1. “Wildlife野生动物 conservation保护 must be dynamic活跃, evolving演变 as conditions状态 change, seeking寻求 always to become more effective有效,” so said Rachel Carson. Ever since自从 she was a child小孩, Rachel Carson was interested感兴趣 in nature大自然 and devoted忠诚 to birds. She was born on May 27, 1907 in Springdale, Pennsylvania. Carson began writing when she was an adolescent青少年. Her first articles文章 were published出版 in the St. Nicolas literary文学 magazine杂志 for children.
2. Carson entered进入 Pennsylvania College forWomen where she studied biology and graduated毕业 with flying colours辉煌成绩, in 1929. In 1936, shereceived a Master’s degree in Zoology动物学 fromthe Johns Hopkins University. While continuing继续to study during the summer夏天 at the Marine海洋Biological生物 Laboratories实验室 in Woods Hole,Massachusetts, Carson taught教 at the University ofMaryland. It was at this time that she becamefascinated着迷 with the sea. In 1935, she workedpart-time, writing science radio scripts脚本 for theFish and Wildlife Service服务. This job later becamea full-time appointment任命 as a junior初级 aquatic水生 biologist生物学家.
3. In September 1937, Carson’s article, ‘TheUndersea’, was published. This article became thestarting point 起跑点for her first book, ‘Under theSea-Wind’. In 1949, she became chief总 editor编辑of publications刊物 at the Fish and Wildlife Service.Ten years after her first book was published, Carsoncirculated传阅 a second piece of work作品, ‘The SeaAround Us’ which won the John Burroughs Medal奖章 and the National Book Award奖. In the firstyear, it sold more than 200,000 copies.
4. After publishing her second book, Carson retired退休 fromthe Fish and Wildlife Service in order to以便 write full time.She was concerned忧虑 with the government’s abuse滥用 ofnew chemical化学 pesticides农药 and the pest虫害control防治 programmes方案 which were distributing散发 poisons毒, without regard for而不为 the welfare福利 of animals. “Themore I learned about the use of pesticides, the more appalled震惊 I became. What I discovered发现 was that everythingwhich meant most to me对我来说很重要的 as a naturalist自然学家 was being threatened被威胁, and that nothing I coulddo would be more important,” Carson stated. In 1962, shedescribed形容 the dangers of harmful有害 chemicals in herbestseller畅销书 ‘Silent寂静的 Spring春天’ which raised提高the awareness意识 of the need to protect the environment环境. The message in her book was clear明确. It was a warningabout the dangers of destroying摧毁 the environment.
5. The following以下 excerpt一段 from the bookexplains what Carson felt about nature: “There wasonce曾经有 a town镇 in the heart中心 of Americawhere all life seemed好像 to live in harmony和平相处with its surroundings四周围. Then, a strange blight白叶枯病 crept蔓延 over the area and everything beganto change. There was a strange stillness寂静. The fewbirds seen anywhere were moribund垂死; theytrembled颤抖 violently剧烈 and could not fly. It was aspring without voices. On the mornings that had oncethrobbed波动着 with the dawn黎明 chorus合奏 ofscores乐谱 of bird voices, there was now no sound;only silence lay over遮盖 the fields草原 and woods树丛 and marsh沼泽.”
6. As a result of her book, which has been translatedinto over 40 languages, new environmental laws werepassed被通过. People all over the world becameinvolved in activities to protect the environment.Today, the book is still recognised被认可 as thecornerstone基石 of the new environmentalism环境论.In 1962, in a letter to her friend, Carson wrote: “Thebeauty of the living world I was trying to save hasalways been uppermost最重要的 in my mind –that, and anger愤怒 at the senseless无意义, brutish粗俗 things that were being done. I have felt bound被绑by a solemn庄严 obligation义务 to do what I could – if Ididn’t at least try, I could never be happy again withnature. Now, however, I can believe that I have at leasthelped a little.”
7. On April 14, 1964, Rachel Carson died in SilverSprings, Maryland of cancer at the age of 56. Incommemoration纪念 of her achievements成就 as awriter, biologist and environmentalist, the U.S.Department of the Interior美国内政部 erected竖立a plaque in her honour at the Carson Wildlife Refugein Maine. Inscribed印 on the plaque are the wordsof Ms. Carson: “All the life of the planet is inter-related互相关联. Each species种类 has its own ties关系 to others. And all are related to the earth. Thisis the theme主题 of ‘The Sea Around Us’, and theother sea books, and it is also the message of ‘SilentSpring’.
Questions:3. a) From paragraph 3, what awards did Carson’s book, ‘The Sea Around Us’, win?It won the John Burroughs Medal and the National BookAward. b) From paragraph 4, why was Carson concerned about the government’s pest control programmes?She felt that they were distributing poisons without regardfor the welfare of animals.
Questions:1. From paragraph 1, what was unusual不寻常 about Rachel Carson’s childhood童年?She was interested in nature and devoted to birds.2. From paragraph 2, a) We are told that Carson worked while studying. What does this tell us about Carson? She was very hardworking. a) What job did Carson take up as a result of her love for the sea? She became a full-time junior aquatic biologist.
4. From paragraph 6, how do you know that Carson’s second book was a success? State two pieces of evidence.A) It has been translated into over 40 languages. / New environmental laws were passed.B) People all over the world became involved in activities to protect the environment.5. From paragraph 7, do you think Carson’s contribution贡献 was important? Give a reason.I think her contribution was important as she madegovernments and people more aware of theimportance of the environment. New laws werepassed because of her work.