Search is more than just Google


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Edited presentation given at a workshop for the North Wales Libraries Partnership (NWLP) on June 19th, 2013. Held in the John Spalding Library, Wrexham.

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  • 20/06/13 (c) Karen Blakeman 2013 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
  • 20/06/13
  • Buzzfeed traffic referrals to over 200 publishers in the Buzzfeed Network Traffic from Google dropped 30% from August 2012 through to March 2013 Change in user behaviour? Change in the way the publishers are pushing their information (more apps/social)? 20/06/13 (c) Karen Blakeman 2013 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
  • 20/06/13 (c) Karen Blakeman 2013 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
  • 20/06/13
  • 20/06/13
  • Search is more than just Google

    1. 1. Search is more than just GoogleUsing the Internet for Research in a DigitallyLiterate AgeKaren BlakemanRBA Information Services,, Wrexham19thJune 2013This presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
    2. 2. Fact sheetsFact sheets and articles on search strategies are available at sheets are free of charge– Search Strategies - Top Search Tips– Search Strategies - Selected Google Commands– Search Strategies - Google Search Tips– Search Strategies - Search Tools Summary and Comparison 2
    3. 3. Garys Social Media Count | PERSONALIZE MEDIA 3
    4. 4. Where Did All The Search Traffic Go 4Referrals from Facebook and Google to publishers on the BuzzFeed NetworkImage by Aswini Anburajan
    5. 5. 20/06/13 5“Traditional search engines are becoming less important. IfI want images Ill go to Pinterest or Flickr rather thanGoogle or Bing. If Im on Facebook Ill do a search there tofind what I need and go straight off to it .....if its news, Illget that directly from Twitter and jump straight to a sitethats linked, if I need to see what is happening in theprofession Ill get that data pulled up for me by one of mytablet based news curation tools, and if I want most ofanything else, Ill search for it using an app if Im out andabout.”Phil Bradleys weblog: Is search traffic dropping?
    6. 6. Depends what you want and where you are physicallyand digitallyPick up news on multiple platforms - Twitter, Facebook, RSS -all depends on whether I am in the office or on theI want to know about a local community festival – Facebookfriends, groups and pagesOn the move – use mobile apps, voice searchMobile for quick questions – next train, nearest pub, weatherLaptop/desktop for more in depth research? [Discussions atPrague INFORUM]20/06/13 6
    7. 7. Depends on the topic20/06/13 7http://www.business2communitIs Google+ Really The2nd Most Popular SocialNetwork?Google+ probably notintentionally used bysearchers. Reviews ofhotels found via GoogleMaps are on Google+
    8. 8. 20/06/13 8 Mobile Search Trends Tackled At SMX West 2013“mobile search has grown to a quarter (25%) of all search….predictthat by the end of 2013, a mobile device will be behind 1 out of every 3searches.”Desktop Search Activity Hits All-Time High In March:20+ Billion Searches [comScore] – US data
    9. 9. Voice search getting better20/06/13 9
    10. 10. Google Now 10Google Now: Taking the Search Out of Search - Search Engine Watch
    11. 11. Apple Makes Bing The "Default Search Engine" For Siri 11
    12. 12. 20/06/13 12
    13. 13. In the “cloud”20/06/13 13Federated search enginesIntegration of institutional collections & external servicese.g. Google Scholar and repository searchesLearning resources accessible both on and off siteInternal documents, communications, personal files andsearchesEverything!“Bring your own device” - BYOD
    14. 14. 20/06/13 14 more technologically savvyMore powerful, affordable mobile devicesEver available self-service cloud
    15. 15. 20/06/13 15Whatever, whenever and wherever you want
    16. 16. Desktop/laptop vs mobile20/06/13 16
    17. 17. Different positioning of search options and menusSome search features may not be present20/06/13 17
    18. 18.– “Don’t confuse tech savvy, tethering to mobile technology and anintimate relationship with Facebook, with transferable knowledgeand skills around social networking and communication”– Twitter, Wikis and blogging not necessarily second nature– Lack of communications skills– Lack of analytical skills & critical thinking[Millennials – millennial generation, born between 1980 and 2000,“Generation Y”]20/06/13
