Drama In The 18th Century England


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Drama In The 18th Century England

  1. 1. Drama in the 18th Century England
  2. 2. English Drama <ul><li>Introduced to England by the Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>A uditoriums were constructed across the country . </li></ul><ul><li>By medieval period the mummers’ plays had developed with the Morris dance. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrating on themes like Saint George and the Dragon and Robin Hood. </li></ul><ul><li>Actors travelled from town to town. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays with Christian themes were performed at religious festivals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Begin of Drama in England I <ul><li>1500—1660 English Renaissance - the flowering of the drama. </li></ul><ul><li>16th century - morality play Everyman , and the the earliest comedy in English Nicholas Udall's Ralph Roister Doister and the anonymous Gammer Gurton's Needle . </li></ul><ul><li>H istories , comedies and tragedies. </li></ul><ul><li>Important playwrights: William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, and John Webster. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Begin of Drama in England II <ul><li>1649—1660 - theatres were kept closed by the Puritan s. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Restoration theatres were reopened – support of Charles II. </li></ul><ul><li>The first professional actresses. </li></ul><ul><li>H eroic drama, pathetic drama, and Restoration comedy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Elizabethan age and the Restoration <ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>D rama - spontaneous and origina l. </li></ul><ul><li>C omedy at its height is creative . </li></ul><ul><li>The Elizabethans were fond of blending tragedy with comedy . </li></ul><ul><li>A dapted freely materials from various sources . </li></ul><ul><li>Critical </li></ul><ul><li>Drama - arti- ficial and imitative. </li></ul><ul><li>C omedy at its best is imitative of the fashions and follies of the beau monde . </li></ul><ul><li>The Restoration playwrights seperated comedy and tragedy. </li></ul><ul><li>O ften borrowed and matter from Continental models. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Restoration comedies <ul><li>Clever and b rilliant in their reflection of the glittering immorality . </li></ul><ul><li>Tone too offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>T he conditions of the theater had come to be like those in France . </li></ul>
  7. 7. 18th century <ul><li>Restoration comedy lost favour. </li></ul><ul><li>S entimental comedy, domestic tragedy ( George Lillo's The London Merchant 1731 ) became popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair-booth burlesque and musical entertainment flourished at the expense of legitimate English drama. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 19th century dramas were presented more privately than on stage. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Comedy-of-Manner <ul><li>S uited to the limitations of the 18 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatists more know by their comedies than their tragedies. </li></ul><ul><li>W ere composed in imitation of French models ( Moliére ) </li></ul><ul><li>After M olière's death the type of comedy had been taken across to England . </li></ul><ul><li>D ramatists of the Restoration had tried to absorb Molière's method . </li></ul><ul><li>Molière – clean-minded, t he English dramatists - foul in phrase , filthy in thought . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sentimental-comedy <ul><li>S howed virtue rewarded by domestic bliss . </li></ul><ul><li>P lo ts involving unbelievably good middle‐class couples . </li></ul><ul><li>E mphasized pathos rather than humour . </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneered by Richard Steele in The Funeral (1701) and in The Conscious Lovers (1722) . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Domestic Tragedy <ul><li>T he main characters - ordinary people . </li></ul><ul><li>A Warning for Faire Women (1599), deals with the murder of a merchant by his wife. </li></ul><ul><li>B ecame popular in the mid-18th century . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sir John Vanbrugh (1666-1726) <ul><li>T he son of a rich sugar-baker in London . </li></ul><ul><li>Born whether in France or England . </li></ul><ul><li>Architect and dramatist. </li></ul><ul><li>Vanbrugh's comedies in 1697 are The Relapse, The Provoked Wife,The Confederacy , and the first sketch of The Provoked Husband  finished by Colley Cibber. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Jospeh Addison (1672-1719) <ul><li>B orn at Milston, Wiltshire, in 1672. </li></ul><ul><li>A student at the Charter House . </li></ul><ul><li>1687 enter ed Queen's College, Oxford . </li></ul><ul><li>P ublished Account of the Greatest English Poets . </li></ul><ul><li>T he drama essays sum up the rationalistic tendency of criticism in the early 18 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>C ondemned English tragedy - was not sufficiently moral . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hannah Cowley (1743-1809) <ul><li>English dramatist and poet. </li></ul><ul><li>M arried Mr. Cowley, of the East India Company's service. </li></ul><ul><li>First play Runaway. </li></ul><ul><li>Other pieces: The Belle's Stratagem, Albina, Countess Raimond, A Bold Stroke for a Husband, More Ways than One, and A School for Greybeards,  or The Mourning Bride . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Richard Cumberland(1732-1811) <ul><li>Dramatic and miscellaneous writer. </li></ul><ul><li>E ducated at Westminster and Cambridge . </li></ul><ul><li>P rivate secretary to Lord Halifax, Crown agent for Nova Scotia, assistant-secretary (and afterwards secretary) to the Board of Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The Banishment of Cicero (1761) . </li></ul><ul><li>A volume of dramatic works by him was published in 1813. </li></ul>
  15. 15. George Lillo (1693-1739) <ul><li>A jeweller in London. </li></ul><ul><li>A prudent and industrious tradesman . </li></ul><ul><li>D ramatic works consist of tragedies of domestic life . </li></ul><ul><li>C omposed in verse and in prose. </li></ul><ul><li>The principal of them are George Barnwell, The Fatal Curiosity , and Arden of Feversham . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thank you for listening! 