Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Science Teacher Retention in Urban Schools

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A 2009 Dissertation Defense powerpoint on The Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Science Teacher Retention in Urban Schools by Karen Dupre Jacobs, Ph.D.

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  • I especially want to thank each and every one of my committee members for your time, consideration, scholarship, and exceptional insights in my research process.
  • The type of research performed will be a qualitative research design. Kritsonis, Griffith, Marshall, Herrington, Hughes, & Brown (2007-2008) write that qualitative research is naturalistic inquiry. It is used to explain phenomena. Erlanson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen (1993) emphasize the researchers who engage in naturalistic inquiry must have the ability to get inside of the social context of the study, share constructed realities with stakeholders in the context, construct new realities that benefit the knowledge of the researcher and the knowledge and capabilities of the study participants. Issac and Michael (1997) emphasize that “qualitative methods normally are preferred to quantitative ones because they adapt more readily to multiple realities” and “are more adaptable and sensitive to the variety of influences and value patterns encountered” (p. 220). The study will involve rich narrative descriptions and utilize an inductive approach. The participants in the study will define what is actually occurring in schools.
  • The study made use of a qualitative design. Data for the study was collected by using an open- ended interview protocol that was developed utilizing the Charlotte Advocates for Education (2004) study. Descriptive statistics was used to compile demographic information of urban principals and science teachers. The study addressed the human resources framework of leadership as explained by Bolman and Deal (2008).
  • Talk about dissatisfaction here too. Be sure to include actual quotes from the interview from both the urban principals and science teachers.
  • Charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others…this is a subjective perception, normally held by a large group
  • Charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others…this is a subjective perception, normally held by a large group
  • Charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others…this is a subjective perception, normally held by a large group
  • Charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others…this is a subjective perception, normally held by a large group
  • determining the current level of job satisfaction of urban science teachers, what particular types of support is provided to urban science teachers, the criteria principals use to determine 1) what types of support is needed or desired by their science teachers, 2) what criteria principals use to determine when support is needed, 3) what types of support principals believe are important for science teachers, and 4) how urban principals measure the effectiveness of the support they provide to science teachers
  • Leadership impacts the acquisition of knowledge by students. Strong transformational leadership will generate a nation of high quality science teachers. A nation of high quality science teachers will impact the quality of scientific breakthroughs and scientific based occupations such as engineering, research, and the medical field. “As connoisseurs of science, it is the sole mission of educational leaders and science teachers to harness the creative spirit of our students and inspire them to embrace scientific thought and experiences in our world.” Karen Jacobs
  • Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Science Teacher Retention in Urban Schools

    1. 1. The Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Science Teacher Retention in Urban Schools A Dissertation Defense By Karen Dupre Jacobs April 14, 2009
    2. 2. Committee Members <ul><li>Douglas Hermond, Ph.D . </li></ul><ul><li>(Dissertation Chair) </li></ul><ul><li>William A. Kritsonis, Ph.D . </li></ul><ul><li>(Member) </li></ul><ul><li>David Herrington, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>(Member) </li></ul><ul><li>Michael McFrazier, Ed.D . </li></ul><ul><li>(Outside Member) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>I. Problem </li></ul><ul><li>II. Purpose of Study </li></ul><ul><li>III. Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Methods </li></ul><ul><li>V. Major Findings </li></ul><ul><li>VI. Review of Literature </li></ul><ul><li>VII. Recommendations </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Problem Reasons for Science Teachers’ Job Dissatisfaction (Ingersoll, 2000 ) Low salaries Student discipline and motivation issues Lack of influence over school decision making Lack of administrative support
