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Flour Mixtures

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--- Tips for Baker ---

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Flour Mixtures

  1. 1. Successful Baking A number of factors are involved in the success of any baking endeavour: • accurate measurement of all ingredients, • using the correct tools, equipment, and pans, • following recipe directions carefully, • using correct mixing techniques, • setting the oven temperature correctly, • positioning the pans in the oven properly, and • testing for doneness.
  2. 2. Flour Mixtures CLASSES POUR BATTER DROP BATTER SOFT DOUGH STIFF DOUGH  Liquid 1 part 1 part 1 part 1 part  Flour 1 part 2 parts 3 parts Four parts  Consist ency Joins in steady stream Breaks into parts Sticky touch Firm to touch  Product Sample Pop over, griddle cakes, cream puff Muffins, fritters, drop cakes Rolled biscuits, yeast rolls and bread Pie crust, noodles, rolled cookies
  3. 3. CLASSES MIXING PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS TYPE OF FLOUR TO USE Pour Batter Mixing Do not need much Soft velvety goods Soft wheat flour or cake flour Drop Batter Not very thorough mixing Crisp product All purpose flour Soft Dough Kneading, rolling and shaping soft Bread flour (high gluten strength) Substitute-all purpose flourStiff Dough stiff
  4. 4. • Rolling pins come in all sizes, lengths and types of materials, but the most common are wooden pins with or without handles. You need a rolling pin if you intend on making pastry, tea biscuits, cut-out cookies, donuts and other delicacies
  5. 5. • You can use any type of bowl - plastic, ceramic, glass or stainless, as long as you have enough room to mix the amount of ingredients
  6. 6. • Flour Sifter - A sieve, or sifter, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, typically using a woven screen such as a mesh or net •
  7. 7. • Cookie Cutters, Presses, Rosette Makers • If you plan on making cut-out cookies - where you roll out the dough with a rolling pin and cut out the cookies - you'll need a few cookie cutters.
  8. 8. • Baking Sheets, Pans, Muffin Tins • Baking pans come in various sizes and shapes from sheets for baking cookies, pans for cakes, bread or muffins to shaped or Bundt cake pans.
  9. 9. • Measuring Cups, Spoons • In order to follow any baking recipe, measuring cups and spoons are essential. Standard measuring cup sets usually have a 1-cup, 1/2-cup, 1/3- cup and 1/4-cup measures –
  10. 10. • Spatulas, Wooden Spoons and Whisks • You need at least a couple of rubber or silicone spatulas to scrape the bowl, as well as a small metal spatula to serve desserts.
  11. 11. • Cooling Rack • While you can just cool cakes or breads by removing from the pan onto a board, the bottom of the baked goods tends to become soggy. But if you use a cooling rack, the baking cools evenly because air can flow around it.
  12. 12. • Pastry Blender, Pastry Cutter • A pastry blender is used during the mixing of the pastry dough. It also has lots of other applications, such as blending the flour, sugar and butter for a fruit crisp or mashing boiled eggs for egg salad. A pastry blender is a basic essential tool for mixing pastry.
  13. 13. Baking Pans SQUARE cm litres inches cups Small 18 x 18 x 5 1.25 7 x 7 x 2 5¼ Medium 20 x 20 x 5 1.4 8 x 8 x 2 5¾ Large 23 x 23 x 5 1.5 9 x 9 x 2 6 ExtraLarge 25 x 25 x 5 2.5 10 x 10 x 2 10½
