Motivation can be defined as a process which energizes,
directs and sustains human behavior.
In HRM the term refers to person’s desire to do the best
possible job or to exert the maximum effort to perform
assigned tasks. An important feature of motivation is that it is
behavior directed towards goal
WHY IS MOTIVATION IMPORTANT?
Motivation is important in getting and retaining people.
Motivation tools act as the glue that links individuals to
organizational goals, In addition, make individuals go beyond
the job and be creative.
THE MOTIVATION PROCESS
Core Phases of the Motivational Process:
Need Identification: First phase of motivation process is need
identification where the employee feels his/her some unsatisfied
need. The motivation process begins with an unsatisfied need, which
creates tension and drives an individual to search for goals that, if
attained, will satisfy the need and reduce the tension.
Searching Ways to satisfy needs: Second phase is finding the
different alternatives that can be used to satisfy the needs, which
were felt in first stage. These needs lead to thought processes that
guide an employee’s decision to satisfy them and to follow a
particular course of action
Selecting Goals: Once if the need is assessed and employee is able to find
out the way to satisfy the need than next phase is selection of goals to be
Employee Performance: These needs lead to thought processes that
guide an employee’s decision to satisfy them and to follow a particular
course of action in form of performance.
Consequences of performance:
Reassessment of Need deficiencies:
Abraham Maslow organized five major types of human needs into a
hierarchy, The need hierarchy illustrates Maslow’s conception of
satisfying their needs in a specified order, from bottom to top
ascending order, are:
1.Physiological (food, water, and shelter.)
2. Safety or security (protection against threat and deprivation)
3. Social (friendship, affection,
belonging, and love)
4.Self Esteem (independence, achievement, freedom, status,
recognition, and self-esteem)
5.Self-actualization (realizing one’s full potential; becoming
everything one is capable of being.)
EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH (ERG)
Alderfer focuses on three needs: existence, relatedness, and
growth. Existence needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological
needs, and to the physical components of Maslow’s security
needs. Relatedness needs are those that require
interpersonal interaction to satisfy the needs for things like
prestige and esteem from others. Growth needs are similar
to Maslow’s needs for self-esteem and self-actualization.
MCGREGOR’S THEORY-X AND THEORY-Y
McGregor’s Theory-X represented the traditional management view that
employees are lazy, was uninterested in work, and needed to be prodded
In contrast his theory Y viewed employees as creative, complex, and
mature individuals interested in meaningful work. McGregor believed
that under the right circumstances, employees would willingly contribute
their ingenuity and their talents for the benefits of the organization.
In McGregor’s view the mangers role was not to manipulate employees
but to align their needs with needs of the organization so that employees
would regulate their own actions and performance. These insights lead
researches to investigate the origins and processes of motivation more
Expectancy theory states that a person’s motivation to exert
a certain level of effort is a function of three things:
expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valance (V).
Motivation = E x I x V.
“E” is the person’s expectancy that his or her effort will lead
“I” represents the perceived relationship between successful
performance and obtaining the reward, and
“V” refers to the perceived value the person attaches to the
In 1911, psychologist Edward Thorndike formulated the law effect:
Behavior that is followed by positive consequences probably will be
This powerful law of behavior laid the foundation for country
investigations into the effects of the positive consequences, called rein
forcers that motivate behavior.
Positive Reinforcement- applying a valued consequence that increases
the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it.
Examples of positive reinforces include compliments, letters of
commendation, favorable performance evaluations, and pay raises.
Equally important, jobs can be positively reinforcing. Performing well
on interesting, challenging, or enriched jobs is much more reinforcing,
and therefore motivating, then performing well on jobs that are
routine and monotonous.
Negative Reinforcement- removing or withholding an undesirable
consequence. For example, a manager takes an employee (or a school
takes a student) off probation because of improved performance.
Frequent threatening memos admonished people to achieve every one
of their many performance goals
HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR APPROACH
Herzberg Two-Factor theory divides Maslow’s Hierarchy into a lower-
level and a higher-level set of needs, and suggests that the best way to
provide motivation for an employee is to offer to satisfy the person’s
higher-order needs, ego and self -actualization.
Herzberg said that lower-order needs, or hygiene factors, are different
from higher-order needs, or motivators. He maintains that adding more
hygiene factors to the job is a very bad way to motivate because lower-
order needs are quickly satisfied