÌß: sometimes at any time never every time. 1/3: one third 11/13:8. ÎÑÍÎÂÍÛÅ ÀÐÈÔÌÅÒÈ×ÅÑÊÈÅ ÄÅÉÑÒÂÈß. eleven thirteenths. Ñëîæåíèå: 2 + 3 = 5: two plus three equals (or: is) five (èêwýëç). 9. ÎÁÎÇÍÀ×ÅÍÈÅ ÂÐÅÌÅÍÈ è ÄÀÒÛ: Âû÷èòàíèå: 6 – 2 = 4: six minus two equals (or: is) four. Êîòîðûé ÷àñ? = What is the time? Óìíîæåíèå: 2 × 3 = 6: What time is it now? two times three equals (or: is) six. l:00 = it’s one o’clock 3:30 = it’s half past 3 Äåëåíèå: 8 : 2 = 4: 3:00 = it’s three o’clock 3:35 = it’s 25 to 4 eight divided by two equals (or: is) four. 3:05 = it’s 5 past 3 3:40 = it’s 20 to 4 3:10 = it’s 10 past 3 3:45 = it’s a quarter to 4 «Îòâåò ðàâåí 7»: 3:15 = it’s a quarter past 3 3:50 = it’s 10 to 4 the result is 7. 3:20 = it’s 20 past 3 3:55 = it’s 5 to 4 Ñòåïåíè: 42: four squared ß âñòðå÷ó òåáÿ â 1700 = I’ll meet you at 5 p.m. 43: àéë ìèèò þó æò ôàéâ ïèè æì four cubed I’ll meet you at seventeen 00. 44: àéë ìèèò þó æò ñýâýíòèèí îó-îó four to the fourth 4n: Âðåìÿ îò ïîëóíî÷è äî ïîëóäíÿ (ò. å. íî÷ü è óòðî) four to the n-th; îáîçíà÷àåòñÿ ñîêðàùåíèåì a.m. [ei əm]: 5 à.m. – 5 ÷àñîâ óòðà. 10 a.m. – 10 ÷àñîâ óòðà.294 295
  15. 15. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü Âðåìÿ îò ïîëóäíÿ äî ïîëóíî÷è (äåíü è âå÷åð) Ìíå íåëüçÿ: îáîçíà÷àåòñÿ ñîêðàùåíèåì p.m. [pi: əm]: I may not – I may not 5 p.m. = 17:00 èëè «5 ÷àñîâ äíÿ». I must not – I must not 10 p.m. = 22:00 èëè «10 âå÷åðà». I am not to I was not to – I am not allowed to I was not allowed to I will be not allowed to Íî ìîæíî, êîíå÷íî, ñêàçàòü è: Äîëæåí: at 9 in the morning = â 9 óòðà I must – I must at 5 in the afternoon = â 5 ïîñëå îáåäà I have to … I had to … I will have to … at 7 in the evening = â 7 âå÷åðà I am to … I was to … I’ll be to ... at 11 at night = â 11 âå÷åðà. Íå äîëæåí: Ïèøåì: ×èòàåì: I must not I don’t have to … I will not have to … 8th June 1986 = the eighth of June nineteen eighty-six I am not to … I was not to … – June 8th 1986 = June the eighth, nineteen eighty-six. I don’t have to … I didn’t have to … I will not have to … Íå íóæíî:10. ÎÑÍÎÂÍÛÅ (ÌÎÄÀËÜÍÛÅ) ÝËÅÌÅÍÒÛ: I need not/needn’t … – I need not/needn’t … I don’t need to … I didn’t need to … I won’t need to ...Íàñòîÿùåå âð.: Ïðîøåäøåå âð.: Áóäóùåå âð.:Ìîãó, óìåþ: Ìîã, ñ/óìåë: Ñìîãó, ñóìåþ NB. Îáðàòèòå âíèìàíèå íà òî, ÷òî â ïîñëåäíåì ïðèìåðå âèäíî, áóäó â ñîñòîÿíèè: ↑ êàê ðàçíîå ÂÐÅÌß ïîêàçûâàåòñÿ òîëüêî ðàçíûìè îòðèöàòåëüíûìè ÷àñòèöàìè !!!I can I could I canI am able to … I was able to … I will be able to … 11. ÏÎÐßÄÎÊ ÑËΠâ ÏÐÅÄËÎÆÅÍÈÈ:He ìîãó, íå óìåþ: Íå ìîã, íå óìåë: Íå ñìîãó, íå ñóìåþ, íå áóäó â ñîñòîÿíèè: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ïîäëåæàùåå Ñêàçóåìîå Äîïîëíåíèå ÎáñòîÿòåëüñòâîI cannot, I cant I could not, I couldnt I cannot, I cant ÑÓÁÚÅÊÒ: ÃËÀÃÎË: ÎÁÚÅÊÒ: äåéñòâèÿ: ìåñòà: âðåìåíè:I am not able to … I was not able to … I will not able to … Everybody studies languages intensively at school now.