Managing Accessibility Compliance in the Enterprise<br />Karl Groves<br />Director of Training, Deque Systems<br />Phone: ...
Agenda<br />Defining the problem<br />Solving the Problem<br />Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Managing Compliance<br...
Defining The Problem<br />
Defining the Problem<br />Objective: Understand the ways in which accessibility is often mishandled in large organizations...
Defining the Problem<br />Accessibility compliance is often backwards<br />Testing & compliance efforts often happen after...
Defining the Problem<br />Accessibility is often not part of the process<br />Should be included in all phases of the life...
Defining the Problem<br />Staff often lack training on accessibility<br />Executives<br />Human Resources<br />Project Man...
Defining the Problem<br />Accessibility policy & procedure not formalized<br />Not part of ELC/ SDLC<br />No formal confor...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Solving the Problem<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Where does the organization stand nowwith respect to Accessibility Policy & Procedure...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Is there a formal program in place to manage accessibility compliance?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Who is tasked with coordinating accessibility compliance?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the org. have a PMO (Project Management Office)?<br />PMO might also be Program ...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the organization have a documented SDLC/ ELC?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Has accessibility been placed into your ELC/ SDLC processes?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does language exist in your procurement/ specification development documents which di...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Are deliverables validated for accessibility before acceptance?<br />Is code validate...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What internal training is in place to educate QA/ development staff in accessibility?...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What technologies are under development by the company?<br />Web?<br />Software?<br /...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />For Web: What technologies are used on the web?<br />JavaScript/ DOM Scripting?<br />...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Who performs testing to ensure accessibility?<br />Developers?<br />QA Dept.?<br />UX...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What software/ tools are in use by the development team to assess accessibility?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />If they use an enterprise-class tool, have they had any formal training in how to use...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Is there a formalized (documented) accessibility auditing methodology in place?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />To what standards are the company’s products developed/ tested against?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What formal training does the typical developer have in accessibility?<br />What form...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Do the testers use assistive technologies to perform tests?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Have they documented the conformance criteria for the standards against which they’ve...
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the company test their system(s) using users with disabilities?<br />
Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the company test for functional performance?<br />
Organizational Maturity: A Customer Story<br />Conducted an Accessibility Skills Assessment Survey for a client with about...
 55% of the skills questions were answered incorrectly across all 4 areas
 23% of the respondents had some formal training in accessibility
 22% had training* in the workplace on Accessibility (not formal training)
 21% seek out accessibility knowledge online through web sites and blogs
 3% of those tested attended an accessibility related event
 0% have purchased books on the topic</li></li></ul><li>Managing Compliance<br />Solving the Problem<br />
Managing Compliance<br />How can we address the shortcomings found in our organization’s level of maturity with regard to ...
Managing Compliance: High Level<br />Train, train, train<br />Institutionalize conformance<br />Plan compliance a head of ...
Remediation vs. Doing it Right<br />Avg. cost per defect = (num of devs * num of hours) * cost per dev per hour<br />     ...
Project Management Approaches<br />Managing Compliance<br />
Project Management Approaches	<br />Remember this: It is hard to stop a moving train. Accessibility must be managed early ...
Waterfall Model<br />
Planning Phase<br />Determine what risk is involved re: accessibility<br />Determine the overall impact accessibility may ...
Requirements Phase<br />Identify accessibility stakeholders<br />For each feature/ technology in use, determine what stand...
Procurement<br />Investigate what conformance requirements exist for deliverable<br />Communicate this in all solicitation...
Design Phase<br />Utilize deliverables from planning & requirements phases to inform design phase<br />Revisit/ revise con...
Development Phase<br />Get ahead of accessibility issues. This is the last viable chance to prevent problems<br />Revisit/...
Testing<br />Thorough testing required<br />Test against formal standard with well-defined conformance criteria<br />Ensur...
Deployment Phase<br />Ensure system is deployed with any accessibility-related configuration in place<br />
Maintenance Phase<br />Provide a method to identify and track accessibility-related problems (pref. as bugs)<br />Assign a...
Milestone 1<br />Milestone 2<br />Milestone 3<br />Milestone 4A<br />Milestone 4B<br />Milestone 5<br />Work ProductCompon...