    5. 5. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>To analyze the role of secondary principal leadership in urban school settings to aid in increasing science teacher retention </li></ul><ul><li>To define administrative support as it pertains to science teachers, utilizing the perspectives of urban principals and science teachers working in urban schools </li></ul>
    6. 6. Conceptual Framework The Four Framework of Leadership Bolman and Deal (2008) Political Human Resource Symbolic Structural
    7. 7. Research Questions <ul><li>1. What are the specific support structures that science teachers are satisfied and dissatisfied with in urban schools? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What types of support do urban principals and science teachers believe are the most important factors in retaining science teachers at their schools? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Research Questions <ul><li>3. How do the support factors, as identified by urban principals and science teachers, impact science teacher satisfaction and retention? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How do urban principals determine if science teachers need additional support? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What criteria do urban principals use to determine when support is needed? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Research Questions <ul><li>6. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies urban principals use to determine when support is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>7. How do urban principals measure the effectiveness of the support they provide to science teachers? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Methods <ul><li>Type of Research: </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative (naturalistic inquiry) </li></ul><ul><li>Design: </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent research design was used to gain an in- depth look into how and which support structures are implemented by secondary principals that help in retaining science educators working at urban school settings in order to form grounded theory </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathering: </li></ul><ul><li>Open- ended interview questions developed utilizing the Charlotte Advocates for Education (2004) study </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics (only for demographic information) & </li></ul><ul><li>line by line coding </li></ul>
    11. 11. Pilot Study Participants Protocol <ul><li>Urban principals </li></ul><ul><li>(Quantity: 5) </li></ul>Urban Principal Open- ended Interview questions 2. Science teachers (Quantity: 10) Science teacher Open- ended Interview questions
    12. 12. Subjects of the Study <ul><li>Sampling Method- Purposive sampling (Critical case) </li></ul>Location Study Participants Special Indicators Demographic Data (Collected) <ul><li>One of the top 10 Urban School Districts in the US </li></ul><ul><li>12 schools (regular schools) were invited- the 1 st 5 urban principals and 1 st 10 science teachers to respond participated . </li></ul><ul><li>Urban principals </li></ul><ul><li>(Quantity: 2) </li></ul><ul><li>5/5 responded, however, only 2 actually participated due to time constraints and demands of their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Highest teacher retention rates in the district </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 3 yrs. experience as an administrator at the same school </li></ul><ul><li>Total yrs. Experience </li></ul><ul><li>(Teacher & Principal) </li></ul><ul><li>Certifications </li></ul><ul><li>Age group </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Type of school </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>50% or greater of the student population qualified for free or reduced lunch/breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>Science teachers </li></ul><ul><li>(Quantity: 4) </li></ul><ul><li>8/10 responded, however, 4 withdrew at member checking- reasons cited were the state of the current economy and job security. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 3 yrs. experience as a science teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Stayed at the same school for a minimum of 3 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Total yrs. Experience </li></ul><ul><li>(Teacher) </li></ul><ul><li>Certifications </li></ul><ul><li>Age group </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Type of school </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>> 500 students </li></ul>
    13. 13. Analysis of Data Urban Principals and Science Teachers Open- Ended Interview/ Focus Group Data All qualitative data was analyzed using line by line coding from the individual interviews/focus group interview to determine emerging themes. . Responses categorized into emergent themes. These were presented in tabular form showing the categories with corresponding frequencies and percentages . Grounded Theory formulated from the coded responses of the urban principals and science teachers .
