Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
MOTIVATION & THEORIES
DEFINED:
Motivation can be defined as a process which energizes,
directs and sustains human behavior.
In HRM the term refe...
WHY IS MOTIVATION IMPORTANT?
Motivation is important in getting and retaining people.
Motivation tools act as the glue tha...
THE MOTIVATION PROCESS
Core Phases of the Motivational Process:
Need Identification: First phase of motivation process is ...
CONTINUE..
Selecting Goals: Once if the need is assessed and employee is able to find
out the way to satisfy the need than...
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES
Abraham Maslow organized five major types of human needs into a
hierarchy, The need hierarchy illust...
EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH (ERG)
THEORY
Alderfer focuses on three needs: existence, relatedness, and
growth. Existence n...
MCGREGOR’S THEORY-X AND THEORY-Y
McGregor’s Theory-X represented the traditional management view that
employees are lazy, ...
EXPECTANCY THEORY
Expectancy theory states that a person’s motivation to exert
a certain level of effort is a function of ...
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
In 1911, psychologist Edward Thorndike formulated the law effect:
Behavior that is followed by positi...
CONTINUE..
Negative Reinforcement- removing or withholding an undesirable
consequence. For example, a manager takes an emp...
HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR APPROACH
Herzberg Two-Factor theory divides Maslow’s Hierarchy into a lower-
level and a higher-leve...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Motivation

Motivation

  • Login to see the comments

Motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION & THEORIES
  2. 2. DEFINED: Motivation can be defined as a process which energizes, directs and sustains human behavior. In HRM the term refers to person’s desire to do the best possible job or to exert the maximum effort to perform assigned tasks. An important feature of motivation is that it is behavior directed towards goal
  3. 3. WHY IS MOTIVATION IMPORTANT? Motivation is important in getting and retaining people. Motivation tools act as the glue that links individuals to organizational goals, In addition, make individuals go beyond the job and be creative.
  4. 4. THE MOTIVATION PROCESS Core Phases of the Motivational Process: Need Identification: First phase of motivation process is need identification where the employee feels his/her some unsatisfied need. The motivation process begins with an unsatisfied need, which creates tension and drives an individual to search for goals that, if attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension. Searching Ways to satisfy needs: Second phase is finding the different alternatives that can be used to satisfy the needs, which were felt in first stage. These needs lead to thought processes that guide an employee’s decision to satisfy them and to follow a particular course of action
  5. 5. CONTINUE.. Selecting Goals: Once if the need is assessed and employee is able to find out the way to satisfy the need than next phase is selection of goals to be performed. Employee Performance: These needs lead to thought processes that guide an employee’s decision to satisfy them and to follow a particular course of action in form of performance. Consequences of performance: Reassessment of Need deficiencies:
  6. 6. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Abraham Maslow organized five major types of human needs into a hierarchy, The need hierarchy illustrates Maslow’s conception of people satisfying their needs in a specified order, from bottom to top ascending order, are: 1.Physiological (food, water, and shelter.) 2. Safety or security (protection against threat and deprivation) 3. Social (friendship, affection, belonging, and love) 4.Self Esteem (independence, achievement, freedom, status, recognition, and self-esteem) 5.Self-actualization (realizing one’s full potential; becoming everything one is capable of being.)
  7. 7. EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH (ERG) THEORY Alderfer focuses on three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological needs, and to the physical components of Maslow’s security needs. Relatedness needs are those that require interpersonal interaction to satisfy the needs for things like prestige and esteem from others. Growth needs are similar to Maslow’s needs for self-esteem and self-actualization.
  8. 8. MCGREGOR’S THEORY-X AND THEORY-Y McGregor’s Theory-X represented the traditional management view that employees are lazy, was uninterested in work, and needed to be prodded to perform. In contrast his theory Y viewed employees as creative, complex, and mature individuals interested in meaningful work. McGregor believed that under the right circumstances, employees would willingly contribute their ingenuity and their talents for the benefits of the organization. In McGregor’s view the mangers role was not to manipulate employees but to align their needs with needs of the organization so that employees would regulate their own actions and performance. These insights lead researches to investigate the origins and processes of motivation more closely.
  9. 9. EXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy theory states that a person’s motivation to exert a certain level of effort is a function of three things: expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valance (V). Motivation = E x I x V. “E” is the person’s expectancy that his or her effort will lead to performance, “I” represents the perceived relationship between successful performance and obtaining the reward, and “V” refers to the perceived value the person attaches to the reward.
  10. 10. REINFORCEMENT THEORY In 1911, psychologist Edward Thorndike formulated the law effect: Behavior that is followed by positive consequences probably will be repeated. This powerful law of behavior laid the foundation for country investigations into the effects of the positive consequences, called rein forcers that motivate behavior. Positive Reinforcement- applying a valued consequence that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it. Examples of positive reinforces include compliments, letters of commendation, favorable performance evaluations, and pay raises. Equally important, jobs can be positively reinforcing. Performing well on interesting, challenging, or enriched jobs is much more reinforcing, and therefore motivating, then performing well on jobs that are routine and monotonous.
  11. 11. CONTINUE.. Negative Reinforcement- removing or withholding an undesirable consequence. For example, a manager takes an employee (or a school takes a student) off probation because of improved performance. Frequent threatening memos admonished people to achieve every one of their many performance goals
  12. 12. HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR APPROACH Herzberg Two-Factor theory divides Maslow’s Hierarchy into a lower- level and a higher-level set of needs, and suggests that the best way to provide motivation for an employee is to offer to satisfy the person’s higher-order needs, ego and self -actualization. Herzberg said that lower-order needs, or hygiene factors, are different from higher-order needs, or motivators. He maintains that adding more hygiene factors to the job is a very bad way to motivate because lower- order needs are quickly satisfied

×