Ìíå ìîæíî (ðàçðåøàåòñÿ, ðàçðåøåíî): Íå spoke English fluently at our lesson yesterday.I may – I mayI am allowed to … I was allowed to … I will be allowed to …296 297
  16. 16. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü12. ÏÎÑËÅÄÎÂÀÒÅËÜÍÎÑÒÜ ÂÐĄ̊Í: 14. ÏÎÄ×ÈÍÈÒÅËÜÍÛÅ ÑÎÞÇÛ: Ïðÿìàÿ ðå÷ü: after ïîçäíåå, ïîòîì, ïîñëå Íå said, “I study English every day”. as êîãäà ...; òàêæå êàê è ... He said, “I studied English”. as ... as ... òàê ..., êàê … He said, “I will study English”; as if (as though) ... êàê åñëè áû … as long as … ïîêà …; äî òåõ ïîð, ïîêà íå … Êîñâåííàÿ ðå÷ü: as soon as … êàê òîëüêî … He said (that) he studied English every day. because ïîòîìó ÷òî Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî åæåäíåâíî çàíèìàåòñÿ àíãëèéñêèì. before ðàíåå, äî, ïåðåä if åñëè; åñëè áû Íå said he had studied English. in order that … ÷òîáû; Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî (ðàíüøå) çàíèìàëñÿ àíãëèéñêèì. äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ... in spite of … íåñìîòðÿ íà ... He said (that) he would study English. (the fact that) ... (òîò ôàêò, ÷òî) ... Îí ñêàçàë, ÷òî áóäåò çàíèìàòüñÿ àíãëèéñêèì. lest ÷òîáû íå no sooner ... than … íå ðàíåå, ÷åì ..., íå ïðåæäå, ÷åì ...13. ÑÎÅÄÈÍÈÒÅËÜÍÛÅ ÑÎÞÇÛ: not as (not so) ... as … íå òàê ..., êàê ... provided (that …) ïðè óñëîâèè, ÷òî ...; and à, è ïðè óñëîâèè, åñëè ... as well as ... òàêæå, ðàâíî êàê è ... since ïîñêîëüêó; òàê êàê …; both ... and … è ... è ...; êàê ..., òàê è ... ñ òîãî âðåìåíè êàê ...; but íî, à ñ òîé ïîðû êàê ... so that … ÷òîáû … either ... or … èëè ..., èëè ... so ... that … òàê, ÷òîáû ... for òàê êàê, ïîòîìó, ïîñêîëüêó such ... that … òàêîé, êàê ... however êàê áû òî íè áûëî supposing (that) … åñëè ... , ïðåäïîëàãàÿ, ÷òî ... neither ... nor … íè ..., íè ... till, until äî; êàê òîëüêî ..., nevertheless òåì íå ìåíåå. äî òåõ ïîð êaê ... or èëè, ëèáî ... than ... ..., ÷åì ... so òàê ÷òî, èòàê, ïîýòîìó that ÷òî, ÷òîáû still íî, òåì íå ìåíåå, âåäü though, although õîòÿ, õîòü therefore ïîýòîìó unless ... åñëè íå ... thus òàêèì îáðàçîì, òàê when êîãäà yet íî, õîòÿ, òåì íå ìåíåå where ãäå, êóäà298 299
