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Introduction
India is one of the fastest growing economy in the world next to
China.
India’s economy is the tenth-largest ( Nominal GDP) in the world
and third-largest by purchasing power.
 India was the 19th-largest in merchandise and 6th largest
services exporter in the world in 2013.
GDP (sector wise)
1. Service sector - 64.8%
2. Industry - 21.5
3. Agriculture - 13.7
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fig.: 1 GDP growth sector wise
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Source :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_India
Meaning
Human settlement with a minimum population of
5000 persons, with 75% of the male working
population engaged in non-agricultural activities
and population density of 400 persons per sq. km.
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Urbanization
• Urbanization in India was mainly started after independence,
due to adoption of mixed economy by the country which gave
rise to the development of private sector.
Table: 1 Total population percentage in urban areas
• Rate of urbanization: 2.4% (2010-15 est.)
Source: censes 2011( Govt. of India)
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Year (census) Population percentage
1901 11.4
2001 28.53
2011 31.16
Table: 2 Classification of urban centers
Sl No Type Population
1. Conurbation Three - Ten million
2. Metropolis One – Three million
3. Large city Three – Ten lack
4. City One – Three lack
5. Large town 20,000- 100,000
6. Town 1,000- 20,000
7. Village 100- 1,000
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Causes of Urbanization
Industrial Revolution
Expansion in government services.
Migration of people.
Economic opportunities.
Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas
Growth of private sector
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Facts about Urbanization in India
• Mckinsey global institute estimated that nearly 70% new jobs
will be created by 2030.
• Urbanization leads fourfold increase in per capita income by
2030
• Estimated that the urban population increase from 340
million(2008) to 590 million by 2030.
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Urbanization is expanding at a faster rate
E.g. 1971 to 2008 population increased to 230 million.
estimated to be more then 250 million population by 2025.
 Urban economy provides 85% of total tax revenue.
 200 million rural population are directly benefited from
urbanization.
 Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Punjab have
more population living in urban areas.
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Source: Mckinsey Global Institute analysis(2008)
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12fig. 3: Urbanization percentage by 2030 in India
Source :Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
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fig. 4 : Population in India By 2030
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Source :Source :Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
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Fig. 6: Average national income by 2030
Source :Indian Urbanization Economic model: Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
• Cities need 53.1($1.2 trillion) trillion rupees for creating
infrastructural facilities by 2030.
• India has to spent $134 per capita per year which is almost
eight times spending today in per capita.
• Indian spending average of 0.5 percent of GDP to urban
infrastructure and it has to increase 2 percent of GDP in future.
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fig.:7(A)Performance of services in Urban
areas
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fig. 7(B)Performance of services in Urban
areas
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19fig. : 8 Element of urban operating model
Source : Mckinsey Global Institute analysis (2008)
• Central government developmental fund.
• State government funds.
• Tax collection
• Rent for use of resources
• Public private partnership.
• Other charges
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fig.: 9 Governance model
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.
Source: Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
Planning
• The city plan need to be well defined and provide all the
information about the city.
• Create well-resourced planning organizations at metropolitan
and municipal levels .
• The planning should be latest including new technology and
models
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Sector policies
• Policies for affordable housing and land allocation.
• Polices related to transport sector.
• Polices about environmental protection.
• Taxation policies for urban people.
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.
Source: Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
Modi’s Smart City concept
• Central government has planned to 100 smart cities in India.
• Eight cities with more then four million people will developing
as a satellite smart city with Rs.1000 crore for each city.
• 45 cities with one to four million people will be upgrading to
smart city.
• 17 capital cities upgraded to smart city irrespective of their
population.
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Smart cities
• 10 smart cites with tourist and religious significance .
• The program is planned to launch on December 25, on the
birthday of formal PM Atal Bihari Bajpayee
• Listed smart cities in Karnataka are Badami, Bengaluru, Bidar,
Vijayapura, Kalaburagi, Mahakuta and Pattadakallu
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Five elements of smart cities
• In terms of infrastructure, the smart cities should have 24x7
availability of high quality utility services like water and power.
• A robust transport system that emphasizes on public
transport.
• In social infrastructure, the cities need to be provide
opportunities for jobs and livelihoods for its inhabitants.
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Smart cities elements….
• The smart cities need to have proper facilities for
entertainment and the safety and security of the people.
• They should minimize waste by increasing energy efficiency
and reducing water conservation. Proper recycling of waste
materials need to be done in cities.
