General intelligence, although not necessarily being very much brighter than the people they are leading. Technical or professional knowledge and competence in their particular fields – how otherwise would leaders be respected? Personality: leaders should be energetic and committed, maintain contact with their people, and understand their strengths and weaknesses. The ability to inspire, although this quality may be rarer than some of the others and is perhaps the most difficult to develop. Listening, sharing and delegating skills (and not interfering unnecessarily), because in groups of more than around five people it becomes impossible to know all the necessary detail. Self-knowledge, to understand their own strengths and weaknesses, which in turn will enable them to turn to others in their group to compensate for their own biases or deficiencies.
Autocratic In the autocratic style, the leader takes decisions without consulting with others. The decision is made without any form of consultation. In Lewin's experiments, he found that this caused the most level of discontent. An autocratic style works when there is no need for input on the decision, where the decision would not change as a result of input, and where the motivation of people to carry out subsequent actions would not be affected whether they were or were not involved in the decision-making. Democratic In the democratic style, the leader involves the people in the decision-making, although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group. Democratic decision-making is usually appreciated by the people, especially if they have been used to autocratic decisions with which they disagreed. It can be problematic when there are a wide range of opinions and there is no clear way of reaching an equitable final decision. Laissez-Faire The laissez-faire style is to minimize the leader's involvement in decision-making, and hence allowing people to make their own decisions, although they may still be responsible for the outcome. Laissez-faire works best when people are capable and motivated in making their own decisions, and where there is no requirement for a central coordination, for example in sharing resources across a range of different people and groups.
Description Rensis Likert identified four main styles of leadership, in particular around decision-making and the degree to which people are involved in the decision. Exploitive authoritative In this style, the leader has a low concern for people and uses such methods as threats and other fear-based methods to achieve conformance. Communication is almost entirely downwards and the psychologically distant concerns of people are ignored. Benevolent authoritative When the leader adds concern for people to an authoritative position, a 'benevolent dictatorship' is formed. The leader now uses rewards to encourage appropriate performance and listens more to concerns lower down the organization, although what they hear is often rose-tinted, being limited to what their subordinates think that the boss wants to hear. Although there may be some delegation of decisions, almost all major decisions are still made centrally. Consultative The upward flow of information here is still cautious and rose-tinted to some degree, although the leader is making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas. Nevertheless, major decisions are still largely centrally made. Participative At this level, the leader makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in decision-making. People across the organization are psychologically closer together and work well together at all levels. Discussion This is a classic 1960s view in that it is still very largely top-down in nature, with the cautious addition collaborative elements towards the Utopian final state.
Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee, in Primal Leadership , describe six styles of leading that have different effects on the emotions of the target followers. These are styles, not types. Any leader can use any style, and a good mix that is customised to the situation is generally the most effective approach. The Visionary Leader The Visionary Leader moves people towards a shared vision, telling them where to go but not how to get there - thus motivating them to struggle forwards. They openly share information, hence giving knowledge power to others. They can fail when trying to motivate more experienced experts or peers. This style is best when a new direction is needed. Overall, it has a very strong impact on the climate. The Coaching Leader The Coaching Leader connects wants to organizational goals, holding long conversations that reach beyond the workplace, helping people find strengths and weaknesses and tying these to career aspirations and actions. They are good at delegating challenging assignments, demonstrating faith that demands justification and which leads to high levels of loyalty. Done badly, this style looks like micromanaging. It is best used when individuals need to build long-term capabilities. It has a highly positive impact on the climate. The Affiliative Leader The Affiliative Leader creates people connections and thus harmony within the organization. It is a very collaborative style which focuses on emotional needs over work needs. When done badly, it avoids emotionally distressing situations such as negative feedback. Done well, it is often used alongside visionary leadership. It is best used for healing rifts and getting through stressful situations. It has a positive impact on climate. The Democratic Leader The Democratic Leader acts to value inputs and commitment via participation, listening to both the bad and the good news. When done badly, it looks like lots of listening but very little effective action. It is best used to gain buy-in or when simple inputs are needed ( when you are uncertain). It has a positive impact on climate. The Pace-setting Leader The Pace-setting Leader builds challenge and exciting goals for people, expecting excellence and often exemplifying it themselves. They identify poor performers and demand more of them. If necessary, they will roll up their sleeves and rescue the situation themselves. They tend to be low on guidance, expecting people to know what to do. They get short term results but over the long term this style can lead to exhaustion and decline. Done badly, it lacks Emotional Intelligence, especially self-management. A classic problem happens when the 'star techie' gets promoted. It is best used for results from a motivated and competent team. It often has a very negative effect on climate (because it is often poorly done). The Commanding Leader The Commanding Leader soothes fears and gives clear directions by his or her powerful stance, commanding and expecting full compliance (agreement is not needed). They need emotional self-control for success and can seem cold and distant. This approach is best in times of crisis when you need unquestioned rapid action and with problem employees who do not respond to other methods.