  17. 17. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü wherever âåçäå; ãäå áû òî íè áûëî, 3) Çàïÿòûìè âñåãäà îòäåëÿþòñÿ îïðåäåë¸ííûå ñëîâà è âûðàæå- ãäå óãîäíî, êóäà óãîäíî íèÿ. whether ëè Ïðåæäå âñåãî ðå÷ü èä¸ò î: while ... ïîêà, â òî âðåìÿ êàê ... however êàê áû òî íè áûëî15. ÓÏÎÒÐÅÁËÅÍÈÅ ÇÀÏßÒÛÕ. nevertheless òåì íå ìåíåå, íåñìîòðÿ íà ... in òó opinion ïî ìîåìó ìíåíèþ Ïðè íàïèñàíèè òåõ èëè èíûõ àíãëèéñêèõ òåêñòîâ çàïÿòàÿ íåîá- therefore ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, ïîýòîìóõîäèìà, â îñíîâíîì, äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ðàçäåëÿòü äëèííûå ïðåäëîæå- indeed íà ñàìîì äåëå, äåéñòâèòåëüíîíèÿ íà áîëåå êîðîòêèå. evidently è obviously âèäèìî, ïîæàëóé, ÿâíî Çà÷àñòóþ îò ñàìîãî àâòîðà òåêñòà çàâèñèò, ïîñòàâèò îí çàïÿòóþ well íó, ...èëè íåò. Åñëè ó Âàñ áóäóò ñîìíåíèÿ – ñòàâèòü èëè íå ñòàâèòü – – ëó÷øå îáîéäèòåñü áåç íå¸! – In my opinion, he was guilty. È íàîáîðîò – åñëè çàïÿòàÿ ïîìîæåò ëó÷øå ïîíÿòü ñìûñë ïðåä- – Ïî ìîåìó ìíåíèþ, îí áûë âèíîâåí.ëîæåíèÿ, òî ëó÷øå å¸ ïîñòàâüòå! – The judge’s opinion, however, was that he was innocent. – Ho no ìíåíèþ ñóäüè, êàê áû òî íè áûëî, îí áûë íåâèíîâåí; Âîò îñíîâíûå ïðàâèëà óïîòðåáëåíèÿ çàïÿòûõ: 1) Åñëè â ñëîæíîñî÷èí¸ííîì ïðåäëîæåíèè åãî ÷àñòè ñîåäèíåíû 4) Çàïÿòîé îòäåëÿþòñÿ ðàâíîçíà÷íûå, íî ïðîòèâîðå÷àùèåñîþçàìè and, or, but, for, nor, neither, yet: äðóã äðóãó âûðàæåíèÿ: – Mary works hard, but her sister is lazy. – His name is Michael, not John. – Ìýðè óïîðíî ðàáîòàåò, íî å¸ ñåñòðà ëåíèâà. – Åãî çîâóò Ìàéêë, à íå Äæîí;NB: Íî â êðàòêèõ ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ çàïÿòûå íå óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ: 5) Çàïÿòàÿ îáÿçàòåëüíà: à) ïåðåä è ïîñëå “PLEASE”: – Mary studied and John played. – Ìýðè ó÷èëàñü, à Äæîí èãðàë; – Can you lend me the book, please? – Âû íå îäîëæèòå ìíå êíèæêó, ïîæàëóéñòà? 2) Çàïÿòûìè âûäåëÿþòñÿ âòîðîñòåïåííûå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ èëè ãðóï-ïû ñëîâ, èìåþùèå ÷èñòî îáúÿñíÿþùóþ ôóíêöèþ, è áåç êîòîðûõ á) ïîñëå “YES” è “NO”:ìîæíî îáîéòèñü: – Yes, I can.– The date of Easter, as is well known, changes from year to year. – Äà, ÿ ìîãó.– Äàòà ïàñõè, êàê ýòî õîðîøî èçâåñòíî, ìåíÿåòñÿ â êàæäîì ãîäó; – No, I cannot. – Íåò, íå ìîãó;300 301
  18. 18. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü â) ïåðåä èëè ïîñëå èìåíè ñîáñòâåííîãî ïðè îáðàùåíèè: 9) Çàïÿòîé ðàçäåëÿþòñÿ äàòû è íàçâàíèÿ ìåñòíîñòåé: - Come in, John! – Íå left May 10, 1998 to go to London. - Âõîäè, Äæîí! – Îí óø¸ë 10 ìàÿ 1998 ãîäà, ÷òîáû îòïðàâèòüñÿ â Ëîíäîí. ã) ïðè ïåðå÷èñëåíèè: – There he met a young woman from Cincinnati, Ohio. ... cars, lorries, ships and planes ... - ìàøèíû, ãðóçîâèêè, – Òàì îí âñòðåòèë äåâóøêó èç Öèíöèííàòè, øòàò Îãàéî; ñóäà è ñàìîë¸òû; ä) åñëè â ñëîæíîì ïðåäëîæåíèè 10) Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà, ñòîÿùèå â íà÷àëå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, îáÿçàòåëü- âòîðîñòåïåííîå ïðåäëîæåíèå ñòîèò ïåðåä ãëàâíûì: íî îòäåëÿþòñÿ çàïÿòîé: – When she returned, I made a cup of coffee. – Outside, a lot of people were waiting for me. – Êîãäà îíà âåðíóëàñü, ÿ ñäåëàë ÷àøêó êîôå; – Ñíàðóæè ìåíÿ æäàëî ìíîæåñòâî ëþäåé; 6) Çàïÿòûìè âûäåëÿþòñÿ äîïîëíèòåëüíûå îáúÿñíåíèÿ: 11) Çàïÿòàÿ ñòàâèòñÿ ïåðåä àëüòåðíàòèâíûì âîïðîñîì: – Mr. Green, the headmaster of our school, told me to write to him. – This house is theirs, isn’t it? – Mp. Ãðèí, äèðåêòîð íàøåé øêîëû, âåëåë ìíå íàïèñàòü åìó; – Ýòîò äîì èõ, íå òàê ëè? 7) Çàïÿòîé âûäåëÿþòñÿ äååïðè÷àñòíûå îáîðîòû: – John wasn’t ill, was he? – Íå came here, having first parked his car. – Äæîí íå áûë áîëåí, íå òàê ëè? – Îí ïðèø¸ë ñþäà, ïðèïàðêîâàâ ñíà÷àëà ñâîþ ìàøèíó; – Jack didn’t find the key, did he? 8) Çàïÿòàÿ óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ â ïðåäëîæåíèÿõ ñ ïðÿìîé ðå÷üþ: – Äæåê íå íàø¸ë êëþ÷à, íå òàê ëè? – She said, “It’s none of your business!”. 16. ÎÑÍÎÂÍÛÅ ÇÍÀ×ÅÍÈß ÏÐÅÄËÎÃÎÂ: – Îíà ñêàçàëà: «Ýòî íå òâî¸ äåëî!». – “By mistakes we learn!”, said John. about – ýáàóò = î, îá; îêîëî; âîêðóã; êðóãîì – «Ìû ó÷èìñÿ íà îøèáêàõ!», – ñêàçàë Äæîí. above – ýáàâ = íàä, âûøå; áîëüøå, ÷åì... across – ýêðîñ = ïîïåðåê; ÷åðåç; ïî òó ñòîðîíó – “In my view”, said the judge, “he is innocent!”. after – ààôòý = ïîñëå (ïî âðåìåíè); – «Ïî ìîåìó ìíåíèþ, – ñêàçàë ñóäüÿ, – îí íåâèíîâåí!»; çà (â ñìûñëå ìåñòà); ïîòîì against – ýãýéíñò = ïðîòèâ (÷åãî-ëèáî, êîãî-ëèáî) along – ýëîíã = âäîëü; ïî among – ýìàíã = ìåæäó; ñðåäè302 303
  19. 19. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòüaround – ýðàóíä = âîêðóã; êðóãîì ÍÀÃËßÄÍÛÅ ÈËËÞÑÒÐÀÖÈÈat – æò = ó; âîçëå; â; ÏÎ ÈÑÏÎËÜÇÎÂÀÍÈÞ ÏÐÅÄËÎÃΠâ (ñî çíà÷åíèåì âðåìåíè)before – áèôîî = äî (ñî çíà÷åíèåì âðåìåíè), ïåðåä (äëÿ îáîçíà÷åíèÿ ìåñòà) about – î, îá They are talking about nature.behind – áèõàéíä = ïîçàäè; çà Îíè ãîâîðÿò î ïðèðîäå.below – áèëîó = ïîä; íèæåbeside – áèñàéä = ðÿäîì ñ; îêîëî about – îêîëî, ïðèìåðíî (â …)between – áèòwèèí = ìåæäó äâóìÿ 8:00 I’ll come about 8 o’clock.beyond – áè¸íä = ïî òó ñòîðîíó; çà Ïðèäó îêîëî âîñüìè.by – áàé = ê (ê êàêîìó-òî ñðîêó); ó; âîçëå; ìèìîduring – äúþýðèíã = â òå÷åíèå; âî âðåìÿ about – âîêðóã, îêîëî (î ìåñòå)except – èêñýïò = çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì She likes to have people about her.for – ôîî = äëÿ; çà Îíà ëþáèò èìåòü ëþäåé âîêðóã ñåáÿ.from – ôðîì = îò; ñin – èí = â (â çíà÷åíèè ìåñòà); above – íàä, âûøå ÷åðåç (â çíà÷åíèè âðåìåíè) The temperature was above average recently.of – îô, îâ = èç; â; 9876543210987654321 Íåäàâíî òåìïåðàòóðà áûëà âûøå ñðåäíåé. 