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Urbanization effect on farm sector
• More than 50 per cent of medium and large farmers had allotted
land for construction of shops and other commercial uses on the
main road.
• Small farmers sold out the land to meet their household and
social needs.
• large farmers did sold the land because they could not manage
the land due to labour shortage.
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• Unavailability of labour for farm sector.
• High wage rate for farm work.
• The per capita availability of land declined.
Table 3 :Land per capita available in India
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Year Per capita land available
1960-61 1.124 ha
2000-01 0.74 ha
2011-12 0.36 ha
• Air Pollution :-Transportation, Industries and Domestic air
emissions.
• Water pollution:-Domestic sewage and Industrial effluent.
• Noise pollution :- Industrial, Aircraft, Transportation and diesel
generator sets.
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Effect of urbanization on environment
• Plastic waste is regulated through Plastic Manufacture, sale and
usage Rules,1999 and also by Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2000.
• Mercury Waste :-medical appliances, switches, lights and
thermal power stations.
• Biomedical Waste sources: hospitals and health care.
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Effect of urbanization
some issues
• Unemployment
• Housing
• Slums
• Transport
• Water supply and sanitation
• Inadequate provision for social infrastructure
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Conclusion
India is one of the developing economy need more money to
develop the infrastructure facility in urban areas and need
improvement in funding, governance, planning, and policy
framing areas. Urbanization need for an economic growth of the
country, but adversely affect on agricultural production and the
environment.
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Reference
1. Case study:-India’s urban awakening, Building inclusive cities,
sustaining economic growth By Mckinsey Global Institute (2009)
2. Urbanization and Spatial Patterns of Internal Migration in India
by S Chandrasekhar and Ajay Sharma Indira Gandhi Institute of
Development Research, Mumbai (2014)
3. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/pm-narendra-modi-100-
smart-cities-key-elements/1/382021.html
4.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization in India
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Urbanization in india

  • 3. Introduction India is one of the fastest growing economy in the world next to China. India’s economy is the tenth-largest ( Nominal GDP) in the world and third-largest by purchasing power.  India was the 19th-largest in merchandise and 6th largest services exporter in the world in 2013. GDP (sector wise) 1. Service sector - 64.8% 2. Industry - 21.5 3. Agriculture - 13.7 12/26/2014 3
  • 4. fig.: 1 GDP growth sector wise 12/26/2014 4 Source :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_India
  • 5. Meaning Human settlement with a minimum population of 5000 persons, with 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural activities and population density of 400 persons per sq. km. 12/26/2014 5
  • 6. Urbanization • Urbanization in India was mainly started after independence, due to adoption of mixed economy by the country which gave rise to the development of private sector. Table: 1 Total population percentage in urban areas • Rate of urbanization: 2.4% (2010-15 est.) Source: censes 2011( Govt. of India) 12/26/2014 6 Year (census) Population percentage 1901 11.4 2001 28.53 2011 31.16
  • 7. Table: 2 Classification of urban centers Sl No Type Population 1. Conurbation Three - Ten million 2. Metropolis One – Three million 3. Large city Three – Ten lack 4. City One – Three lack 5. Large town 20,000- 100,000 6. Town 1,000- 20,000 7. Village 100- 1,000 12/26/2014 7
  • 8. Causes of Urbanization Industrial Revolution Expansion in government services. Migration of people. Economic opportunities. Infrastructure facilities in the urban areas Growth of private sector 12/26/2014 8
  • 9. Facts about Urbanization in India • Mckinsey global institute estimated that nearly 70% new jobs will be created by 2030. • Urbanization leads fourfold increase in per capita income by 2030 • Estimated that the urban population increase from 340 million(2008) to 590 million by 2030. 12/26/2014 9
  • 10. Urbanization is expanding at a faster rate E.g. 1971 to 2008 population increased to 230 million. estimated to be more then 250 million population by 2025.  Urban economy provides 85% of total tax revenue.  200 million rural population are directly benefited from urbanization.  Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Punjab have more population living in urban areas. 12/26/2014 10
  • 11. 12/26/2014 11 Source: Mckinsey Global Institute analysis(2008)
  • 12. 12/26/2014 12fig. 3: Urbanization percentage by 2030 in India Source :Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
  • 13. 12/26/2014 13 fig. 4 : Population in India By 2030
  • 14. 12/26/2014 14 Source :Source :Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