    14. 14. Major Findings
    15. 15. Major Findings- Research Question #1 What are the specific support structures that science teachers are satisfied and dissatisfied with in urban schools? <ul><li>Science teachers (ST2, ST3, and ST4) reported they were satisfied with leadership who provided curriculum, resources for labs, opportunities for mentorship, colleague support, and did not micromanage them . In a focus group, they reported: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Having a principal who did not micro- manage everything done in the classroom makes me satisfied. We enjoy the freedom to take risks in the classroom and to think outside of the box to present new information. Our kids love innovation. It captivates and engages them. Because I am not micro- managed in my school, I love the positive reinforcement I receive from doing a great job. I don’t go home feeling that I haven’t done enough.” </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>What types of support do urban principals and science teachers believe are the most important factors in retaining science teachers at their schools?   </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent Themes Urban Principals (2) Science Teachers (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Resources for labs 50% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Mentorship __ 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with __ 100% </li></ul><ul><li>colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement __ 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation __ 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of 50% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>successes </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline __ 50%  </li></ul><ul><li>Professional 50% __ </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Major Findings- Research Question #2
    17. 17. Major Findings- Research Question #3 <ul><li>How do the support factors, as identified by urban principals and science teachers, impact science teacher satisfaction and retention? </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent Themes Urban Principals(2) Science Teachers (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Resources available 100% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development 50% __ </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement __ 100% </li></ul><ul><li>No micromanagement __ 75% </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________ </li></ul>
    18. 18. Major Findings- Research Question #4 <ul><li>How do urban principals determine if science teachers need additional support? </li></ul><ul><li>  Emergent Themes Urban Principals (2) Science Teachers (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom walkthroughs/ 100% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>observations </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Data 50% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher- student 100% 50% </li></ul><ul><li>relationships  </li></ul><ul><li>Open door policy 50% 25% </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    19. 19. Major Findings- Research Question #5 <ul><li>What criteria do urban principals use to determine when support is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent Themes Urban Principals (2) Science Teachers (4)_ </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom walkthroughs 100% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Student Engagement 100% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Assessment Data 50% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Departmental Meetings 50% __ </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher- student relationships 100% 75% </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    20. 20. Major Findings- Research Question #6 <ul><li>What are the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies urban principals use to determine when support structures are needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent Themes Urban Principals (2) Science Teachers(4)__ </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom observations 50% 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher- student 50% ___ </li></ul><ul><li>relationships   </li></ul><ul><li>Timely assistance 50% ___ </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses ___ ___ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    21. 21. Major Findings- Research Question #7 <ul><li>How do urban principals measure the effectiveness of the support they provide to science teachers?  </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent Themes Urban Principals (2) Science Teachers(4)__ </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom walkthroughs 50% 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Data 50% 75% </li></ul><ul><li>School climate 50% __ </li></ul><ul><li>Retention rate of 50% __ </li></ul><ul><li>science teachers </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________________ </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Review of Literature </li></ul>
    23. 23. Review of Literature I. Significance of the Research Author(s)/ Year Findings USA Today, 2006 Urban schools are performing the worst in science. The top ten urban school districts had average scores below the national average . Author(s)/ Year Findings The U.S. Education system does not have a strong record for producing students who are well- prepared for careers in math and science. Coble and Allen, 2005
    24. 24. Review of Literature II. Present Status of Science Teacher Retention Author(s)/ Year Findings Author(s)/ Year Findings Teachers without science backgrounds are being asked to fill the science teacher shortage. These under- qualified teachers are not remaining in the field. Students that attend high – poverty, urban schools have a 50% chance of getting teachers in science that are unqualified . Sterling, 2004 Ingersoll, 2000 Science teachers turnover at a rate of 16% compared to the 14% of all teachers. The main reason science teachers leave is because of job dissatisfaction due to low salary, lack of support from their administration, student discipline problems, lack of student motivation, and a lack of influence over school decision- making.
    25. 25. Review of Literature III. Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction Author(s)/ Year Findings Job satisfaction is a major predictor of teacher retention. Causes of job dissatisfaction were a lack of parental support and resources, lack of administrative support, poor student behavior, time pressures, low salaries, and limited influence over decision- making at the campus level. Author(s)/ Year Findings Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstron, 2004 Leadership is second only to classroom instruction in all related factors that contribute to what students learn in schools. Transformational leadership involves a broader range of school and classroom conditions that may need to be changed if learning is to improve . Thornton, 2004
    26. 26. Review of Literature IV. Specific Types of Leadership/ Teacher Expectations of Leadership Author(s)/ Year Findings . Author(s)/ Year Findings Peltier- Glaze, 2005 Teachers expect urban principals to be 1) caring listeners, 2) supportive advocates, 3) respectful colleagues, 4) open- minded team players, and 5) enthusiastic facilitators . EPE Research Center, 2008 Administrative support occurred in schools where teachers felt influential or supported to help establish curriculum, set performance standards for students, determined their own professional development, set discipline policies, hired teachers for their department, decided how their budget is spent, and helped evaluate teachers .
