03 the eu law


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03 the eu law

  1. 1. Sources, resources, significance, methods<br />The EU law <br />
  2. 2. Today<br />Types (sources) of European law<br />Main characteristics<br />How to find them<br />
  3. 3. European law<br />In a broadersense: law of all European internationalorganisations, Europeanstates<br />In a tightersense: law of the European Union<br />
  4. 4. European Union law<br />Primary law<br />International agreements <br />Secondary law<br />Case-law of the Court<br />Other documents<br />
  5. 5. Primary law<br />Written<br />Treaties, protocols, declarations<br />Unwritten<br />General principles<br />Fundamental rights<br />
  6. 6. Written primary law<br />Foundingtreaties<br />Amendingtreaties<br />Accessiontreaties<br />Protocols, declarations<br />
  7. 7. Founding treaties<br />1951 TreatyontheEuropean Coal and Steel Community–expiredin 2002<br />1957 TreatyontheEuropean Economic Community <br />1957 TreatyontheEuropean Atomic Energy Community<br />1992 TreatyontheEuropean Union<br />
  8. 8. Treaty name changes<br />1957 TreatyontheEuropean Economic Community <br />1992 Treatyonthe European Community<br />2009 TreatyontheFunctioning of the European Union<br />
  9. 9. Treatiesinforcein 2011<br />Treatyonthe European Union (TEU)<br />Treatyonthefunctioning of the European Union (TFEU)<br />TreatyontheEuropean Atomic Energy Community<br />
  10. 10. Treaty articles re-numbered<br />Amendments introduce new articles <br />23/A etc.<br />Maastricht Treaty <br />TEU articles with letters<br />Amsterdam Treaty – re-numbered <br />249 (ex.189)<br />Lisbon Treaty – re-numbers<br />288 [ex. 249 (ex. 189)]<br />
  11. 11. Amending treaties<br />1965 Merger Treaty<br />1970 Treaty amending certain budgetary provisions<br />1975 Treaty amending certain financial provisions<br />1976 Act on the direct election of the European Parliament<br />1984 Greenland Treaty<br />
  12. 12. Amending treaties<br />1986 Single European Act<br />1992 Treatyonthe European Union<br />1997 Treaty of Amsterdam<br />2000 Treaty of Nice<br />2009 Treaty of Lisbon<br />
  13. 13. Accession treaties<br />1972 Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom<br />1979 Greece<br />1985 Spain, Portugal<br />1994 Austria, Finland, Sweden<br />2003 Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus, Malta<br />2005 Bulgaria, Romania<br />
  14. 14. Protocols, declarations<br />Protocols<br />Part of theTreaty, maynotderogatefromthebasicprovisions<br />Declarations<br />Of MemberStatesor IGC – notbinding<br />
  15. 15. Adoption of written primary law<br />Bymutualagreement of theMemberStates<br />Signing a Treaty<br />Ratification<br />
  16. 16. AmendmentprocedureTEU Art. 48 - Ordinaryrevisionprocedure<br />Member State, the European Parliament or the Commission may propose the amendment of the Treaties<br />submitted to the European Council by the Council and the national Parliaments notified<br />Convention <br />representatives of the national Parliaments, <br />of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States, <br />of the European Parliament and <br />of the Commission. <br />European Central Bank consulted<br />recommendation<br />No Convention <br />representatives of the governments of the Member States determining by common accord the amendments <br />enter into force after being ratified by all the Member States in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements.<br />
  17. 17. AmendmentprocedureTEU Art. 48 - Simplifiedrevisionprocedures<br />European Council may adopt a decision amending all or part of the provisions of Part Three of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. <br />European Council shall act by unanimity after consulting the European Parliament and the Commission, and the European Central Bank in the case of institutional changes in the monetary area. That decision shall not enter into force until it is approved by the Member States in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements. <br />The decision referred to in the second subparagraph shall not increase the competences conferred on the Union in the Treaties<br />Council to act by unanimity -> qualified majority in that area or in that case. This subparagraph shall not apply to decisions with military implications or those in the area of defence. <br />special legislative procedure -> ordinary legislative procedure. <br />notified to the national Parliamentsact by unanimity after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament, which shall be given by a majority of its component members<br />
  18. 18. Unwritten primary law<br />General principles<br />Fundamentalrights<br />Art 19 TEU: The Court of Justice of the European Union […] shall ensure that in the interpretation and application of the Treaties the law is observed. <br />
  19. 19. General principles<br />equal treatment<br />prohibition to abuse the law<br />unjust enrichment<br />vis maior<br />precautionary principle<br />prevent risks <br />prevent damage<br />access to law <br />access to documents <br />
  20. 20. Fundamentalrights<br />No mention in EEC Treaty<br />Recognizedbythe European Court of Justice<br />Treaty of European Union: shall respect fundamental rights<br />Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union solemnly proclaimed in Nice<br />has no force of law<br />is addressed to union institutions, Member States when applying union law<br />includedinthe 2nd part of theConstitutionalTreaty<br />LisbonTreaty: the same legal value as the Treaties<br />