  • 15. 12/26/2014 15 Fig. 6: Average national income by 2030 Source :Indian Urbanization Economic model: Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
  • 16. • Cities need 53.1($1.2 trillion) trillion rupees for creating infrastructural facilities by 2030. • India has to spent $134 per capita per year which is almost eight times spending today in per capita. • Indian spending average of 0.5 percent of GDP to urban infrastructure and it has to increase 2 percent of GDP in future. 12/26/2014 16
  • 17. fig.:7(A)Performance of services in Urban areas 12/26/2014 17
  • 18. fig. 7(B)Performance of services in Urban areas 12/26/2014 18
  • 19. 12/26/2014 19fig. : 8 Element of urban operating model Source : Mckinsey Global Institute analysis (2008)
  • 20. • Central government developmental fund. • State government funds. • Tax collection • Rent for use of resources • Public private partnership. • Other charges 12/26/2014 20
  • 21. fig.: 9 Governance model 12/26/2014 21 . Source: Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
  • 22. Planning • The city plan need to be well defined and provide all the information about the city. • Create well-resourced planning organizations at metropolitan and municipal levels . • The planning should be latest including new technology and models 12/26/2014 22
  • 23. Sector policies • Policies for affordable housing and land allocation. • Polices related to transport sector. • Polices about environmental protection. • Taxation policies for urban people. 12/26/2014 23
  • 24. 12/26/2014 24 . Source: Mckinsey Global institute analysis (2008)
  • 25. Modi’s Smart City concept • Central government has planned to 100 smart cities in India. • Eight cities with more then four million people will developing as a satellite smart city with Rs.1000 crore for each city. • 45 cities with one to four million people will be upgrading to smart city. • 17 capital cities upgraded to smart city irrespective of their population. 12/26/2014 25
  • 26. Smart cities • 10 smart cites with tourist and religious significance . • The program is planned to launch on December 25, on the birthday of formal PM Atal Bihari Bajpayee • Listed smart cities in Karnataka are Badami, Bengaluru, Bidar, Vijayapura, Kalaburagi, Mahakuta and Pattadakallu 12/26/2014 26
  • 27. Five elements of smart cities • In terms of infrastructure, the smart cities should have 24x7 availability of high quality utility services like water and power. • A robust transport system that emphasizes on public transport. • In social infrastructure, the cities need to be provide opportunities for jobs and livelihoods for its inhabitants. 12/26/2014 27
  • 28. Smart cities elements…. • The smart cities need to have proper facilities for entertainment and the safety and security of the people. • They should minimize waste by increasing energy efficiency and reducing water conservation. Proper recycling of waste materials need to be done in cities. 12/26/2014 28
  • 29. Urbanization effect on farm sector • More than 50 per cent of medium and large farmers had allotted land for construction of shops and other commercial uses on the main road. • Small farmers sold out the land to meet their household and social needs. • large farmers did sold the land because they could not manage the land due to labour shortage. 12/26/2014 29
  • 30. • Unavailability of labour for farm sector. • High wage rate for farm work. • The per capita availability of land declined. Table 3 :Land per capita available in India 12/26/2014 30 Year Per capita land available 1960-61 1.124 ha 2000-01 0.74 ha 2011-12 0.36 ha
  • 31. • Air Pollution :-Transportation, Industries and Domestic air emissions. • Water pollution:-Domestic sewage and Industrial effluent. • Noise pollution :- Industrial, Aircraft, Transportation and diesel generator sets. 12/26/2014 31
  • 32. Effect of urbanization on environment • Plastic waste is regulated through Plastic Manufacture, sale and usage Rules,1999 and also by Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2000. • Mercury Waste :-medical appliances, switches, lights and thermal power stations. • Biomedical Waste sources: hospitals and health care. 12/26/2014 32
  • 33. Effect of urbanization some issues • Unemployment • Housing • Slums • Transport • Water supply and sanitation • Inadequate provision for social infrastructure 12/26/2014 33
  • 34. Conclusion India is one of the developing economy need more money to develop the infrastructure facility in urban areas and need improvement in funding, governance, planning, and policy framing areas. Urbanization need for an economic growth of the country, but adversely affect on agricultural production and the environment. 12/26/2014 34
  • 35. Reference 1. Case study:-India’s urban awakening, Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth By Mckinsey Global Institute (2009) 2. Urbanization and Spatial Patterns of Internal Migration in India by S Chandrasekhar and Ajay Sharma Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (2014) 3. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/pm-narendra-modi-100- smart-cities-key-elements/1/382021.html 4.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization in India 12/26/2014 35

Editor's Notes

  1. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/pm-narendra-modi-100-smart-cities-key-elements/1/382021.html