Agile Model<br />
Agile vs. Waterfall<br />Both methodologies have:<br />Planning<br />Requirements<br />Design<br />Develop<br />Implementa...
Agile - Planning<br />Develop accessibility user stories<br />“I want to be able to access audio description for online vi...
Agile – Planning<br />Based on features under development this cycle:<br />Identify any applicable standards.<br />For tho...
Agile - Development<br />Developers should create accessibility tests during test development<br />Developers should utili...
Agile - Development<br />Ensure any unmet accessibility requirements are put into sprint backlog for reinclusion next iter...
Remediation<br />Treat accessibility errors as you would any other bug<br />Prioritize based on impact, time to fix<br />
Remediation Matrix<br />
Training<br />Managing Compliance<br />
Benefits of Training<br />Addresses disparities in level of understanding<br />Addresses inaccuracies/ deficiencies in und...
Training Philosophy<br />Train people to understand disabilities<br />A firm grasp of “Why” can always lead you to discove...
Training<br />All involved in design & dev, plus HR & execs should get high level understanding of:<br />Laws<br />Standar...
Training<br />Executives<br />Policy & Risk<br />
Training<br />Human Resources<br />Skill set(s) to look for in future applicants<br />Training requirements for current st...
Training<br />Procurement<br />Legal implications of accessibility compliance<br />How different technologies impact acces...
Training<br />Project Management<br />Understanding requirements & how to define them<br />Integrating accessibility into ...
Training<br />Designers<br />Specific BPs relating to interaction & visual design<br />What they design gets implemented<b...
Training<br />Developers<br />Specific BPs relating to production of accessible interfaces<br />Specific advanced techniqu...
Training<br />Content Creators<br />Specific BPs relating to production of accessible content<br />Techniques & Procedures...
Training<br />QA<br />Need to understand how to test for accessibility<br />Need to understand how to use accessibility te...
Accessibility Center of Excellence<br />Managing Compliance<br />
Center of Excellence: What it is<br />Centralized location for knowledge, training, support, and expertise in accessibilit...
COE: The Promise<br />Support for individuals and enterprise <br />Standards for consistent implementation<br />Training t...
COE: Support  <br />Design Support<br />Prototype Validation<br />Development Support<br />Accessibility User Stories<br /...
COE: Standards<br />Broad, Organizational Standards<br />Interpretation of Ind. Standards<br />Development Guides<br />Glo...
COE: Training<br />Establish an agency/corporate curriculum<br />Testing/ Conformance guides based on technologies in use<...
COE: Measurements<br />Dashboard reporting throughout all levels of the enterprise<br />Establish your benchmark and measu...
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Managing Accessibility Compliance in the Enterprise

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From my CSUN 2011 presentation

A lecture style session discussing ways to approach management of accessibility compliance at the enterprise level including project/ program management and procurement.