  21. 21. Wide recognition of human rights<br />Human dignity, right to life<br />Protection of personal data<br />Freedom of conscience, thought, religion, expression, information<br />Non-discrimination, rights of the child<br />Fair and just working conditions, prohibition of child labour<br />Presumption of innocence, right to a fair hearing<br />…<br />
  22. 22. Questions?<br />
  23. 23. International law<br />International agreements of theEuropean Union<br />International agreements of MemberStateswiththirdcountries (non-membercountries)<br />Otherrules of internationallaw<br />Participation of the EU ininternationalorganizations<br />MemberStates’ agreementswitheachother<br />
  24. 24. Secondarylaw, Art.288-292 TEU<br />Legislativeacts<br />Delegatedacts<br />Implementingacts<br />To exercise the Union’s competences, the institutions shall adopt regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions. <br />
  25. 25. Regulation<br />has general application<br />binding in its entirety<br />directly applicable in all Member States<br />Directive<br />binding, as to the result to be achieved<br />for each Member State to which it is addressed<br />but leaves to the national authorities the choice of form and methods<br />Decision<br />binding in its entirety <br />Ifaddressed, bindingforthose to whom it is addressed<br />Recommendations and opinions <br />have no binding force<br />
  26. 26. Delegatedacts<br />legislative act may delegate to the Commission the power<br />to adopt non-legislative acts of general application to supplement or amend certain non-essential elements of the legislative act. <br />The objectives, content, scope and duration of the delegation of power explicitly defined in the legislative acts. <br />The essential elements of an area arereserved for the legislative act<br />
  27. 27. Implementingacts<br />Member States adopt all measures of national law necessary to implement legally binding Union acts. <br />Ifuniform conditions for implementing legally binding Union acts are needed, these acts confer implementing powers <br />on the Commission, <br />oron the Council.<br />
  28. 28. Court of Justice case-law<br />formally: interpreting and applying other sources of law<br />in reality: extending EUlegal order, developingEuropeanlaw<br />
  29. 29. Otherdocuments<br />Interinstitutionalagreements<br />Action programme<br />Resolution<br />Declaration<br />Communication<br />…<br />
  30. 30. PRIMARY LAW<br />INTERNATIONAL LAW<br />SECONDARY LAW<br />CASE-LAW<br />Legislativeacts<br />Implementingacts<br />Delegatedacts<br />OTHER DOCUMENTS<br />
  31. 31. Primacy<br />EU lawtakesprecedence over anyconflictingnationallaw<br />National courts and authoritieshavetointerpretnationallawinconformitywithEU law<br />National courts and otherpublicbodies must setasidetheconflictingnationalprovisions<br />MemberStateshavetonullifyunlawfulconsequences of a breach of EU law<br />
  32. 32. Direct applicability<br />regulations <br />automatically form part of the highest provisions of a Member State legal system<br />no need to transpose it<br />
  33. 33. Directeffect (alsocalleddirectapplicability)<br />someTreatyprovisions, articles of regulations, directives, internationalagreements<br />conferrightsonindividuals<br />enforcableatnationalcourts<br />Notall, must be<br />Clear and precise<br />Unconditional<br />Intendedtogivea specificright<br />do not call for additional measures<br />no discretion regarding implementation<br />
  34. 34. Indirecteffect<br />directives<br />dutyfornationalcourtstointerpretnationallawinconformitywithdirective<br />
  35. 35. Languagesinthe EU<br />http://www.youtube.com/user/eutube#p/a/f/0/Afk9hE7qptA<br />23 officiallanguages<br />Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish<br />All of EU lawtranslatedintoallofficiallanguages<br />Workinglanguages:<br />French, English, (German)<br />Preparatorydocuments, internalcommunication<br />
  36. 36. EU LAW DATABASES<br />
  37. 37. OFFICIAL DATABASES<br />EUR-LEX<br />http://eur-lex.europa.eu<br />PRELEX - Commission<br />http://ec.europa.eu/prelex/<br />OEIL - Parliament<br />http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/<br />Institutions’ document registers<br />http://www.europa.eu/documents/registers/index_en.htm<br />
  38. 38. INDEPENDENT DATABASES<br />EUROPEAN NAVIGATOR<br />http://www.ena.lu/<br />ARCHIVE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION<br />http://aei.pitt.edu/<br />
  39. 39. Signupforpresentations!<br />
  40. 40. MootCourtcase<br />The case of Mr. Eko<br />
  41. 41. Find…<br />relevant (important) factsinthecase<br />lookatthequestions<br />findtherulesreferencedinthem<br />European lawrelatingtothesefacts<br />
  42. 42. 1st question<br />Can an international sporting federation apply to a professional sportsman from Ghanaa rule according to which clubs must field in league and cup matches a minimum number of domestically trained players, even though this rule applies irrespective of nationality? <br />Are the specific requirements imposed by the Vittoria F.A. to register certain professional football players compatible with the immigration policies relating to free of movement of persons in the EU? <br />