    19. 19. 20/06/13 19
    20. 20. Emphasis on the personal20/06/13 20
    21. 21. Bing gets personal20/06/13 21
    22. 22. DUEDIL 22
    23. 23. Social is everywhere20/06/13 23
    24. 24. Five things you need to know about Google1. Google personalises your search based on– location– past searches– past browsing activity– activity in other areas of Google e.g. YouTube, image search,news– content from contacts in your personal networks may be givenpriority– what you and others have ‘liked’, g+1– the device you are using
    25. 25. Five things you need to know about Google1. Google personalises your searchNon-personalised search Personalised search
    26. 26. How to “un-personalise” your searchChrome - New Incognito window– Ctrl+Shift+NFireFox - File, New Private Window– Ctrl+Shift+PInternet Explorer – Tools, InPrivate Browsing [location variesdepending on which version you have]– Ctrl+Shift+POpera – File, New Private Window– Ctrl+Shift+NSafari – click on Safari next to the Apple symbol in the menubar, select Private Browsing and then click on OK.Will not remove country “personalisation”
    27. 27. Five things you need to know about Google2. Google automatically looks for variations on your searchterms and sometimes drops terms from your search– Google does not tell you it has ignored some of your terms– “..” around terms, phrases, titles of documents does notalways work– Use Verbatim – runs your search exactly as you have typedit in– To force an exact match and inclusion of a term in a searchprefix it with ‘intext:’• UK public transport intext:biodiesel
    28. 28. Five things you need to know about Google3. Google web search does not search everything it has in itsdatabase– two indexes: main, default index and the supplemental index– supplemental index may contain less popular, unusual, specialistmaterial– supplemental index comes into play when Google thinks yoursearch has returned too few results– using Verbatim and advanced search commands seems totrigger a search in the supplemental index
    29. 29. Five things you need to know about Google“Normal” search1,555,500Search after Verbatim is applied35,500,000
    30. 30. Five things you need to know about Google4. Google changes its algorithms several hundredtimes a year– How Google makes improvements to its searchalgorithm - YouTube
    31. 31. Five things you need to know about Google5. We are all Google’s lab rats– Google constantly tests changes on users in “live experiments”– Just Testing: Google Users May See Up To A DozenExperiments•– Mostly minor effects on search but sometimes totally bizarreresults• Google decides that coots are really lions• Update on coots vs. lions
    32. 32. What I see on my screen may not be whatyou see on your screen, may not be whatyour colleagues see on theirs, may not bewhat your users see.
    33. 33. Choosing your search termsGoogle automatically looks for synonyms and variations on yourterms– biofuels will find biodiesel, biogas, bio-ethanol etc.– but do not get the same results if you use biodiesel instead ofbiofuels– run separate searches using alternative terms– no information on how the synonyms are identified orimplementedThe terms you use can radically change results– copper mining north wales vs. copper extraction north wales– organ donation vs human transplantation20/06/13 33
    34. 34. Changing your search terms20/06/13 34
    35. 35. Changing your search terms20/06/13 35
    36. 36. Two interesting tricksBoth of these often change the results and the order in whichthey are presentedRepeat important search terms in your search strategyrenewable energy biofuels wave wind wind windChange the order of your termsrenewable energy biofuels wave windwind renewable wave biofuels energy20/06/13 36
    37. 37. Google commands" " around phrases"Metadata mega mess in Google Scholar"- to exclude a term Caversham –otago* to stand in for one or more wordsmacular * degenerationPicks up:macular degenerationmacula lutea degenerationmacular disciform degenerationmacular choroidal degeneration20/06/13 37
    38. 38. SynonymsGoogle automatically looks for variations of your termsSwitch it off using Verbatim but may want synonyms and relatedterms for just one of your termsUse the tilde ~ before a term to look for what Google considersare synonyms– ~energy will pick up oil, fuel, gas, electricityNo information/documentation on how synonyms are createdVery general, consumer focussed rather than scientific20/06/13 38
