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Gerunds and Infinitives

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Descripción de como usar el gerundio y el infinitivo en Inglés.

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Gerunds and Infinitives

  1. 1. GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES. <ul><li>By Teacher: </li></ul><ul><li>RAFAEL PERNETT LEDESMA. </li></ul>Chimichagua - Cesar Institución Educativa “ Cerveleón Padilla Lascarro”. 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by the infinitive with to or the –ing form. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning is usually the same. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>It is a noun made </li></ul><ul><li>from a verb by adding &quot;-ing“. </li></ul>Walk ing Talk ing Think ing Listen ing
  4. 4. <ul><li>You can use it as: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading helps you learn English. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement: </li></ul><ul><li>Her favorite hobby is reading . </li></ul><ul><li>The object of a sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy reading . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Can be made negative by adding &quot;not&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>He enjoys not working . </li></ul><ul><li>The best thing for your health is not smoking . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Are the &quot; to &quot; form of the verb </li></ul>To Walk To Talk To Think To Listen
  7. 7. <ul><li>You can use it as: </li></ul><ul><li>The subject: </li></ul><ul><li> To learn is important. </li></ul><ul><li>The complement: </li></ul><ul><li> The most important thing is to learn . </li></ul><ul><li>The object of a sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>He wants to learn . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Can be made negative by adding &quot;not&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I decided not to go . </li></ul><ul><li>The most important thing is not to give up . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. </li></ul><ul><li>If this sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Examples: <ul><li>Learning is important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NORMAL SUBJECT. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To learn is important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABSTRACT SUBJECT - LESS COMMON. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The most important thing is learning . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NORMAL COMPLEMENT. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The most important thing is to learn . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABSTRACT COMPLEMENT - LESS COMMON. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>He enjoys swimming . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;ENJOY&quot; REQUIRES A GERUND. </li></ul><ul><li>He wants to swim . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;WANT&quot; REQUIRES AN INFINITIVE. </li></ul>Examples:
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>She suggested going to a movie. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary keeps talking about her problems. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Some verbs are followed by infinitives. </li></ul><ul><li>List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>She wants to go to a movie. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary needs to talk about her problems. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Remember . . . <ul><li>Only gerunds can be the object of a preposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>We are talking about writing in English. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>It is often difficult to know when to use a gerund and when to use an infinitive. These guidelines may help you: </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds are often used when actions are real, concrete or completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I stopped smoking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future : </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>I stopped to smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>(I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>BOLTON, David and GOODEY, Noel. English Grammar in Steps. Richmond Publishing. London, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>h ttp://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/gerinf.htm </li></ul>

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