Elearningadoptionconceptualframework Final


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  • Elearningadoptionconceptualframework Final

    1. 1. A conceptual framework for eLearning adoption: The link between the characteristics eLearning and the characteristics of adopters James Kariuki Njenga Louis C H Fourie Department of Information Systems
    2. 2. Layout <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>eLearning characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of eLearning adopters </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual framework for eLearning adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing research </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction Adapted from Rogers(2003), Diffusion of Innovation process
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The theories of adoption of innovations are applicable to eLearning adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion of Innovation theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of Reasoned Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of Planned Behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology Acceptance Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social cognitive theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Dynamic Models </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. eLearning Characteristics <ul><li>Relative advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived benefits of eLearning (reliability, effectiveness, cost saving etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived superiority over preceding modes of teaching and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though, even where relative advantages are apparent, they don’t always lead to adoption </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. eLearning Characteristics… <ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the amount of efforts required to learn and use eLearning after the initial awareness? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New tools, competencies, learner support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the learning process is broken into manageable units for incremental learning, can this managed the perceived complexity of eLearning use? </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. eLearning Characteristics… <ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency with the status quo (values, norms, habits, lifestyle, needs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured against the relative advantage of eLearning. If the cost of incompatibility of eLearning is higher than its relative advantage, adoption is unlikely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we challenge the status quo? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. eLearning Characteristics… <ul><li>Observability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In terms of observable benefits that are accrued from the results of using eLearning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most educational products have very limited observable results in the immediate future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of examples from successful projects elsewhere: contextual difference is an issue </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. eLearning Characteristics… <ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent at which users can try the aspects of eLearning – use of “free samples” or “trial versions” or “pilot projects” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eLearning being a service oriented innovation, the extent of trialability might be limited to just the technological products. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. eLearning adopters’ characteristics <ul><li>Attitudes toward eLearning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arising from an individual’s appraisal of the desirability of consequences of using eLearning – favourable or unfavourable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s attitude towards eLearning will have a significant influence on the individual’s adoption of eLearning; Where that attitude towards eLearning is positive, there will be positive influence and vice versa. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Adopters’ characteristics… <ul><li>Personal innovativeness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which individuals are willing to use new or improved ideas, concepts, products or services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal innovativeness will have positive influence on the decision to adopt eLearning </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Adopters’ characteristics… <ul><li>Need for innovativeness need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the purposive behaviour directed toward originality or use, initiation, development or acceptance of new ideas, concepts, products or services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be intrinsic (from an individual) or intrinsic (occasioned by availability of external reward systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by personal satisfaction or gratification or expectance of positive outcomes </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Adopters’ characteristics… <ul><li>Need for Innovativeness…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual’s personal satisfaction or gratification on eLearning use will have a positive influence on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual’s personal outcome expectations on using eLearning will have a positive and significant influence on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Adopters’ characteristics… <ul><li>Communication behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual ’ s exposure to, receipt of, and type of information and media used to relay or transmit information about eLearning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal communication about eLearning will be related to higher adoption rates of eLearning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual exposure to others engaging in eLearning within higher education will have a positive influence on the individual’s adoption decision. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Adopters’ characteristics… <ul><li>Prior Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s past knowledge (favourable or unfavourable) about eLearning through interactions with its proponents or similar innovations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s prior experience with teaching and learning technologies will have a significant effect on the individual’s eLearning adoption decision: where the prior experience was good or satisfactory the influence will be positive, and where the experience was negative the influence will be negative . </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Framework for eLearning adoption
    17. 17. Fit between individual and eLearning Individual Individual-eLearning fit eLearning <ul><li>Attitudes toward eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Innovativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Innovativeness need and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s knowledge about eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s preferences and lifestyle on using eLearning and related innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s perceived need or necessity to use eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s abilities and constraints in using eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>eLearning functionalities of importance to an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s satisfaction and gratification in using eLearning </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalities </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul><ul><li>Relative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstratability </li></ul>
    18. 18. Individual eLearning fit: Example 1 <ul><li>P i  E i where P i is individual’s knowledge about eLearning, E i is individual’s experience in using eLearning or similar innovation, and  denotes the fit. If the fit is strong, there will be a higher likelihood of eLearning adoption; </li></ul>
    19. 19. Individual eLearning fit: Example 2 <ul><li>P ci  E ci where P ci are the different personal characteristics, E ci are the characteristics of the different eLearning applications and processes, and  represents the fit. If say an Individual’s lifestyle and attitude have a fit to the characteristics of eLearning (for instance functionality, complexity), then this has a positive influence on eLearning adoption; </li></ul>
    20. 20. Individual eLearning fit: Example 3 <ul><li>E ci  P ci , that is, if there is a fit between eLearning characteristics and the individual characteristics; this will tend to positively influence the individual’s adoption of eLearning. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Ongoing research
    22. 22. Questions
    23. 24. <ul><li>James Kariuki Njenga </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>University of the Western Cape, </li></ul><ul><li>jkariuki@uwc.ac.za, jkariuki@gmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://elearningfundi.blogspot.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.elearningfundi.net </li></ul><ul><li>Louis CH Fourie </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>University of the Western Cape, </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>