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Managing Accessibility Compliance in the Enterprise

  1. 1. Managing Accessibility Compliance in the Enterprise<br />Karl Groves<br />Director of Training, Deque Systems<br />Phone: 443-517-9280 <br />E-mail: karl.groves@deque.com<br />Twitter: @karlgroves<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Defining the problem<br />Solving the Problem<br />Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Managing Compliance<br />Project Management Approaches<br />Waterfall<br />Agile<br />Training<br />Center of Excellence<br />Recap & Questions<br />
  3. 3. Defining The Problem<br />
  4. 4. Defining the Problem<br />Objective: Understand the ways in which accessibility is often mishandled in large organizations, thus leading to risk exposure<br />
  5. 5. Defining the Problem<br />Accessibility compliance is often backwards<br />Testing & compliance efforts often happen after the fact<br />Post-deployment remediation is often expensive, time-consuming, and incapable of addressing high impact issues<br />This damages profitability, timelines, and quality<br />
  6. 6. Defining the Problem<br />Accessibility is often not part of the process<br />Should be included in all phases of the lifecycle<br />Planning<br />Requirements<br />Procurement/ Design & Development<br />Release<br />Maintenance<br />
  7. 7. Defining the Problem<br />Staff often lack training on accessibility<br />Executives<br />Human Resources<br />Project Managers<br />Developers<br />Content Creators<br />QA<br />
  8. 8. Defining the Problem<br />Accessibility policy & procedure not formalized<br />Not part of ELC/ SDLC<br />No formal conformance criteria<br />No teeth to acceptance process<br />No enterprise tools provided to staff<br />
  9. 9. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Solving the Problem<br />
  10. 10. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Where does the organization stand nowwith respect to Accessibility Policy & Procedure?<br />This gives us our path moving forward.<br />
  11. 11. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Is there a formal program in place to manage accessibility compliance?<br />
  12. 12. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Who is tasked with coordinating accessibility compliance?<br />
  13. 13. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the org. have a PMO (Project Management Office)?<br />PMO might also be Program Management Office<br />
  14. 14. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the organization have a documented SDLC/ ELC?<br />
  15. 15. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Has accessibility been placed into your ELC/ SDLC processes?<br />
  16. 16. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does language exist in your procurement/ specification development documents which discuss accessibility compliance?<br />If so, is it specific enough to be followed<br />
  17. 17. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Are deliverables validated for accessibility before acceptance?<br />Is code validated for accessibility before acceptance into source control?<br />
  18. 18. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What internal training is in place to educate QA/ development staff in accessibility?<br />
  19. 19. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What technologies are under development by the company?<br />Web?<br />Software?<br />Documents? <br />Multimedia?<br />
  20. 20. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />For Web: What technologies are used on the web?<br />JavaScript/ DOM Scripting?<br />Ajax?<br />Flash?<br />Flex?<br />
  21. 21. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Who performs testing to ensure accessibility?<br />Developers?<br />QA Dept.?<br />UX staff? <br />
  22. 22. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What software/ tools are in use by the development team to assess accessibility?<br />
  23. 23. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />If they use an enterprise-class tool, have they had any formal training in how to use the product?<br />
  24. 24. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Is there a formalized (documented) accessibility auditing methodology in place?<br />
  25. 25. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />To what standards are the company’s products developed/ tested against?<br />
  26. 26. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />What formal training does the typical developer have in accessibility?<br />What formal training does the typical QA tester have in accessibility?<br />
  27. 27. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Do the testers use assistive technologies to perform tests?<br />
  28. 28. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Have they documented the conformance criteria for the standards against which they’ve chosen to comply?<br />
  29. 29. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the company test their system(s) using users with disabilities?<br />
  30. 30. Gauging Organizational Maturity<br />Does the company test for functional performance?<br />