    39. 39. Google commandsThink file format– PDF for research documents, government reports, industrypapers– ppt or pptx for presentations, tracking down an expert on a topic– xls or xlsx for spreadsheets containing dataUse the advanced search screen or the filetype: commandzeolites environmental remediation filetype:pdfdangerous dogs legislation wales filetype:pptdangerous dogs legislation wales filetype:pptxannual average global temperature 1960..2012filetype:xlsannual average global temperature 1960..2012filetype:xlsx20/06/13 39
    40. 40. Google commandsSite searchFor searching large websites, or groups of sites by type forexample government, NHS, academicCan exclude sites using -site:Use advanced search screen or site: commandorgan donation statistics Wales site:nhs.ukorgan donation statistics Wales site:ac.ukorgan donation statistics donation statistics Wales -site:au20/06/13 40
    41. 41. Google commandsNumeric range searchAnything to do with numbers and quantities: years,temperatures, weights, distances, prices etcUse the advanced search screen or type in your two numbersseparated by two full stops as part of your searchworld oil demand forecasts 2015..2030world oil demand forecasts 80..100 mb/d2015..2030toblerone 1..5 kg20/06/13 41
    42. 42. Google commandsWords in the title – can be single words or phrasesEnsures subject is the main focus of the articleUse advanced search screen or intitle:intitle:”organ donation”intitle:organ intitle:donationallintitle:organ donation [unreliable]Words in the URL – can be single words or phrasesUse advanced search screen or inurl:inurl:”organ donation”inurl:organ inurl:donationallinurl:organ donation [unreliable]20/06/13 42
    43. 43. Google Reading levelChanges the type of material that is returnedNothing to do with publishers assigned reading ageRun the search and from the menu above the results selectSearch tools, All results, Reading level20/06/13 43
    44. 44. Google Reading level20/06/13 44Basic Advanced
    45. 45. Exclusive to – recipes!20/06/13 45
    46. 46. Nutrition facts20/06/13 46Information from Wikipedia and USDA
    47. 47. DateRestrict your results to information that has been publishedwithin the last hour, day, week, month, year or your own daterangeSearch tools, Any time and select an option20/06/13 47
    48. 48. daterange:Date restriction does not work with VerbatimUse daterange: command insteadUses Julian date format (fractions omitted)Julian Date Converter to use third party, for example, for thedaterange: search and then Verbatim to the results20/06/13 48
    49. 49. Google alternatives – Yahoo and BingYahoo now uses Bing’s database, commands and ranking algorithmsBing advanced search screen minimalist - use commands.List at Advanced Operator Reference site: inbody: inurl:AND, NOT, OR parentheses for complex Boolean searchesNEAR:n where n is a number, specifies that the terms must be withinthat number of words of each other and in any order- banana NEAR:3 toffee20/06/13 49
    50. 50. Google alternativesDuckDuckGo – does not track, does not personalise inbody: intitle: filetype:sort:date to sort by date (uses results from Blekko)region:cc (e.g. de) to boost a countryDuckDuckGo Syntax Short – omits the most "popular" sites from results 50
    51. 51. Wolframalpha knowledge engine, curated dataClick Examples, Random, or an image in the homepagebackground to get an idea of what it covers20/06/13 51
    52. 52. 20/06/13
    53. 53. Where is information shared and discussed?“Conventional” web publishingInstitutional repositoriesComments section on articlesLinkedin (professional issues)Facebook (personal and consumer focussed)Twitter (great for following conferences)Google+ (personal, business and communities)Blogs and blog commentsYouTubeFlickrPinterestDiscussion boards…. everywhere….20/06/13 53
    54. 54. Which ones should you considerDepends on the nature of your “business” and type of enquiryWhere do you, organisations similar to you , or your competitorshave a presence?Some search tools for searching across multiple networks– Not very reliable– Networks may restrict access via APIsBetter results searching direct- may need to sign up for an account20/06/13 54
    55. 55. Topsy.com20/06/13 55
    56. 56. whostalkin.com20/06/13 56
    57. 57. Icerocket.com20/06/13 57
    58. 58. Talkwalker 58