9876543210987654321 9876543210987654321 9876543210987654321 à òàêæå óêàçûâàåò íà ðîäèò. ïàäåæ, ïðèíàäëåæíîñòü across – ÷åðåç, ñêîâçüon – îí = íà (â çíà÷åíèè ìåñòà); ïî; ïîñëå; I helped the blind man across the street. î, îá ß ïîìîã ñëåïîìó ïåðåéòè ÷åðåç óëèöó.out, – àóò,out from àóò ôðîì } = èç across – íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîé ñòîðîíåover – îóâý = íàä; ñâåðõ; ÷åðåç My house is just across the square.through – 6ðóó = ÷åðåç; èç-çà Ìîé äîì ñòîèò íà ïðîòèâîïîëîæíîétill – òèë = äî; âïëîòü äî ñòîðîíå ïëîùàäè.towards – òýwîîäç = ê; ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ êunder – àíäý = ïîä (÷åì-òî) after – ïîñëå, ÷åðåç (î âðåìåíè)up – àï = ââåðõ ïî; ââåðõ She returned after me.with – wè, = ñ Îíà âåðíóëàñü ïîñëå ìåíÿ.304 305
  20. 20. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü against – ïðîòèâ; íà, î(á) before – ïåðåä, äî (î ìåñòå, We discussed the arguments for and against. î ïîñëåäîâàòåëüíîñòè) Ìû îáñóäèëè àðãóìåíòû «çà» è «ïðîòèâ». His name comes before mine on the list. Åãî èìÿ ñòîèò â ñïèñêå ïåðåä ìîèì. He leaned against the wall. Îí îáëîêîòèëñÿ íà (îá) ñòåíó. behind – çà, ñçàäè, ïîçàäè The garden behind your house is beautiful. along – âäîëü, ïî Ñàä, êîòîðûé íàõîäèòñÿ çà òâîèì äîìîì, I love driving along narrow country lanes. âåëèêîëåïåí. Ëþáëþ åçäèòü ïî óçêèì ñåëüñêèì äîðîãàì. below – ïîä, íèæå ÷åì, ïî 9876543210987654321 9876543210987654321 9876543210987654321 9876543210987654321 among – ñðåäè, ìåæäó The water reaches to just below the knees. He was never particularly popular among his Âîäû â ðåêå åäâà ïî êîëåíî. colleagues. Îí íèêîãäà íå áûë ïîïóëÿðåí ñðåäè beside – îêîëî, âáëèçè, ðÿäîì ñ ñâîèõ êîëëåã. She sudddenly got up from beside me and hurried out. around (round) – âîêðóã Îíà âíåçàïíî âñòàëà ñ ìåñòà ðÿäîì ñî The satellite has passed once more around ìíîþ è âûáåæàëà. the Earth. Ñïóòíèê åù¸ ðàç îáëåòåë âîêðóã Çåìëè. between – ìåæäó (äâóìÿ) The train was standing on the border between at – íà, â, ó (î ìåñòå), çà .rance and Spain. He was standing at the window. Ïîåçä ñòîÿë íà ãðàíèöå ìåæäó Îí ñòîÿë ó îêíà. Ôðàíöèåé è Èñïàíèåé. at – ê, ïî, íà, â (íàïðàâëåíèè) beyond – çà, íà äðóãîé ñòîðîíå, ïî äðóãîé ñòîðî- He picked up a stone and threw it at me. íå; ïîçàäè, ñçàäè; âíå Îí ïîäíÿë êàìåíü è áðîñèë åãî â ìåíÿ. Beyond our house we have a long sandy beach. Ïîçàäè íàøåãî äîìà åñòü äëèííûé ïåñ÷àíûé at – â (î âðåìåíè) ïëÿæ. 7:00 He is having breakfast at this moment.  ýòîò ìîìåíò îí çàâòðàêàåò. 54321 543211 by – ó, ïðè, îêîëî 54321 During summer holidays they spent three days 54321 54321 before – ïåðåä, äî, ðàíüøå (î âðåìåíè) 5432 54321 54321 54321 by the sea. I’ll get home an hour before the time. 54321 54321 Âî âðåìÿ ëåòíèõ êàíèêóë îíè ïðîâåëè òðè äíÿ ß ïîïàäó äîìîé íà ÷àñ ðàíüøå. ó ìîðÿ.306 307