Ohio State University Leadership studies: Most leadership behaviours are based on these two categories Initiating Structure – defines and structures their role and role of followers in achieving organisational goals Considerate Style – establishing trust, mutual respect and rapport 4 possible styles University of Michigan Likert found 2 styles employee orientated (high prod & high job sat) & production oriented But balanced approach was best B & M based grid on manager must foster attitude that would create a behaviour promoting performance, creativity and innovation Country Club: gain co-op from your team to get prod, high job satisfaction, avoids conflicts but weak decision making Authoritarian: task orientated, high in decision making, loyalty conscientious, distant from group Impoverished: laissez faire, relies on previous practice, avoid responsibility Middle of the road: compromise, fairness, decision making is participative, unlikely to be dynamic, not good for change Team Management: most effective style, concern for prod & people compatible, integration of goals, open stlye with involvement and participation, relies on culture
your responsibilities as a manager for achieving the task are: identify aims and vision for the group, purpose, and direction - define the activity (the task) identify resources, people, processes, systems and tools (inc. financials, communications, IT) create the plan to achieve the task - deliverables, measures, timescales, strategy and tactics establish responsibilities, objectives, accountabilities and measures, by agreement and delegation set standards, quality, time and reporting parameters control and maintain activities against parameters monitor and maintain overall performance against plan report on progress towards the group's aim review, re-assess, adjust plan, methods and targets as necessary your responsibilities as a manager for the group are: establish, agree and communicate standards of performance and behaviour establish style, culture, approach of the group - soft skill elements monitor and maintain discipline, ethics, integrity and focus on objectives anticipate and resolve group conflict, struggles or disagreements assess and change as necessary the balance and composition of the group develop team-working, cooperation, morale and team-spirit develop the collective maturity and capability of the group - progressively increase group freedom and authority encourage the team towards objectives and aims - motivate the group and provide a collective sense of purpose identify, develop and agree team- and project-leadership roles within group enable, facilitate and ensure effective internal and external group communications identify and meet group training needs give feedback to the group on overall progress; consult with, and seek feedback and input from the group your responsibilities as a manager for each individual are: understand the team members as individuals - personality, skills, strengths, needs, aims and fears assist and support individuals - plans, problems, challenges, highs and lows identify and agree appropriate individual responsibilities and objectives give recognition and praise to individuals - acknowledge effort and good work where appropriate reward individuals with extra responsibility, advancement and status identify, develop and utilise each individual's capabilities and strengths train and develop individual team members develop individual freedom and authority
Leadership Unit 2: leadership, motivation & management styles
What is leadership? <ul><li>The art of leadership is saying no, not saying yes. It is very easy to say yes - Tony Blair </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of humour is part of the art of leadership , of getting along with people, of getting things done - Dwight D Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>We need not just a new generation of leadership but a new gender of leadership – Bill Clinton </li></ul><ul><li>To lead people, walk beside them — Lao-tsu </li></ul>
More quotes: <ul><li>One measure of leadership is the calibre of people who choose to follow you - Dennis Peer </li></ul><ul><li>Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things – Peter F Drucker </li></ul><ul><li>A leader leads by example, whether he intends to or not - Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the difference between a boss and a leader. A boss says, Go! A leader says, Let's go! - E.M. Kelly </li></ul>
Drucker: <ul><li>Leadership is not magnetic personality — that can just as well be a glib tongue. It is not ‘making friends and influencing people’ — that is flattery. Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to high sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations. </li></ul>
Leadership attributes (CIPD, 2009) <ul><li>General intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Technical or professional knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Self-knowledge </li></ul>
Other attributes <ul><li>Lead by example </li></ul><ul><li>Humility </li></ul><ul><li>Clear vision </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul><ul><li>Listener </li></ul><ul><li>Positive atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Not to be too serious </li></ul>
Leadership attributes (G Roworth, 2005) <ul><li>A leader must have vision, </li></ul><ul><li>Must be an entrepreneur, </li></ul><ul><li>Must inspire others, </li></ul><ul><li>Must set standards, </li></ul><ul><li>Must orchestrate methods, </li></ul><ul><li>Must understand people </li></ul><ul><li>And must measure results </li></ul>
Leadership vs. Management <ul><li>What is the difference? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing things right and doing the right things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability vs. innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruction vs. agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short vs. long term view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementer vs. shaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control vs. trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance vs. development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We know leadership is part of management function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If this function is not performed what happens? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are all managers leaders? Vice versa? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
Leadership styles - Goleman <ul><li>Coercive – do what I tell you </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative – come with me </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliative – people come first </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic – what do you think? </li></ul><ul><li>Pacesetting – do as I do, now </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching – try this </li></ul>