    59. 59. Blogs– Google Blogsearch– Twitter Search– Advanced Twitter Search boards, forums– Run your search in Google, click on More in the menu at the topof the results page and from the drop down menu selectDiscussions20/06/13 59
    60. 60. Paper.li a “newspaper” from your Twitterstream, Google+account, Facebook, or for a hashtag or keywordSign in with your Twitter or Facebook account– set up a separate account if you prefer for use, a “nom de plume”Automatically identifies articles, videos, photos from links inpostingsAll papers are public20/06/13 60
    61. 61. Paper.li 61
    62. 62. Paper.li 62
    63. 63. 20/06/13 63
    64. 64. 20/06/13 64
    65. 65. 20/06/13 65
    66. 66. General starting points for business informationBusiness Sources on the Net - Business Essentials on the Web– “a one-stop shop for website listings for entrepreneurs and SMEscovering.... ‘business planning’, ‘grants and finance’, ‘marketingand PR’ as well as industry specific pages.”British Library Business & IP Centre in London Industry guides & Information Service ICAEW 66
    67. 67. Starting points for statisticsOfficial Statistics on the Web National Statistics Publication Hub for National Statistics Government | Statistics Assembly Government StatsWales 67
    68. 68. European Union - Open Data Portal launches public beta of its open data portal– 68
    69. 69. Guardian Data Store 69Data and analysis on topics that are in the newsSome data sets created from information obtained via FoILinks to the original datasets are provided
    70. 70. Dog bites data: how likely are you to get bitten? 70
    71. 71. Google Public Data Explorer of Googles best kept secrets!20/06/13 71
    72. 72. UK Government Web Archive | The National Archives by category or choose your organisation from an A-Z listChoose the date of the archived version of the website you wantto view20/06/13 72
    73. 73. 73
    74. 74. Digital Education Resource Archive (DERA) 74
    75. 75. Research information and open access20/06/13 75
    76. 76. Mandated open accessUSAll research publications resulting from work funded by the USNational Institutes of Health are expected to be deposited inPubMed Central (– some material embargoed for up to 12 or 24 months (– Europe PubMed Central ( part of PMCnetwork of international repositoriesUK1st of April 2013 - researchers at UK Research Institutions areexpected to publish as open access any peer reviewed research‐papers and conference proceedings that acknowledge ResearchCouncil UK funding20/06/13 76
    77. 77. Gold versus Green OAGold OA– researchers publish their articles in journals that offer openaccess publishing (can be established “conventional” publishers)– articles can be made available free of charge to readersimmediately– author or institution/department pays article processing feeGreen OA– researchers deposit copies of articles in an institutional orsubject-based repository, subject to copyright/licensepermissions– repository makes copies available to the public eitherimmediately or embargoed (more common)– period of embargo varies (for example 77
    78. 78. ProblemsDifferent types of open access with different embargo periodsDifferent licenses– CC-BY (UK Gold)– CC-BY-NC (UK Green)Gold open access– lack of funds to pay for publication in publication of first choice– assessors and administrators may use Gold as a measure ofimpact– Why UK Open Access Threatens Academic Freedom all journals have an open access optionNon peer reviewed “open access” journals and articles20/06/13 78
    79. 79. Grey literatureLiterature that has been “peer reviewed” or assessed/approved insome way by colleagues or subject experts but is not easy to find oraccessPrint run may have been small, possibly never published electronicallyPublished on the web but page or site is no longer available. (Use webarchives e.g. & technical papers, government reports, pre-prints, marketsurveys, press releases, committee papers, conference papers,presentationsUse advanced search commands to try and track down informationGreyNet International, Grey Literature Network Service– 79
    80. 80. OpenGrey 80
    81. 81. Google Scholar“Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarlyliterature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines andsources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, fromacademic publishers, professional societies, online repositories,universities and other web sites. Google Scholar helps you findrelevant work across the world of scholarly research”.• Search all scholarly literature from one convenient place• Explore related works, citations, authors, and publications• Locate the complete document through your library or on the web• Keep up with recent developments in any area of research• Check whos citing your publications, create a public author profile20/06/13 81