  31. 31. Organizational Maturity: A Customer Story<br />Conducted an Accessibility Skills Assessment Survey for a client with about 200 staff representing Content Creators, Design/UI, QA and Project Management members. The client’s goal was to determine their accessibility related knowledge. The results were:<br /><ul><li> 79% had formal Computer Science training
  32. 32. 55% of the skills questions were answered incorrectly across all 4 areas
  33. 33. 23% of the respondents had some formal training in accessibility
  34. 34. 22% had training* in the workplace on Accessibility (not formal training)
  35. 35. 21% seek out accessibility knowledge online through web sites and blogs
  36. 36. 3% of those tested attended an accessibility related event
  37. 37. 0% have purchased books on the topic</li></li></ul><li>Managing Compliance<br />Solving the Problem<br />
  38. 38. Managing Compliance<br />How can we address the shortcomings found in our organization’s level of maturity with regard to accessibility?<br />
  39. 39. Managing Compliance: High Level<br />Train, train, train<br />Institutionalize conformance<br />Plan compliance a head of time<br />Include a SME throughout all project phases<br />Monitor compliance at all phases<br />Implement Center of Excellence<br />Prevention is preferable to inspection & rework.<br />Remediation can add up to 40% more time to front-end development if not done right in the first place<br />
  40. 40. Remediation vs. Doing it Right<br />Avg. cost per defect = (num of devs * num of hours) * cost per dev per hour<br /> --------------------------------------------------<br /> (number of fixed defects)<br />Some estimates in QA community calculate cost around $500 per defect to find & fix defects and deploy remediated code<br />Dependent upon #of bugs, etc.<br />
  41. 41. Project Management Approaches<br />Managing Compliance<br />
  42. 42. Project Management Approaches <br />Remember this: It is hard to stop a moving train. Accessibility must be managed early and closely.<br />
  43. 43. Waterfall Model<br />
  44. 44. Planning Phase<br />Determine what risk is involved re: accessibility<br />Determine the overall impact accessibility may have on project timeline<br />Determine whether any extra funding or resources are needed for accessibility<br />Include accessibility assets needed for project<br />Determine what accessibility related activities are necessary in each phase<br />
  45. 45. Requirements Phase<br />Identify accessibility stakeholders<br />For each feature/ technology in use, determine what standards and guidelines will apply<br />Include typical use cases/ user stories to generate accessibility requirements<br />
  46. 46. Procurement<br />Investigate what conformance requirements exist for deliverable<br />Communicate this in all solicitations<br />Research available market offerings<br />Determine which product/ service offers highest level of compliance while fitting business need<br />Validate vendor claims of conformance, they will often be inaccurate or incomplete<br />Ensure final award documents cite conformance requirements<br />
  47. 47. Design Phase<br />Utilize deliverables from planning & requirements phases to inform design phase<br />Revisit/ revise conformance criteria based on technologies in use<br />Validate design prototypes and comps with stakeholders and SMEs<br />Audit functional mockups for accessibility<br />Utilize formal best practices to gauge compliance<br />
  48. 48. Development Phase<br />Get ahead of accessibility issues. This is the last viable chance to prevent problems<br />Revisit/ revise conformance criteria based on technologies in use<br />Perform iterative testing as system is developed<br />Developers should test code as they develop, just as they would for browser compatibility<br />
  49. 49. Testing<br />Thorough testing required<br />Test against formal standard with well-defined conformance criteria<br />Ensure testing involves functional performance with assistive technologies<br />
  50. 50. Deployment Phase<br />Ensure system is deployed with any accessibility-related configuration in place<br />
  51. 51. Maintenance Phase<br />Provide a method to identify and track accessibility-related problems (pref. as bugs)<br />Assign appropriate priority to issues<br />
  52. 52. Milestone 1<br />Milestone 2<br />Milestone 3<br />Milestone 4A<br />Milestone 4B<br />Milestone 5<br />Work ProductComponent<br />Applicable Provision Evaluation<br />Initial<br />Final<br />Update<br />Update<br />Accessibility Risk Information Document<br />Initial<br />Final<br />Update<br />Update<br />Initial<br />Final<br />Update<br />Accessibility Compliance Approach<br />Initial<br />Final<br />Update<br />Update<br />Integration Plan forAccessible Support<br />Initial<br />Final<br />Final<br />Initial<br />Accessibility Test Plan<br />Accessibility Test Results<br />Identify the Applicable 508 Provision<br />Create a Test Plan<br />Identify 508 Issuesand Make Corrections<br />Enterprise Life Cycle (ELC) Section 508 Work Product - to - Milestone Cross-Reference Matrix<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Agile Model<br />
  56. 56. Agile vs. Waterfall<br />Both methodologies have:<br />Planning<br />Requirements<br />Design<br />Develop<br />Implementation<br />Difference is in approach<br />No difference regarding accessibility<br />