  21. 21. 53 àíãëèéñêèå ôîðìóëû Ñïðàâî÷íàÿ ÷àñòü down – âíèç, ïî in – â; ÷åðåç (î âðåìåíè) Steve was running down the hill, crying 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 In the evening I lost my watch in the dark. silently. 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 Âå÷åðîì ÿ ïîòåðÿë ÷àñû â òåìíîòå. Ñòèâ áåæàë âíèç ïî ñêëîíó õîëìà 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 432109876543210987654321 43210987654321098765432 è ìîë÷à ïëàêàë. I’ll be back in a sec. 1 ß âåðíóñü ÷åðåç ñåêóíäó. during – âî âðåìÿ …, â òå÷åíèå …, â òî âðåìÿ êàê … in front of – ïåðåä(î), âïåðåäè 20:00 24:00 During the night a woman was shot dead in the hotel. The car in front of me stopped suddenly Íî÷üþ â îòåëå áûëà çàñòðåëåíà æåíùèíà. and I had to brake. Ìàøèíà ïåðåäî ìíîþ âíåçàïíî îñòàíîâèëàñü, ð for – äëÿ, çà, ðàäè, èç-çà (ïðè÷èíà) è ÿ áûë âûíóæäåí çàòîðìîçèòü. Children couldn’t speak for laughing. Äåòè íå ìîãëè ãîâîðèòü èç-çà ñìåõà. into – â, âîâíóòðü, âíóòðü for – íà, äëÿ (öåëü); â òå÷åíèå Two rivers flow into the Baltic Sea. A poor man brought his old watch for sale. Äâå ðåêè âïàäàþò â Áàëòèéñêîå ìîðå. Áåäíÿê ïðèí¸ñ ñâîè ñòàðûå ÷àñû íà ïðîäàæó. of – î, èç for – íà, â, ê (íàïðàâëåíèå) People who stay abroad often dream of home. Before you take a train for Glasgow, you must home Ëþäè, íàõîäÿùèåñÿ çà ãðàíèöåé, change twice. ÷àñòî ìå÷òàþò î äîìå. Ïåðåä ïîåçäîì íà Ãëàçãî ó Âàñ äâå ïåðåñàäêè. on – íà (î ìåñòå) Their clothes hung on a couple of nails. ð 5432109876543210987654321 for – ê, ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê … 5432109876543210987654321 5432109876543210987654321 5432109876543210987654321 Èõ îäåæäà âèñåëà íà ïàðå ãâîçäåé. 5432109876543210987654321 Her hatred for her husband was obvious. Ÿ íåíàâèñòü ê ìóæó áûëà î÷åâèäíîé. on – çà, ïîñëå (î âðåìåíè) for – çà (÷òî-òî), âçàìåí çà … A long period of peace followed on the war. I paid two pounds for the new textbook. Äîëãèé ïåðèîä ìèðà ïîñëåäîâàë ß çàïëàòèë äâà ôóíòà çà íîâûé ó÷åáíèê. ïîñëå âîéíû. from – èç, îò out of – èç Our cottage stands ten miles from the coast. With your passport you can’t travel out of Russia. Íàø êîòòåäæ íàõîäèòñÿ â 10 ìèëÿõ Ñ Âàøèì ïàñïîðòîì Âû íå ìîæåòå âûåõàòü îò ïîáåðåæüÿ. èç Ðîññèè.308 309

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