    82. 82. Google ScholarDoes not cover all key journals in all subjects – no source listTop publications for subjects and languages under Metrics linkon home page or indexes the full text but you may have to pay to view thewhole articleGroups different versions of an article together20/06/13 82
    83. 83. Google ScholarIncludes open access material, pre-prints, institutional repositories(but not necessarily author self archived repositories)Includes material that is NOT peer reviewed but is structured andlooks like an academic article (title in large font, authors, affiliations,abstract, keywords, citations)Pre-prints and IR copies may differ from final published version –charts and images may be redacted because of copyrightrestrictionsIf you can’t find a free version of an article in Scholar or in anInstitutional repository (see later) search on the title in Google webor ask the author20/06/13 83
    84. 84. Jacsó, Péter. “Metadata mega mess in Google Scholar.” Online InformationReview 34.1 (2010): 175-191.Jacsó, Péter. Newswire Analysis: Google Scholar’s Ghost Authors, LostAuthors, and Other Problemsó, Péter. “Google Scholar Author Citation Tracker: is it too little, too late?“Online Information Review 36.1 (2012): 126-141.Jacsó, Péter. “Using Google Scholar for journal impact factors and the h-indexin nationwide publishing assessments in academia–siren songs and air-raidsirens.” Online Information Review 36.3 (2012): 462-478.Jacso – Savvy Searching Columns, Online Information Review 84
    85. 85. Gray, Jerry E., et al. Scholarish: Google Scholar and its Value to the Sciences.Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship. Summer 2012, Michelle C, Janz, Margaret M and Hauser, Alexandra. Can librarianstrust resources found on Google Scholar? Yes… and no. Impact of SocialSciences: Maximizing the impact of academic research .17 September 2012., Bianca and Sieverts, Eric. Beyond coverage #ili2012. Slideshare. 27October 2012. International. Google scholar bibliography. UBC HealthLib Wiki - AKnowledge-Base for Health Librarians. 85
    86. 86. Google Scholar advanced search commandsUse advanced search screen or commands as follows:+ sign before a search term to force an exact match“....” around phrasesintitle: to search for a single word in the titleallintitle: to search for all of your terms in the titleauthor: to search on an author’s namesite: to limit your search to specific institutionCommands can be combined for a precise search20/06/13 86
    87. 87. Microsoft Academic Search articles, pre-prints, post-prints, conference proceedings,reports and white papersFree to use but the full text of some papers can only be viewedon payment of a fee to the original journal publisherAuthor may have several different profiles and articles may beassigned to wrong author20/06/13 87
    88. 88. Microsoft Academic Search20/06/13 88Note: G and H index have nowdisappeared
    89. 89. Microsoft Academic Search20/06/13 89
    90. 90. Institutional repositories and open accessBASE - Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (COnnecting Repositories) E-theses Portal Repository Search (IRS) DOAR - Pathways to Irish Research http://rian.ieROAR - Registry of Open Access Repositories 90
    91. 91. Specialist search tools for research informationA selection can be found at Central Central Web TechnologiesMednar Research 91
    92. 92. Specialist search tools for research informationEurope PubMed Central Biology Online Research in Philosophy Central 92
    93. 93. Article may be OA but public access outside of theinstitution may be difficult20/06/13 93Walk-in Access Wales
    94. 94. JSTOR 94
    95. 95. Author/researcher IDBring Your Own Identity (BYOI)ResearcherID Researcher and Contributor Identifier - ORCID– Why Every Researcher Should Sign Up For Their ORCID ID–– Why I’m Evaluating ResearchGate– there are more!Is a prolific researcher going to sign up to Google Scholar and all of these?20/06/13 95
    96. 96. Keeping up to dateSearch Engine Land Engine Watch Blakeman’s Blog Bradleys weblog Developments at LSE Library Blogs for example–– (Centre for Learning Technology)20/06/13 96