finding networks of likeminded people and engaging in joined activities. </li></ul>(Joinson, 2008) <br /><ul><li>Entertainment
(Valenzuela et al, 2008)</li></li></ul><li>Literature Review <br />Connection between Facebook use and social capital <br />Creating, maintaining and expanding a network of weak and strong ties (Ellison, 2007, Acquisti & Gross, 2006) <br />Facebook use positively correlates with social trust, civic participation, and political engagement (Valenzuela et al, 2008)<br /><ul><li>The higher the “intensity of use” the higher is the degree of participation. </li></li></ul><li>Literature review <br />Participatory culture (Jenkins, 2006)<br /><ul><li>artistic expression
A digital divide measure (Chen and Wellman, 2004)
Media literacies and social skills (Jenkins, 2006) </li></ul>Media literacies (Livingstone, 2004) <br />- “The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a variety of forms” (p. 5) <br />
Literature review <br />Facebook in the Arab world <br />Social networking sites (SNS) as source of empowerment and inclusion (Bakkar, 2008) <br /> Internet and SNS redefined communication in the Arab world. <br />Shen and Khalifa study, 2009<br /><ul><li>Facebook as a space for self exploration and identity construction
Highly integrated in the respondents’ daily life
More significant in the lives of females than males
Facebook and other SNS are playing a transformative role in the Arab world</li></li></ul><li>Directions for future research <br />Facebook use depends on the users interaction to achieve full potential of the system (Lampe et al, 2008) <br /><ul><li>Lack of research on patterns of participatory culture in Facebook</li></ul>Focus on developed countries, especially the United States (Shen and Shakir, 2009) <br /><ul><li>More research in less advantaged countries to further understand the digital divide. </li></ul> Limited research on the relationship between the culture and SNS use. <br /><ul><li>The need to understand the social and cultural context </li></li></ul><li>Research questions <br />How do Tunisians youth use Facebook?<br />RQ1- What do Tunisian youth do on Facebook to maintain their social networks? <br />RQ2- What kinds of activities do Tunisian youth do on Facebook?<br />Are there traits of participatory culture in Tunisians use of Facebook? <br />RQ3- Do Tunisian youth users post and share products of their own creation on Facebook? <br />RQ4- Do Tunisian Facebook users post analysis or responses to mainstream media content? <br />RQ5- Do Tunisian Facebook users engage in group creation of content? <br />
Methodology <br />Instrument: Web survey<br />Population: Tunisian youth and adults18-35 years old<br />Sampling: Snowball technique <br />Process: distribution of the survey link through networks of friends<br />
Operationalization<br />1- Patterns of use: <br /><ul><li>Managing social networks: people searching and browsing, commenting on friends’ contents, and responding to messages.
Activities: status update, sharing and forwarding content created by others or from the media, posting pictures and photographs, and playing games. </li></ul>2- Participatory culture: <br /><ul><li>Self-created content: art work, slideshows about an issue, a cause, an event, etc
Responses to media content: independently written articles or blog entries, analyses, critique, etc.
Group content creation: activities users engage in with likeminded people to support a cause, respond to media content, or as a response to social issues or problems. </li>