  14. 14. RECTANGULAR cm litres inches cups Small 15 x 25 x 4 1.5 6 x 10 x 1½ 6 Medium 17 x 28 x 4 2 7 x 11 x 1½ 8 Large 23 x 32 x 5 3 9 x 13 x 2 12
  15. 15. LAYER cm litres inches cups Small 20 (dia.) x 4 1.25 8 (dia.) x 1½ 5¼ Large 23 (dia.) x 4 1.5 9 (dia.) 1½ 6
  16. 16. LOAF cm litres inches cups Small 20 x 10 x 7 1 8 x 4 x 3 4 Large 23 x 12 x 7 1.5 9 x 5 x 3 6
  17. 17. TUBE cm litres inches cups Small 17 (dia.) x 6 1 7 (dia.) x 2½ 4 Medium 20 (dia.) x 10 1.5 8 (dia.) x 4 6 Large 23 (dia.) x 10 2.5 9 (dia.) x 4 10½ Extra Large 25 (dia.) x 10 3 10 (dia.) x 4 12
  18. 18. SPRINGFORM cm litres inches cups Small 23 (dia.) x 6 2.5 9 (dia.) x 2½ 10½ Large 25 (dia.) x 8 3 10 (dia.)x 3 12
  19. 19. BUNDT cm litres inches cups One size 25 (dia.) x 8 3 10 (dia.)x 3 12
  20. 20. PIE PLATES cm litres inches cups Small 20 (dia.) X 3 0.6 8 (dia.) x 1¼ 2½ Medium 20 (dia.) X 4 0.75 8 (dia.) x 1½ 3 Large 23 (dia.) X 3 0.85 9 (dia.) x 1¼ 3½ Extra Large 25 (dia.) X 3 1 10 (dia.) x 1¼ 4
  21. 21. Sifting separates coarse particles by passing through a sieve. In the process, air is incorporated.
  22. 22. • Creaming is the rubbing of one or two ingredients against a bowl with the help of a wooden spoon or electric mixer. The cream mixture should have smooth and grainy particles
  23. 23. • Cutting in is mixing fat and flour with the use of a pastry blender or two knives in a scissor- like manner. This method cuts fats into small pieces. It is usually used for pastries and biscuits.
  24. 24. Folding is working with two ingredients very gently to retain air in the mix. It can be done with beaten egg whites. It is usually done by hand with a rubber scrapper.
  25. 25. • Cutting and folding involve cutting vertically into the mixture with a rubber scraper or spoon and turning over and over by gliding the spoon across the bottom of the mixing bowl at each turn
  26. 26. • Beating incorporates air into the mixture by mechanical agitation. It can be done with a fork, wire whisk, egg beater, or electric mixer
  27. 27. • Kneading is to manipulate by pressure alternating with folding and stretching
  28. 28. • Whipping is to beat eggs and cream to fill them with air and make them thick and fluffy
  29. 29. • Stirring is often done by rotating a wooden spoon through a mixture as needed
  30. 30. • Scalding is heating below boiling point in a double boiler
  31. 31. • Two-Bowl Mixing Method • Also known as the muffin method, • this technique involves mixing all dry ingredients in one bowl and all wet ingredients in another. • Slowly add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients, mixing with a wooden spoon or spatula as you go. • Don't use an electric mixer or overbeat; • the batter should be lumpy. • This is best for quick breads and muffins.
  32. 32. • The Creaming Method • With the creaming method, you first beat or cream the fats, such as butter or shortening, with sugars, spices and salt. • Once the mixture is light and airy, you add the rest of the ingredients. This method produces a moist, cake-like dough.
  33. 33. Cooking Conversion Chart Unit: Equals: Also equals: 1 tsp. 1/6 fl. oz. 1/3 Tbsp. 1 Tbsp. ½ fl. oz. 3 tsp. 1/8 cup 1 fl. oz. 2 Tbsp. ¼ cup 2 fl. oz. 4 Tbsp. 1/3 cup 2¾ fl. oz. ¼ cup plus 4 tsp. ½ cup 4 fl. oz. 8 Tbsp. 1 cup 8 fl. oz. ½ pint 1 pint 16 fl. oz. 2 cups 1 quart 32 fl. oz. 2 pints 1 liter 34 fl. oz. 1 quart plus ¼ cup 1 gallon 128 fl. oz. 4 quarts

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