  57. 57. Agile - Planning<br />Develop accessibility user stories<br />“I want to be able to access audio description for online videos”<br />“I want to be able to compare products”…”using a screen reader”<br />Identify disabled Customer Representative<br />“Customer collaborationover contract negotiation”<br />(Agile Manifesto)<br />
  58. 58. Agile – Planning<br />Based on features under development this cycle:<br />Identify any applicable standards.<br />For those standards, identify conformance criteria<br />For each conformance criteria, identify best practices to develop requirements<br />Include these requirements in Definition of Done<br />
  59. 59. Agile - Development<br />Developers should create accessibility tests during test development<br />Developers should utilize automated testing (inc. tools like FireEyes) during development prior to committing changes<br />
  60. 60. Agile - Development<br />Ensure any unmet accessibility requirements are put into sprint backlog for reinclusion next iteration<br />
  61. 61. Remediation<br />Treat accessibility errors as you would any other bug<br />Prioritize based on impact, time to fix<br />
  62. 62. Remediation Matrix<br />
  63. 63. Training<br />Managing Compliance<br />
  64. 64. Benefits of Training<br />Addresses disparities in level of understanding<br />Addresses inaccuracies/ deficiencies in understanding<br />Reduces risk of non-compliant interfaces & content<br />Avoids costly post release remediation<br />Protects project timelines and budgets<br />
  65. 65. Training Philosophy<br />Train people to understand disabilities<br />A firm grasp of “Why” can always lead you to discover “how”. Technology is always changing. Challenges faced by disabled users do not change.<br />Train people to understand their specific impact on end users<br />
  66. 66. Training<br />All involved in design & dev, plus HR & execs should get high level understanding of:<br />Laws<br />Standards<br />Understanding Disability<br />
  67. 67. Training<br />Executives<br />Policy & Risk<br />
  68. 68. Training<br />Human Resources<br />Skill set(s) to look for in future applicants<br />Training requirements for current staff<br />
  69. 69. Training<br />Procurement<br />Legal implications of accessibility compliance<br />How different technologies impact accessibility<br />How, when, and which standards apply<br />
  70. 70. Training<br />Project Management<br />Understanding requirements & how to define them<br />Integrating accessibility into lifecycle: what & where<br />
  71. 71. Training<br />Designers<br />Specific BPs relating to interaction & visual design<br />What they design gets implemented<br />
  72. 72. Training<br />Developers<br />Specific BPs relating to production of accessible interfaces<br />Specific advanced techniques based on technologies under development. <br />
  73. 73. Training<br />Content Creators<br />Specific BPs relating to production of accessible content<br />Techniques & Procedures on use of content creation tools (i.e. content management systems) so accessible output is ensured<br />
  74. 74. Training<br />QA<br />Need to understand how to test for accessibility<br />Need to understand how to use accessibility testing tools & interpret their output<br />
  75. 75. Accessibility Center of Excellence<br />Managing Compliance<br />
  76. 76. Center of Excellence: What it is<br />Centralized location for knowledge, training, support, and expertise in accessibility.<br />Provides communication between knowledge domains<br />Develops, maintains, and shares accessibility resources, and assets<br />
  77. 77. COE: The Promise<br />Support for individuals and enterprise <br />Standards for consistent implementation<br />Training to improve individual and enterprise execution<br />Measurements to the expectation<br />Governance for consistent implementation by the agency and contractors<br />
  78. 78. COE: Support <br />Design Support<br />Prototype Validation<br />Development Support<br />Accessibility User Stories<br />Customer Advocate<br />Subject matter expertise<br />Testing Support<br />Testing/ Conformance<br />Continuous Monitoring<br />Use Case/ Usability Test Support<br />
  79. 79. COE: Standards<br />Broad, Organizational Standards<br />Interpretation of Ind. Standards<br />Development Guides<br />Global Testing to determine areas of improvement<br />
  80. 80. COE: Training<br />Establish an agency/corporate curriculum<br />Testing/ Conformance guides based on technologies in use<br />New hire assets<br />
  81. 81. COE: Measurements<br />Dashboard reporting throughout all levels of the enterprise<br />Establish your benchmark and measure improvements<br />Assist PM in measuring success<br />Gather metrics<br />
  82. 82. COE: Governance<br />Ensure consistent contract language<br />Ensure compliance of deliverables by vendors<br />Gatekeeper to acceptance/ release/ milestone exit<br />Rules which are not enforced don’t get followed<br />
  83. 83. Recap<br />
  84. 84. Recap<br />The Problem<br />Accessibility Compliance is Backwards<br />Accessibility Not Part of the Process<br />Staff are not trained<br />Accessibility Policy & Procedure not formalized<br />The Solution<br />Train, train, train<br />Institutionalize conformance<br />Plan compliance<br />Include a SME throughout all project phases<br />Monitor compliance<br />Implement Center of Excellence<br />
  85. 85. Questions?<br />

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