    27. 27. Conclusions
    28. 28. Administrative Support Structures Science Teachers Need Curriculum Resources for Labs Mentorship Colleague Support No Micromanagement
    29. 29. Criteria Used by Principals to Determine Need Classroom Walkthroughs Assessment of Data Student-Teacher Relationships Open Door Policy
    30. 30. Types of Support Urban Principals & Science Teachers Believe Are Important in Increasing Science Teacher Retention Encouragement Celebration of Successes Resources Colleague Collaboration Mentorship No Micromanagement
    31. 31. How the Effectiveness of the Administrative Support Structures Provided are Measured Classroom Walkthroughs Data School Climate Science Teacher Retention Rate
    32. 32. Recommendations District and School Interventions <ul><li>Allocate time for colleague collaboration, mentoring, resource requests, and ensure that urban principals do not micromanage their science teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Interventions should be planned for at and/or prior to the initiation of the academic year . </li></ul>Strategic Planning for the Science Department <ul><li>The strategic plan must include: the prior year (s) assessment data, goals for science achievement and urban principal-science teacher relations for the upcoming year, measurable outcomes and timely check points for goals, and a well- defined plan on how scientific rigor, research based high yield instructional strategies for the established curriculum, and staff development will be utilized throughout the academic year . </li></ul>Utilizing Proven Educational Research <ul><li>Collaboration by urban principals and science teachers on the latest and proven educational research on the best instructional strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion and scientific discourse must be implemented in science department meetings and in classrooms throughout the year to build and sustain a high quality science instructional program. </li></ul>Leadership Preparation Programs Curriculum Changes <ul><li>Urban principal leadership preparation programs must include within their coursework a segment that discusses the needs of science teachers and what they deem as administrative support. </li></ul><ul><li>While cultivating their interviewing skills, future urban principals must be shown how to identify strong science teachers and develop interventions for science teachers who may be in need of support. </li></ul><ul><li>Future urban principals must be provided different scenarios within their coursework that identifies when science teachers may be in need of support . </li></ul>
    33. 33. Recommendations for Future Studies <ul><li>A study should be conducted to determine if school leaders can identify support structures needed and implement these structures within their schools. </li></ul><ul><li>A longitudinal study should be conducted to explore the implementation of the support structures identified and science teacher satisfaction over a three to five year period to determine if science teacher job satisfaction has improved. </li></ul><ul><li>A study should be conducted to explore how the support structures identified in this study can be implemented and how they impact science teacher job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>A study should be conducted to determine if gender, ethnicity, or race play a role in the preferences for support structures provided by urban principals. </li></ul><ul><li>A study should be conducted to determine if years of experience play a role in the preferences for support structures provided by urban principals. </li></ul><ul><li>A study should be conducted to review science teacher retention rates and student academic performance in science in urban school settings. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Recommendations for Future Studies <ul><li>A study should be conducted where administrative support surveys are created and given to a substantially larger population of science teachers working in urban schools. </li></ul><ul><li>A study should be conducted that uses schools that have magnet or other specialized programs, charter schools, and/or elementary schools to determine if a difference exists in what science teachers and urban principals perceive as the particular types of administrative support needed to increase science teacher retention rates at their campuses. </li></ul><ul><li>A study should be conducted to determine if science teachers working high achieving urban schools have different or similar perspectives on the types of administrative support needed in order to increase science teacher retention in comparison to low achieving urban schools. </li></ul>
    35. 35. The Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Science Teacher Retention Measuring the effectiveness of the types of support provided Analyzing current support structures Analyzing the criteria for how support is determined Determining what support structures are needed Increasing Science Teacher Retention
    36. 36. Summary
    37. 37. The Role of Principal Leadership in Increasing Science Teacher Retention in Urban Schools A Dissertation Defense By Karen Dupre Jacobs April 14, 2009

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