Early 20th century Psychological school LinguisticsBehaviorism or Behaviourism isthe theory that scientific enquiryinto behaviour should consistonly of what can be observed,such as stimuli and responses.
the Early 1900s Psychological school Linguistics Structural linguistics is an approachto linguistics originating from the work ofSwiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Thestructural view treats language as a systemof structurally related elements to codemeaning
B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990)• He was an American psychologist, behavi orist, author, inventor, and social philosopher• The leading behaviorist in psychology• Skinners work had effects on education• Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box Behaviourism
• Leonard Bloomfield (1887_1949)• wasan American linguist wh o led the development of structural linguistics in the United States during the 1930s and the 1940s• Bloomfields approach to linguistics was characterized BACK by its emphasis on TO the scientific basis of SCHOOL linguistics, adherence to behaviorism. Behaviourism
• Robert Lado (USA 1915- 1995)• He researched for the best methods of foreign language teaching for military purposes during WW2.• he developed the contrastive analysis Behaviourism
Skinner’s Lado’s Bloomfield’s Theory Theory Theory “a theory that “the meaning of“Changes in it’s a linguistic formbehaviour perspective has to be may be analyzed inare the defined as a term of theresult of an change of importantindividuals behavior as a elements of theresponse to result of situation which experience-events” that can be the speaker utters it. measured.”
• Behaviorism in the Classroom:• Rewards and punishments• Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with BACK the teacher TO SCHOOL• Lecture-based, highly structured
Advantages of Behaviourism:• Easily controlled by the teacher• Some learners benefit from repetition.• Rewards and punishments are clear.• Ease of motivation.
Disadvantages of Behaviourism:• Ignores thought processes and emotions• Repetition may become boring• Totally teacher orientated• Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed BACK• Advocates for passive student learning in TO a teacher-centric environment SCHOOL• Lack of natural creativity• Relative inefficacy at a high level.
• Charles C. Fries (1887-1967)• born in Reading, Pa. He taught at the University of Michigan where he developed programs in both theoretical and applied linguistics. He and his wife, Agnes Carswell, developed the universitys English Language Institute (1941), which pioneered methods and materials for teaching English to foreigners. Among his many books are dictionaries of Early and Middle English
• Ferdinand de Saussure• 1857 – 1913• a Swiss linguist whose ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century• De Saussure was not satisfied with the historical comparison of language. He stated that such comparison only answered where a language comes from, but not what language is.
Ferdinand de Saussure - Often consideredthe “father” of structuralism. Central notionof his teachings is that language may beanalyzed as a formal system of differentialelements, apart from the messy dialectics ofreal-time production and comprehension.Examples of these elements include thenotion of the linguistic sign, the signifier, thesignified, and the referent.
1)Language has a structure: Language is a structure in which each elements interact.2) Language is a system of signs Noise is language only when it expresses or communicates ideas.
• The Dichotomies: •Synchronic / Diachronic •Langue / Parole •Signified / Signifier BACK •Syntagmatic / Paradigmatic TO SCHOOL
• Language is speech and not reading or writing• Language is a set of habits• Language is what a native speaker says• Languages are systematically different• Teach the language and not about the language Moulton (1961)