SYLLABI IN ENGLISHLANGUAGETEACHINGPresented by Julie Howell
FUNCTION OF A SYLLABUS “…A language teaching syllabus involves the combination of subject matter (what to teach) and linguistic matter (how to teach). It actually performs as a guide for both teacher and learner by providing some goals to be accomplished. Syllabus, in fact, deals with linguistic theory and theories of language learning and how they are utilized in the classroom” (Mohseni, 2008).
TYPES OF SYLLABIProcedural Syllabus Cultural Syllabus Focus on meaning will lead to • The aim of this syllabus is to teach the following about culture. structure being learned. Course is arranged around tasks — A research-minded outlook — The learner’s own country helping the learner — Knowledge about the target culture subconsciously perceive the — Affective goals; interest, intellectual language while consciously curiosity, and empathy. focusing on solving the meaning — Awareness of its characteristics and of differences between the target culture behind the tasks (Mohseni, 2008). — Emphasis on the understanding socio- Examples of tasks: information cultural implications of language and language use and opinion-gap activities (Mohseni, 2008)
TYPES OF SYLLABISituational Syllabus Skill-based Syllabus Use situations to guide language Language skills are acquired for teaching because “language is the purpose of situational or related to the situational use in context. contexts in which it occurs” Merges pronunciation, (Mohseni, 2008). vocabulary, and grammar with listening to language with a The main principle of a purpose: writing and speaking. situational language teaching The purpose of this syllabus is syllabus is to teach the language for the ELL to develop language that occurs in the situations. skills
TYPES OF SYLLABIStructural or Formal Syllabus A Multi-Dimensional Syllabus Traditional syllabus that focuses on A flexible syllabus designed to language form. incorporate all types of focuses: i.e. Structural steps structure and situational can be Structural complexity, difficulty, taught. regularity, utility, and frequency. “The learner is expected to master each structural step and add it to “The underlying principle is that there his/her grammar collection” should be flexibility to change the (Mohseni, 2008). central point of the teaching material This is done through “highly as the course unfolds. This will lead to controlled, tightly structured, and a syllabus design which is flexible, less sequenced pattern practice drills” rigid and more responsive to the (Mohseni, 2008). various student language needs” (Mohseni, 2008).
TYPES OF SYLLABITask-based Syllabus Process Syllabus Tasks and activities are used to Designed and reorganized according promote language learning. to students wants or designed in an Application and practice of language. ongoing way. “Tasks are best defined as activities with a purpose other than language Provides opportunities for alternative learning so as to develop second procedures and activities for the language ability” (Mohseni, 2008). classroom group. “The most important point is that tasks must be relevant to the real world “It explicitly attends to teaching and language needs of the learner. It learning and particularly the possible should be a meaningful task so as to interrelationships between subject enhance learning” (Mohseni, 2008). matter, learning and the potential contributions of a classroom” (Mohseni, 2008).
TYPES OF SYLLABILearner-led Syllabus Proportional Syllabus The instructor uses a pre- Emphasizes what will be taught arranged syllabus as a guide, but rather than what will be learned. the learners create and modify Use themes within a unit, chosen the syllabus increasing interest and motivation to develop by the learner, to emphasize language skills. language form and then shift to language interaction. Potential to fail due to lack of structure. (I.e. , how are students Tries to develop overall capable of designing a syllabus competence. when they don’t know what is “Appropriate and applicable for important to learn?) learners who lack exposure to the target language beyond the classroom” (Mohseni, 2008).
TYPES OF SYLLABIContent-based Syllabus Notional/Functional Syllabus Teach content using the TL. Emphasis on purpose of Subject matter is of primary communication and meaning of importance, but language language. learning occurs along with Needs analysis is needed in content. order to create the syllabus. Students of language and content. Some linguistic adjustments may need to be made to make content understandable.
TYPES OF SYLLABILexical Syllabus Even though there are a number of types of syllabi: Focus on vocabulary; specific words and phrases that frequently appear in “…it is uncommon for one type of books and conversation. syllabus to be utilized fully in actual Learn from examining corpus of teaching settings”(Mohseni, 2008). language or sentences. “By exposing learners to carefully selected language, and by arming them with analyzing that language for themselves, the syllabus helps the learners successfully achieve their goals” (Mohseni, 2008).
WHAT TYPE OF SYLLABUS SHOULD YOUUSE? It depends on how you teach. Choose one that fits your teaching procedures. “…The way in which the instructional content is employed in the real teaching procedure is the determining element in choosing a syllabus” (Mohseni, 2008). But don’t forget to use multiple types “it should be kept in mind that the question is not which type to choose but which types and how to connect them with each other” (Mohseni, 2008).
IDEAS TO KEEP IN MIND WHENCHOOSING A SYLLABUS DESIGN “No single type of syllabus is appropriate for all teaching settings” (Mohseni, 2008). When choosing a syllabus design “take into account all the potential factors that may affect the teachability of a specific syllabus” (Mohseni, 2008).
QUESTIONSQuestion 1:What combination of types would you use in creating a syllabus?Which type would be dominant? Justify how your choice fits withyour teaching procedures. “it should be kept in mind that the question is not which type to choose but which types and how to connect them with each other” (Mohseni, 2008).Question 2:How would you connect the two types you chose together intoyour syllabus?
WORKS CITEDMohseni, M. (2008) An overview of syllabuses in English language teaching. Retrieved from Karen’s Linguistics Issues. http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/